Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 274

Search results for: lightweight

274 Lightweight Materials for Building Finishing

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Nikol Zizkova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the presentation of results which were obtained as a part of the project FR-TI 3/742: “System of Lightweight Materials for Finishing of Buildings with Waste Raw Materials”. Attention was paid to the lightweighting of polymer-modified mortars applicable as adhesives, screeds and repair mortars. In terms of repair mortars, they were ones intended for the sanitation of aerated concrete.

Keywords: additives, light aggregates, lightweight materials, lightweight mortars, polymer-modified mortars

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
273 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

Abstract:

There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
272 On the Construction of Lightweight Circulant Maximum Distance Separable Matrices

Authors: Qinyi Mei, Li-Ping Wang

Abstract:

MDS matrices are of great significance in the design of block ciphers and hash functions. In the present paper, we investigate the problem of constructing MDS matrices which are both lightweight and low-latency. We propose a new method of constructing lightweight MDS matrices using circulant matrices which can be implemented efficiently in hardware. Furthermore, we provide circulant MDS matrices with as few bit XOR operations as possible for the classical dimensions 4 × 4, 8 × 8 over the space of linear transformations over finite field F42 . In contrast to previous constructions of MDS matrices, our constructions have achieved fewer XORs.

Keywords: linear diffusion layer, circulant matrix, lightweight, maximum distance separable (MDS) matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
271 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Almograbi

Abstract:

Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.

Keywords: date palm seeds, lightweight concrete, durability, sustainability, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 545
270 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
269 Making Lightweight Concrete with Meerschaum

Authors: H. Gonen, M. Dogan

Abstract:

Meerschaum, which is found in the earth’s crust, is a white and clay like hydrous magnesium silicate. It has a wide area of use from production of carious ornaments to chemical industry. It has a white and irregular crystalline structure. It is wet and moist when extracted, which is a good form for processing. At drying phase, it gradually loses its moisture and becomes lighter and harder. In through-dry state, meerschaum is durable and floats on the water. After processing of meerschaum, A ratio between %15 to %40 of the amount becomes waste. This waste is usually kept in a dry-atmosphere which is isolated from environmental effects so that to be used right away when needed. In this study, use of meerschaum waste as aggregate in lightweight concrete is studied. Stress-strain diagrams for concrete with meerschaum aggregate are obtained. Then, stress-strain diagrams of lightweight concrete and concrete with regular aggregate are compared. It is concluded that meerschaum waste can be used in production of lightweight concrete.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, meerschaum, aggregate, sepiolite, stress-strain diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
268 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

Abstract:

Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, scoria, stress, strain, silica fume, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
267 Lessons from Vernacular Architecture for Lightweight Construction

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

With the gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, light-weighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
266 Analysis of Sound Loss from the Highway Traffic through Lightweight Insulating Concrete Walls and Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Sound Transmission

Authors: Mustafa Tosun, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

In this study, analysis on whether the lightweight concrete walled structures used in four climatic regions of Turkey are also capable of insulating sound was conducted. As a new approach, first the wall’s thermal insulation sufficiency’s were calculated and then, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used on their cross sections to check if they are sound transmitters too. The ANN was trained and tested by using MATLAB toolbox on a personal computer. ANN input parameters that used were thickness of lightweight concrete wall, frequency and density of lightweight concrete wall, while the transmitted sound was the output parameter. When the results of the TS analysis and those of ANN modeling are evaluated together, it is found from this study, that sound transmit loss increases at higher frequencies, higher wall densities and with larger wall cross sections.

Keywords: artificial neuron network, lightweight concrete, sound insulation, sound transmit loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
265 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
264 Applied Methods for Lightweighting Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

With gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, lightweighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
263 Feasibility of a Biopolymer as Lightweight Aggregate in Perlite Concrete

Authors: Ali A. Sayadi, Thomas R. Neitzert, G. Charles Clifton

Abstract:

Lightweight concrete is being used in the construction industry as a building material in its own right. Ultra-lightweight concrete can be applied as a filler and support material for the manufacturing of composite building materials. This paper is about the development of a stable and reproducible ultra-lightweight concrete with the inclusion of poly-lactic acid (PLA) beads and assessing the feasibility of PLA as a lightweight aggregate that will deliver advantages such as a more eco-friendly concrete and a non-petroleum polymer aggregate. In total, sixty-three samples were prepared and the effectiveness of mineral admixture, curing conditions, water-cement ratio, PLA ratio, EPS ratio and perlite ratio on compressive strength of perlite concrete are studied. The results show that PLA particles are sensitive to alkali environment of cement paste and considerably shrank and lost their strength. A higher compressive strength and a lower density was observed when expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles replaced PLA beads. In addition, a set of equations is proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and compressive strength of perlite concrete.

