Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Search results for: radiotherapy

109 Monte Carlo Simulations of LSO/YSO for Dose Evaluation in Photon Beam Radiotherapy

Authors: H. Donya


Monte Carlo (MC) techniques play a fundamental role in radiotherapy. A two non-water-equivalent of different media were used to evaluate the dose in water. For such purpose, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates scintillators are chosen for MC simulation using Penelope code. To get higher efficiency in dose calculation, variance reduction techniques are discussed. Overall results of this investigation ensured that the LSO/YSO bi-media a good combination to tackle over-response issue in dynamic photon radiotherapy.

Keywords: Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates, Monte Carlo, correlated sampling, radiotherapy

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108 Cancer Patients' Quality of Life and Fatigue: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha


Aim: The aim of this study were to correlate Jordanian cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue with selected variables (age, sex, religion, marital status, level of education, type of cancer, number of people living in the same household, type of radiotherapy, dose of radiotherapy, and hemoglobin level). Background: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain devastating agents that altered patients’ normal lives. Methods: A correlational design was used in this study to 80 cancer patients and required radiotherapy treatment using a convenience sampling procedure. Results: No significant differences were found in the relationship between quality of life scores and selected variables. A significant negative relationship was found between quality of life scores and the side effects of radiotherapy treatment. Significant positive relationships were found between fatigue scores measured by Piper Fatigue Scale and cancer complications, and radiotherapy side effects. Conclusion: Cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue are affected by radiotherapy’s side effects and cancer complications. Implications for Nursing: Nurses should try to prevent and manage the negative side effects of radiotherapy and complications of cancer. Such an initiative would serve to design specific nursing interventions that have the potential to help patients enjoy their lives and perform their activities.

Keywords: cancer patients, piper fatigue scale, fatigue, quality of life, radiotherapy

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107 Approaching In vivo Dosimetry for Kilovoltage X-Ray Radiotherapy

Authors: Rodolfo Alfonso, David Alonso, Albin Garcia, Jose Luis Alonso


Recently a new kilovoltage radiotherapy unit model Xstrahl 200 - donated to the INOR´s Department of Radiotherapy (DR-INOR) in the framework of a IAEA's technical cooperation project- has been commissioned. This unit is able to treat shallow and low deep laying lesions, as it provides 8 discrete beam qualities, from 40 to 200 kV. As part of the patient-specific quality assurance program established at DR-INOR for external beam radiotherapy, it has been recommended to implement in vivo dose measurements (IVD), as they allow effectively discovering eventual errors or failures in the radiotherapy process. For that purpose a radio-photoluminescence (RPL) dosimetry system, model XXX, -also donated to DR-INOR by the same IAEA project- has been studied and commissioned. Main dosimetric parameters of the RPL system, such as reproducibility, linearity, and filed size influence were assessed. In a similar way, the response of radiochromic EBT3 type film was investigated for purposes of IVD. Both systems were calibrated in terms of entrance surface dose. Results of the dosimetric commissioning of RPL and EBT3 for IVD, and their pre-clinical implementation through end-to-end test cases are presented. The RPL dosimetry seems more recommendable for hyper-fractionated schemes with larger fields and curved patient contours, as those in chest wall irradiations, where the use of more than one dosimeter could be required. The radiochromic system involves smaller corrections with field size, but it sensibility is lower; hence it is more adequate for hypo-fractionated treatments with smaller fields.

Keywords: glass dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry, kilovotage radiotherapy, radiochromic dosimetry

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106 Estimation of Lungs Physiological Motion for Patient Undergoing External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah


This is an experimental study deals with detection, measurement and analysis of the periodic physiological organ motion during external beam radiotherapy; to improve the accuracy of the radiation field placement, and to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The importance of this study is to detect the maximum path of the mobile structures during radiotherapy delivery, to define the planning target volume (PTV) and irradiated volume during both inspiration and expiration period and to verify the target volume. In addition to its role to highlight the importance of the application of Intense Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) methods in the field of radiotherapy. The results showed (body contour was equally (3.17 + 0.23 mm), for left lung displacement reading (2.56 + 0.99 mm) and right lung is (2.42 + 0.77 mm) which the radiation oncologist to take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. In addition, the use of the image registration technique for automatic position control is predicted potential motion. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, individualized assessment of tumor mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a single CT scan with a margin of 10 mm is clearly inappropriate.