Keywords: perlite concrete, poly-lactic acid (pla), expanded polystyrene (eps), concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
262 Necessity of Using Cellular Lightweights Concrete in Construction Sector

Authors: Soner Guler, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Recently, the using of lightweights concretes in construction sector is rapidly increasing all over the world. Faster construction, low density and thermal transmitting coefficient and high fire resistance are the remarkable characteristics of the lightweight concretes. Lightweight concrete can be described as a type of concrete which enhance the volume of the mixture while giving additional advantages such as to reduce the dead weight of the structures. It is lighter than the conventional concrete. The use of lightweight concrete has been widely spread across countries such as USA, United Kingdom, and Sweden. In this study, the necessity of the using of lightweights concretes in the construction sector is emphasized and evaluated briefly for the architectures and civil engineers.

Keywords: lightweights concretes, low density, low thermal coefficient, construction sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
261 Effect of Clay Brick Filler on Properties of Self-Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Sandra Juradin, Lidia Karla Vranjes

Abstract:

The environmental impact of the components of concrete is considerable. The paper presents the influence of ground clay brick filler on the properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete (SCLC). In the manufacture and transport of clay bricks, product damage may occur. The filler was obtained by milling the damaged clay brick and sieved under the 0.04 mm size. The composition of each of SCLC mixture was determined according to the CBI method and compared with EFNARC (European Association) criteria. Self-compacting lightweight concrete has been tested in a fresh (slump flow method, visual assessment of stability, T50 time, V-funnel method, L-box method and J-ring) and hardened state (compressive strengths and dynamic modulus of elasticity). Mixtures with this filler had good results of compressive strength, but in fresh state the mixtures were sticky. All results were analyzed and compared with previous studies.

Keywords: CBI methods, ground clay brick, self-compacting lightweight concrete, silica fume

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
260 Green Concrete for Sustainable Indonesia Structures: Lightweight Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell as Coarse Aggregate with Superplasticizer and Fly Ash

Authors: Feny Acelia Silaban

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The development of Indonesia’s infrastructure in many islands is significantly increased through the years. Based on this condition, concrete materials which are extracted from natural resources are over exploited and slowly becoming rare, thus the demand for alternative materials becomes so urgently crucial. Oil Palm is one of the biggest commodities in Indonesia with the total amount of 31 million tons in the last 2014. The production of palm oil also generates lots of solid wastes in the form of Oil Palm Shell (OPS). Constructing more environmentally sustainable structures can be achieved by producing lightweight concrete using the Oil Palm Shell (OPS). This paper investigated the effects of OPS and combination of Superplasticizer and fly ash proportion of lightweight concrete mix design to the compressive strength, flexure strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage behavior, and water absorption. The Oil Palm Shell had undergone special treatment by washing it with hot water and soap to reduce the oil content. This experiment used four different proportions of Superplasticizer with fly ash and 30 % OPS proportion from the weight of total compositions mixture by the result of trial mix. The experiment result showed that using OPS coarse aggregates and Superplasticizer with fly ash, the average of 28-day compressive strength reached 30-35 MPa. The highest 28-day compressive strength comes from 1.2 % Superplasticizer with 5 % fly ash proportion samples with the strength by 33 MPa. The sample with proportion of 1 % Superplasticizer and 7.5 % fly ash has the highest shrinkage value compared to other proportions. The characteristic of OPS as coarse aggregates is in a standard range of natural coarse aggregates. In general, this lightweight concrete using OPS coarse aggregate and Superplasticizer has high potential to be green-structural lightweight concrete alternative in Indonesia.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, oil palm shell, waste materials, superplasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
259 Enhancement of Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete Reinforced with High Performance Polypropylene Fibres

Authors: Leong Tatt Loh, Ming Kun Yew, Ming Chian Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Jing Han Beh, Siong Kang Lim, Foo Wei Lee

Abstract:

Oil palm shell (OPS) is the solid waste product from the palm oil sector of the agricultural industry and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. This research aims to investigate the incorporation of various high-performance polypropylene (HPP) fibres with different geometry to enhance the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of OPS lightweight concrete. The effect of different volume fractions (Vf) (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15%) were studied for each fibre. The results reveal that the effectiveness of HPP fibres to increase the compressive strength at later ages was more pronounced than at early age. It is found that the use of HPP fibres reinforced OPS lightweight concrete (LWC) induced the advantageous of improving mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength) and thermal conductivity. Hence, this HPP fibres is a promising alternative solution to compensate lower mechanical properties as well as contribute to energy efficiency building material in the construction industry.

Keywords: oil palm shell, high performance polypropylene fibre, lightweight concrete, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
258 Carbon based Smart Materials: Functional Carbon for Lightweight Automotive Component 3D Printing

Authors: Mohammad M. Garmabia, Peyman Shahia, Jimi Tjonga, Mohini Saina

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Flame retardant composite filaments with functional carbon in the composition were fabricated, and printed parts showed enhancedcrash resistance pproperties and imporved EMI shielding. The negligible mass difference after prolonged immersion in automobile chemicals revealed the outstanding performance of parts for under-the-hood high-temperature applications.

Keywords: FDM, crash worthy, EMI Shield, lightweight, automotive parts

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
257 Transformable Lightweight Structures for Short-term Stay

Authors: Anna Daskalaki, Andreas Ashikalis

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This is a conceptual project that suggests an alternative type of summer camp in the forest of Rouvas in the island of Crete. Taking into account some feasts that are organised by the locals or mountaineering clubs near the church of St. John, we created a network of lightweight timber structures that serve the needs of the visitor. These structures are transformable and satisfy the need for rest, food, and sleep – this means a seat, a table and a tent are embodied in each structure. These structures blend in with the environment as they are being installed according to the following parameters: (a) the local relief, (b) the clusters of trees, and (c) the existing paths. Each timber structure could be considered as a module that could be totally independent or part of a bigger construction. The design showcases the advantages of a timber structure as it can be quite adaptive to the needs of the project, but also it is a sustainable and environmentally friendly material that can be recycled. Finally, it is important to note that the basic goal of this project is the minimum alteration of the natural environment.

Keywords: lightweight structures, timber, transformable, tent

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
256 Pose-Dependency of Machine Tool Structures: Appearance, Consequences, and Challenges for Lightweight Large-Scale Machines

Authors: S. Apprich, F. Wulle, A. Lechler, A. Pott, A. Verl

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Large-scale machine tools for the manufacturing of large work pieces, e.g. blades, casings or gears for wind turbines, feature pose-dependent dynamic behavior. Small structural damping coefficients lead to long decay times for structural vibrations that have negative impacts on the production process. Typically, these vibrations are handled by increasing the stiffness of the structure by adding mass. That is counterproductive to the needs of sustainable manufacturing as it leads to higher resource consumption both in material and in energy. Recent research activities have led to higher resource efficiency by radical mass reduction that rely on control-integrated active vibration avoidance and damping methods. These control methods depend on information describing the dynamic behavior of the controlled machine tools in order to tune the avoidance or reduction method parameters according to the current state of the machine. The paper presents the appearance, consequences and challenges of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight large-scale machine tool structures in production. The paper starts with the theoretical introduction of the challenges of lightweight machine tool structures resulting from reduced stiffness. The statement of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior is corroborated by the results of the experimental modal analysis of a lightweight test structure. Afterwards, the consequences of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight machine tool structures for the use of active control and vibration reduction methods are explained. Based on the state of the art on pose-dependent dynamic machine tool models and the modal investigation of an FE-model of the lightweight test structure, the criteria for a pose-dependent model for use in vibration reduction are derived. The description of the approach for a general pose-dependent model of the dynamic behavior of large lightweight machine tools that provides the necessary input to the aforementioned vibration avoidance and reduction methods to properly tackle machine vibrations is the outlook of the paper.