Keywords: respiratory motion, external beam radiotherapy, image processing, lung

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105 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim


This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment

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104 Dosimetric Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy in Adult Primary Brain Tumors: Regional Cancer Centre, India

Authors: Ravi Kiran Pothamsetty, Radha Rani Ghosh, Baby Paul Thaliath


Radiation therapy has undergone many advancements and evloved from 2D to 3D. Recently, with rapid pace of drug discoveries, cutting edge technology, and clinical trials has made innovative advancements in computer technology and treatment planning and upgraded to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which delivers in homogenous dose to tumor and normal tissues. The present study was a hospital-based experience comparing two different conformal radiotherapy techniques for brain tumors. This analytical study design has been conducted at Regional Cancer Centre, India from January 2014 to January 2015. Ten patients have been selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were treated on Artiste Siemens Linac Accelerator. The tolerance level for maximum dose was 6.0 Gyfor lenses and 54.0 Gy for brain stem, optic chiasm and optical nerves as per RTOG criteria. Mean and standard deviation values of PTV98%, PTV 95% and PTV 2% in IMRT were 93.16±2.9, 95.01±3.4 and 103.1±1.1 respectively; for 3DCRT were 91.4±4.7, 94.17±2.6 and 102.7±0.39 respectively. PTV max dose (%) in IMRT and 3D-CRT were 104.7±0.96 and 103.9±1.0 respectively. Maximum dose to the tumor can be delivered with IMRT with acceptable toxicity limits. Variables such as expertise, location of tumor, patient condition, and TPS influence the outcome of the treatment.

Keywords: brain tumors, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG)

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103 An Assessment of Sexual Informational Needs of Breast Cancer Patients in Radiation Oncology

Authors: Li Hoon Lim, Nur Farhanah Said, Katie Simmons, Eric Pei Ping Pang, Sharon Mei Mei Wong


Background and Purpose: Research regarding the sexual impact of breast cancer treatment on Asian women is both sensitive and scarce. This study aims to assess and evaluate the sexual health needs and concerns of breast cancer radiotherapy patients. It is hoped that awareness will be increased and an appropriate intervention can be developed to address the needs of future breast cancer patients. Methods: 110 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Questionnaires were administered once for patient undergoing radiotherapy to the breast. This study employed an anonymous questionnaire; any breast radiotherapy patient who can read English can voluntarily receive and complete the survey. The questionnaire consisted of items addressing demographics, potential informational needs, and educational preferences. Results: Patients’ interest to address sexual concerns decreases with age (p=0.024). Coherently, sexual concerns of patients are reported to decrease with age (p=0.015) where 70% of all respondents below age 50 [age 20-29 (60%); 30-39 (56.3%); 40-49(55.1%)] have started to have sexual concerns regarding their treatment effects on their sexual health. Patients who underwent breast conservation surgery (42.2%) and reconstruction surgery (83.3%) were more likely to have concerns about sexual health versus patients who underwent mastectomy (36.7%) (p=0.032). 74.2% of patients with sexual concern regardless of age would initiate conversation with their healthcare providers (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a staggering interest of female patients wanting information on this area which would not only boost their confidence and body image but also address concerns of the effect of breast radiotherapy on sexual health during their treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast radiotherapy, sexual health, sexual impact

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102 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova


Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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101 Effect of Radiotherapy/Chemotherapy Protocol on the Gut Microbiome in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Authors: Nourhan G. Sahly, Ahmed Moustafa, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, Tamer Z. Salem


The gut microbiome plays important roles in the human body that includes but not limited to digestion, immunity, homeostasis and response to some drugs such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Its role has also been linked to radiotherapy and associated gastrointestinal injuries, where the microbial dysbiosis could be the driving force for dose determination or the complete suspension of the treatment protocol. Linking the gut microbiota alterations to different cancer treatment protocols is not easy especially in humans. However, enormous effort was exerted to understand this complex relationship. In the current study, we described the gut microbiota dysbiosis in pediatric sarcoma patients, in the pelvic region, with regards to radiotherapy and antibiotics. Fecal samples were collected as a source of microbial DNA for which the gene encoding for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA was sequenced. Two of the three patients understudy had experienced an increase in alpha diversity post exposure to 50.4 Gy. Although phylum Firmicutes overall relative abundance has generally decreased, six of its taxa increased in all patients. Our results may indicate the possibility of radiosensitivity or enrichment of the antibiotic resistance of the elevated taxa. Further studies are needed to describe the extent of radiosensitivity with regards to antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, gut microbiome, pediatric cancer, radiosensitivity

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100 In silico Repopulation Model of Various Tumour Cells during Treatment Breaks in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