Keywords: dynamic behavior, lightweight, machine tool, pose-dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
255 The Structural Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams: An Analytical Approach

Authors: Jubee Varghese, Pouria Hafiz

Abstract:

Increased use of lightweight concrete in the construction industry is mainly due to its reduction in the weight of the structural elements, which in turn reduces the cost of production, transportation, and the overall project cost. However, the structural application of these lightweight concrete structures is limited due to its reduced density. Hence, further investigations are in progress to study the effect of fiber inclusion in improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Incorporating structural steel fibers, in general, enhances the performance of concrete and increases its durability by minimizing its potential to cracking and providing crack arresting mechanism. In this research, Geometric and Materially Non-linear Analysis (GMNA) was conducted for Finite Element Modelling using a software known as ABAQUS, to investigate the structural behavior of lightweight concrete with and without the addition of steel fibers and shear reinforcement. 21 finite element models of beams were created to study the effect of steel fibers based on three main parameters; fiber volume fraction (Vf = 0, 0.5 and 0.75%), shear span to depth ratio (a/d of 2, 3 and 4) and ratio of area of shear stirrups to spacing (As/s of 0.7, 1 and 1.6). The models created were validated with the previous experiment conducted by H.K. Kang et al. in 2011. It was seen that the lightweight fiber reinforcement can replace the use of fiber reinforced normal weight concrete as structural elements. The effect of an increase in steel fiber volume fraction is dominant for beams with higher shear span to depth ratio than for lower ratios. The effect of stirrups in the presence of fibers was very negligible; however; it provided extra confinement to the cracks by reducing the crack propagation and extra shear resistance than when compared to beams with no stirrups.

Keywords: ABAQUS, beams, fiber-reinforced concrete, finite element, light weight, shear span-depth ratio, steel fibers, steel-fiber volume fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
254 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: Veronika Přivřelová

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Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: composite beams, high-performance concrete, high-strength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
253 Round Addition DFA on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-The-Fly Key Schedule

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki

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Round addition differential fault analysis (DFA) using operation bypassing for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key schedule is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN and 64-bit LED, it is shown that only a pair of correct ciphertext and faulty ciphertext can derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key.

Keywords: differential fault analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule

Procedia PDF Downloads 621
252 NUX: A Lightweight Block Cipher for Security at Wireless Sensor Node Level

Authors: Gaurav Bansod, Swapnil Sutar, Abhijit Patil, Jagdish Patil

Abstract:

This paper proposes an ultra-lightweight cipher NUX. NUX is a generalized Feistel network. It supports 128/80 bit key length and block length of 64 bit. For 128 bit key length, NUX needs only 1022 GEs which is less as compared to all existing cipher design. NUX design results into less footprint area and minimal memory size. This paper presents security analysis of NUX cipher design which shows cipher’s resistance against basic attacks like Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis. Advanced attacks like Biclique attack is also mounted on NUX cipher design. Two different F function in NUX cipher design results in high diffusion mechanism which generates large number of active S-boxes in minimum number of rounds. NUX cipher has total 31 rounds. NUX design will be best-suited design for critical application like smart grid, IoT, wireless sensor network, where memory size, footprint area and the power dissipation are the major constraints.

Keywords: lightweight cryptography, Feistel cipher, block cipher, IoT, encryption, embedded security, ubiquitous computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
251 Influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and Curing Temperature on Behaviors of Lightweight Kaolinite-Based Geopolymer

Authors: W. Sornlar, S. Supothina, A. Wannagon

Abstract:

Lightweight geopolymer can be prepared by using some foaming agents, such as metal powders or hydrogen peroxide; however, it is difficult to control the generated cell size due to the high reactivity of the system. This study aims to investigate the influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES) foam addition and curing temperature on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and microstructure behaviors of the lightweight kaolinite-based geopolymer. To provide porous structure, the geopolymer paste was mixed with 0-15 wt% of SLES foam before casting into the mold. Testing and characterizations were carried out after 28 days. The results showed that SLES foam generated the regular and spherical macropores, which were well distributed in the geopolymer samples. The total porosity increased as SLES foam increased, similarly as the apparent porosity and water absorption. On the other hand, the bulk density and mechanical strength decreased as SLES foam increased. Curing temperature was studied simultaneously due to it strongly affects the mechanical strength of geopolymer. In this study, rising of curing temperature from 27 to 50°C (at 75% relative humidity) improved the compressive strength of samples but deteriorated after curing at 60°C. Among them, the composition of 15 wt% SLES foam (NF15) presented the highest porosity (70.51-72.89%), the lowest density (0.68-0.73 g/cm³), and very low thermal conductivity (0.172-0.197 W/mK). It had the proper compressive strength of 4.21-4.74 MPa that can be applied for the thermal insulation.