Authors: Loredana G. Marcu, David Marcu, Sanda M. Filip


Advanced head and neck cancers are aggressive tumours, which require aggressive treatment. Treatment efficiency is often hindered by cancer cell repopulation during radiotherapy, which is due to various mechanisms triggered by the loss of tumour cells and involves both stem and differentiated cells. The aim of the current paper is to present in silico simulations of radiotherapy schedules on a virtual head and neck tumour grown with biologically realistic kinetic parameters. Using the linear quadratic formalism of cell survival after radiotherapy, altered fractionation schedules employing various treatment breaks for normal tissue recovery are simulated and repopulation mechanism implemented in order to evaluate the impact of various cancer cell contribution on tumour behaviour during irradiation. The model has shown that the timing of treatment breaks is an important factor influencing tumour control in rapidly proliferating tissues such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Furthermore, not only stem cells but also differentiated cells, via the mechanism of abortive division, can contribute to malignant cell repopulation during treatment.

Keywords: radiation, tumour repopulation, squamous cell carcinoma, stem cell

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99 Early Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Authors: Nejla Fourati, Zied Fessi, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Leila Farhat, Afef Khanfir, Wafa Mnejja, Jamel Daoud


Purpose: Radiation induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) ranged from 15% to 55%. In reported data, it is considered as a common late complication of definitive radiation and is mainly observed 2 years after the end of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early hypothyroidism within 6 months after radiotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 2017 to February 2020, 35 patients treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCR) for NPC were included in this prospective study. Median age was 49 years [23-68] with a sex ratio of 2.88. All patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at a dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 daily fractions with weekly cisplatin (40mg/m²) chemotherapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine 4 (FT4) dosage was performed before the start of radiotherapy and 6 months after. Different dosimetric parameters for the thyroid gland were reported: the volume (cc); the mean dose (Dmean) and the %age of volume receiving more than 45 Gy (V45Gy). Wilcoxon Test was used to compare these different parameters between patients with or without hypothyroidism. Results: At baseline, 5 patients (14.3%) had hypothyroidism and were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining 30 patients, 9 patients (30%) developed a hypothyroidism 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. The median thyroid volume was 10.3 cc [4.6-23]. The median Dmean and V45Gy were 48.3 Gy [43.15-55.4] and 74.8 [38.2-97.9] respectively. No significant difference was noted for all studied parameters. Conclusion: Early hypothyroidism occurring within 6 months after CCR for NPC seems to be a common complication (30%) that should be screened. Good patient monitoring with regular dosage of TSH and FT4 makes it possible to treat hypothyroidism in asymptomatic phase. This would be correlated with an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. The results of our study do not show a correlation between the thyroid doses and the occurrence of hypothyroidism. This is probably related to the high doses received by the thyroid in our series. These findings encourage more optimization to limit thyroid doses and then the risk of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hypothyroidism, early complication, thyroid dose

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98 Testicular Dose and Associated Risk from Common Pelvis Radiation Therapy in Iran

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Milad Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi


This study aimed to investigate testicular dose (TD) and the associated risk of heritable disease from common pelvis radiotherapy of male patients in Iran. In this work, the relation between TD and changes in beam energy, pelvis size, source to skin distance (SSD) and beam directions (anterior or posterior) were also evaluated. The values of TDs were measured on 67 randomly selected male patients during common pelvis radiotherapy using 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, Theratron Cobalt-60 unit at SSD of 80 cm and 9 MV, Neptun 10 PC and 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 at SSD of 100 cm at Seyed-Al Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Results showed that the maximum TD was up to 12% of the tumor dose. Considering the risk factor for radiation-induced heritable disorders of 0.1% per Sv, an excess risk of hereditary disorders of 72 per 10000 births was conservatively calculated. There was a significant difference in the measured TD using different treatment machines and energies (P < 0.001). The TD at 100 cm SSD were much less than that for 80 cm SSD (P <0.001). The Pearson Correlation test showed that, as expected, there was a strong correlation between TD and patient’s pelvis size (r = 0.275, P <0.001). Using the student’s t-tests, it was found that, there was not a significant difference between TD and beam direction (P = 0.231). Iranian male patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy have the potential of receiving a TD of more than 1 Gy which might result in temporary azoospermia. The risk for induction of hereditary disorders in future generations should be considered as low but not negligible in comparison with the correspondent nominal risk.

Keywords: pelvis radiotherapy, testicular dose, infertility, hereditary effects

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97 Dynamic Conformal Arc versus Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Image Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Cranial Lesion

Authors: Chor Yi Ng, Christine Kong, Loretta Teo, Stephen Yau, FC Cheung, TL Poon, Francis Lee


Purpose: Dynamic conformal arc (DCA) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are two treatment techniques commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy of cranial lesions. IMRT plans usually give better dose conformity while DCA plans have better dose fall off. Rapid dose fall off is preferred for radiotherapy of cranial lesions, but dose conformity is also important. For certain lesions, DCA plans have good conformity, while for some lesions, the conformity is just unacceptable with DCA plans, and IMRT has to be used. The choice between the two may not be apparent until each plan is prepared and dose indices compared. We described a deviation index (DI) which is a measurement of the deviation of the target shape from a sphere, and test its functionality to choose between the two techniques. Method and Materials: From May 2015 to May 2017, our institute has performed stereotactic radiotherapy for 105 patients treating a total of 115 lesions (64 DCA plans and 51 IMRT plans). Patients were treated with the Varian Clinac iX with HDMLC. Brainlab Exactrac system was used for patient setup. Treatment planning was done with Brainlab iPlan RT Dose (Version 4.5.4). DCA plans were found to give better dose fall off in terms of R50% (R50% (DCA) = 4.75 Vs R50% (IMRT) = 5.242) while IMRT plans have better conformity in terms of treatment volume ratio (TVR) (TVR(DCA) = 1.273 Vs TVR(IMRT) = 1.222). Deviation Index (DI) is proposed to better facilitate the choice between the two techniques. DI is the ratio of the volume of a 1 mm shell of the PTV and the volume of a 1 mm shell of a sphere of identical volume. DI will be close to 1 for a near spherical PTV while a large DI will imply a more irregular PTV. To study the functionality of DI, 23 cases were chosen with PTV volume ranged from 1.149 cc to 29.83 cc, and DI ranged from 1.059 to 3.202. For each case, we did a nine field IMRT plan with one pass optimization and a five arc DCA plan. Then the TVR and R50% of each case were compared and correlated with the DI. Results: For the 23 cases, TVRs and R50% of the DCA and IMRT plans were examined. The conformity for IMRT plans are better than DCA plans, with majority of the TVR(DCA)/TVR(IMRT) ratios > 1, values ranging from 0.877 to1.538. While the dose fall off is better for DCA plans, with majority of the R50%(DCA)/ R50%(IMRT) ratios < 1. Their correlations with DI were also studied. A strong positive correlation was found between the ratio of TVRs and DI (correlation coefficient = 0.839), while the correlation between the ratio of R50%s and DI was insignificant (correlation coefficient = -0.190). Conclusion: The results suggest DI can be used as a guide for choosing the planning technique. For DI greater than a certain value, we can expect the conformity for DCA plans to become unacceptably great, and IMRT will be the technique of choice.

Keywords: cranial lesions, dynamic conformal arc, IMRT, image guided radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy

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96 Automatic Segmentation of 3D Tomographic Images Contours at Radiotherapy Planning in Low Cost Solution

Authors: D. F. Carvalho, A. O. Uscamayta, J. C. Guerrero, H. F. Oliveira, P. M. Azevedo-Marques


The creation of vector contours slices (ROIs) on body silhouettes in oncologic patients is an important step during the radiotherapy planning in clinic and hospitals to ensure the accuracy of oncologic treatment. The radiotherapy planning of patients is performed by complex softwares focused on analysis of tumor regions, protection of organs at risk (OARs) and calculation of radiation doses for anomalies (tumors). These softwares are supplied for a few manufacturers and run over sophisticated workstations with vector processing presenting a cost of approximately twenty thousand dollars. The Brazilian project SIPRAD (Radiotherapy Planning System) presents a proposal adapted to the emerging countries reality that generally does not have the monetary conditions to acquire some radiotherapy planning workstations, resulting in waiting queues for new patients treatment. The SIPRAD project is composed by a set of integrated and interoperabilities softwares that are able to execute all stages of radiotherapy planning on simple personal computers (PCs) in replace to the workstations. The goal of this work is to present an image processing technique, computationally feasible, that is able to perform an automatic contour delineation in patient body silhouettes (SIPRAD-Body). The SIPRAD-Body technique is performed in tomography slices under grayscale images, extending their use with a greedy algorithm in three dimensions. SIPRAD-Body creates an irregular polyhedron with the Canny Edge adapted algorithm without the use of preprocessing filters, as contrast and brightness. In addition, comparing the technique SIPRAD-Body with existing current solutions is reached a contours similarity at least 78%. For this comparison is used four criteria: contour area, contour length, difference between the mass centers and Jaccard index technique. SIPRAD-Body was tested in a set of oncologic exams provided by the Clinical Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo (HCRP-USP). The exams were applied in patients with different conditions of ethnology, ages, tumor severities and body regions. Even in case of services that have already workstations, it is possible to have SIPRAD working together PCs because of the interoperability of communication between both systems through the DICOM protocol that provides an increase of workflow. Therefore, the conclusion is that SIPRAD-Body technique is feasible because of its degree of similarity in both new radiotherapy planning services and existing services.