Keywords: lightweight, kaolinite-based geopolymer, curing temperature, foaming agent, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
250 Quasi-Static Resistance Function Quantification for Lightweight Sandwich Panels: Experimental Study

Authors: Yasser A. Khalifa, Michael J. Tait, A. M. Asce, Wael W. El-Dakhakhni, M. Asce

Abstract:

The quasi-static resistance functions for orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were determined experimentally. According to the American and Canadian codes for blast resistant designs of buildings UFC 3-340-02, ASCE/SEI 59-11, and CSA/ S850-12 the dynamic behavior is related to the static behavior under uniform loading. The target was to design a lightweight, relatively cheap, and quick sandwich panel to be employed as a sacrificial cladding for important buildings. For that an available corrugated cold formed steel sheet profile in North America was used as a core for the sandwich panel, in addition to using a quick, relatively low cost fabrication technique in the construction process. Six orthogonal corrugated core sandwich panels were tested and the influence of core sheet gauge on the behavior of the sandwich panels was explored using two different gauges. Failure modes, yield forces, ultimate forces, and corresponding deformations were determined and discussed.

Keywords: cold formed steel, lightweight structure, sandwich panel, sacrificial cladding, uniform loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
249 Simulation and Experimental Verification of Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures

Authors: P. Karlsson, M. Åsberg, R. Eriksson, P. Krakhmalev, N. Strömberg

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing of lattice structures is promising for lightweight design, but the mechanical response of the lattices structures is not fully understood. This investigation presents the results of simulation and experimental investigations of the grid and shell-based gyroid lattices. Specimens containing selected lattices were designed with an in-house software and manufactured from 316L steel with Renishaw AM400 equipment. Results of simulation and experimental investigations correlated well.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, computed tomography, material characterization, lattice structures, robust lightweight design

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
248 Experimental Studies on Stress Strain Behavior of Expanded Polystyrene Beads-Sand Mixture

Authors: K. N. Ashna

Abstract:

Lightweight fills are a viable alternative where weak soils such as soft clay, peat, and loose silt are encountered. Materials such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam, plastics, tire wastes, rubber wastes have been used along with soil in order to obtain a lightweight fill. Out of these, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam has gained wide popularity in civil engineering over the past years due to its wide variety of applications. It is extremely lightweight, durable and is available in various densities to meet the strength requirements. It can be used as backfill behind retaining walls to reduce lateral load, as a fill over soft clay or weak soils to prevent the excessive settlements and to reduce seismic forces. Geo-foam is available in block form as well as beads form. In this project Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads of various diameters and varying densities were mixed along with sand to study their lightweight as well as strength properties. Four types of EPS beads were used 1mm, 2mm, 3-7 mm and a mix of 1-7 mm. In this project, EPS beads were varied at .25%, .5%, .75% and 1% by weight of sand. A water content of 10% by weight of sand was added to prevent segregation of the mixture. Unconsolidated Unconfined (UU) tri-axial test was conducted at 100kPa, 200 kPa and 300 kPa and angle of internal friction, and cohesion was obtained. Unit weight of the mix was obtained for a relative density of 65%. The results showed that by increasing the EPS content by weight, maximum deviator stress, unit weight, angle of internal friction and initial elastic modulus decreased. An optimum EPS bead content was arrived at by considering the strength as well as the unit weight. The stress-strain behaviour of the mix was found to be dependent on type of bead, bead content and density of the beads. Finally, regression equations were developed to predict the initial elastic modulus of the mix.

Keywords: expanded polystyrene beads, geofoam, lightweight fills, stress-strain behavior, triaxial test

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
247 The Effects of Microsilis, Super Plasticizer and Air Entrain in Lightweight Expanded Perlite Concrete

Authors: Yousef Zandi, Hoseyn Leka, Mahin Ganadi

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study carried out on effect of using the simultaneous of microsilis, super plasticizer and air entrain additives on compressive strength of light weight perlite concrete. In this study, 63 test specimens with different percentage and mixtures including microsilis, super plasticizer and air entrain were used. 63 test specimens with different mixtures including microsilis and air entrain were also prepared for comparison purposes. In the mixtures, lightweight perlite aggregate, microsilis, super plasticizer, air entrain, cement type I, sand and water were used. Laboratory test results showed that workability of lightweight perlite concrete was increased and compressive strength was released by the use of super plasticizer, without any change in water/cement ratio. We know that compressive strength of concrete is depends on water/cement ratio. Since, it was expected that the use of air entrain and super plasticizer lower water/cement ratio and raised strengths, considerably. It was concluded that use of simultaneous of air entrains and super plasticizer additive were not economical and use of air entrain and microsilis is better than use of air entrain, super plasticizer and microsilis. It was concluded that the best results were obtained by using 10% microsilis and 0.5% air entrain.

Keywords: perlite, microsilis, air entrain, super plasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
246 Research and Development of Lightweight Repair Mortars with Focus on Their Resistance to High Temperatures

Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiří Bydžovský, Vít Černý

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In this article our research focused on study of basic physical and mechanical parameters of polymer-cement repair materials is presented. Namely the influence of applied aggregates in combination with active admixture is specially considered. New formulas which were exposed in ambient with temperature even to 1000°C were suggested. Subsequently densities and strength characteristics including their changes were evaluated. Selected samples were analyzed using electron microscope. The positive influence of porous aggregates based on sintered ash was definitely demonstrated. Further it was found than in terms of thermal resistance the effective micro silica amount represents 5% to 7.5% of cement weight.

Keywords: aggregate, ash, high, lightweight, microsilica, mortar, polymer-cement, repair, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
245 Properties of Sustainable Artificial Lightweight Aggregate

Authors: Wasan Ismail Khalil, Hisham Khalid Ahmed, Zainab Ali

Abstract:

Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (SLWAC) has been developed in recent years because it reduces the dead load, cost, thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of the structure. So SLWAC has the advantage of being a relatively green building material. Lightweight Aggregate (LWA) is either occurs as natural material such as pumice, scoria, etc. or as artificial material produced from different raw materials such as expanded shale, clay, slate, etc. The use of SLWAC in Iraq is limited due to the lack in natural LWA. The existence of Iraqi clay deposit with different types and characteristics leads to the idea of producing artificial expanded clay aggregate. The main aim in this work is to present of the properties of artificial LWA produced in the laboratory. Available local bentonite clay which occurs in the Western region of Iraq was used as raw material to produce the LWA. Sodium silicate as liquid industrial waste material from glass plant was mixed with bentonite clay in mix proportion 1:1 by weight. The manufacturing method of the lightweight aggregate including, preparation and mixing of clay and sodium silicate, burning of the mixture in the furnace at the temperature between 750-800˚C for two hours, and finally gradually cooling process. The produced LWA was then crushed to small pieces then screened on standard sieve series and prepared with grading which conforms to the specifications of LWA. The maximum aggregate size used in this investigation is 10 mm. The chemical composition and the physical properties of the produced LWA are investigated. The results indicate that the specific gravity of the produced LWA is 1.5 with the density of 543kg/m3 and water absorption of 20.7% which is in conformity with the international standard of LWA. Many trail mixes were carried out in order to produce LWAC containing the artificial LWA produced in this research. The selected mix proportion is 1:1.5:2 (cement: sand: aggregate) by weight with water to cement ratio of 0.45. The experimental results show that LWAC has oven dry density of 1720 kg/m3, water absorption of 8.5%, the thermal conductivity of 0.723 W/m.K and compressive strength of 23 N/mm2. The SLWAC produced in this research can be used in the construction of different thermal insulated buildings and masonry units. It can be concluded that the SLWA produced in this study contributes to sustainable development by, using industrial waste materials, conserving energy, enhancing the thermal and structural efficiency of concrete.

Keywords: expanded clay, lightweight aggregate, structural lightweight aggregate concrete, sustainable

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