Keywords: radiotherapy, image processing, DICOM RT, Treatment Planning System (TPS)

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95 Efficacy of Topical Ectoin Therapy for Acute Radiodermatitis Associated with Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Nagwa E. Abd Elazim, Maha S. El-naggar, Rania H. Mohamed, Sara M. Awad


Background: Radiodermatitis is a common side effect of radiation therapy for breast cancer. However, there is no current consensus about effective standard therapy for the prevention and management of radiation dermatitis. Topical ectoine has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis owing to its anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of topical ectoine in comparison to traditional topical dexpanthenol treatment in the management of acute radiodermatitis in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: Fifty patients were randomized to use either dexpanthenol 0.5% cream (25 patients), or ectoin 7% cream (25 patients), applied twice daily to the irradiated area during the radiation period and continued for 2 weeks after cessation of radiotherapy. Assessment of radiation skin toxicity using Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0, radiation-associated symptoms, and adverse events were undertaken weekly during radiotherapy and 2 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: Topical ectoine showed some clinical benefit over dexpanthenol, as shown by delayed time to onset (at week 3 versus week 2, respectively) and larger number of patients who reached grade 0 at the end of treatment (64% vs. 48%, respectively). The clinical symptoms of pain (p = 0.003) and itching (p = 0.001) attributable to radiation were less pronounced with ectoine than with dexpanthenol. Burning and hyperpigmentation were the most common side effects with ectoine. However, no significant difference between dexpanthenol and ectoine treatments was found in any of the side effects (p = 0.1). Conclusion: Ectoin was overall more effective in improving radiation dermatitis than topical dexpanthenol in breast cancer patients. Ectoin could be proposed as a preventive or curative treatment for patients undergoing postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. Further clinical studies with a larger number of patients are recommended for the confirmation of these preliminary results.

Keywords: breast cancer, dexapanthenol, ectoin, radiation dermatitis

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94 Hounsfield-Based Automatic Evaluation of Volumetric Breast Density on Radiotherapy CT-Scans

Authors: E. M. D. Akuoko, Eliana Vasquez Osorio, Marcel Van Herk, Marianne Aznar


Radiotherapy is an integral part of treatment for many patients with breast cancer. However, side effects can occur, e.g., fibrosis or erythema. If patients at higher risks of radiation-induced side effects could be identified before treatment, they could be given more individual information about the risks and benefits of radiotherapy. We hypothesize that breast density is correlated with the risk of side effects and present a novel method for automatic evaluation based on radiotherapy planning CT scans. Methods: 799 supine CT scans of breast radiotherapy patients were available from the REQUITE dataset. The methodology was first established in a subset of 114 patients (cohort 1) before being applied to the whole dataset (cohort 2). All patients were scanned in the supine position, with arms up, and the treated breast (ipsilateral) was identified. Manual experts contour available in 96 patients for both the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in cohort 1. Breast tissue was segmented using atlas-based automatic contouring software, ADMIRE® v3.4 (Elekta AB, Sweden). Once validated, the automatic segmentation method was applied to cohort 2. Breast density was then investigated by thresholding voxels within the contours, using Otsu threshold and pixel intensity ranges based on Hounsfield units (-200 to -100 for fatty tissue, and -99 to +100 for fibro-glandular tissue). Volumetric breast density (VBD) was defined as the volume of fibro-glandular tissue / (volume of fibro-glandular tissue + volume of fatty tissue). A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify whether calculated VBD was affected by the choice of breast contour. In addition, we investigated the correlation between volumetric breast density (VBD) and patient age and breast size. VBD values were compared between ipsilateral and contralateral breast contours. Results: Estimated VBD values were 0.40 (range 0.17-0.91) in cohort 1, and 0.43 (0.096-0.99) in cohort 2. We observed ipsilateral breasts to be denser than contralateral breasts. Breast density was negatively associated with breast volume (Spearman: R=-0.5, p-value < 2.2e-16) and age (Spearman: R=-0.24, p-value = 4.6e-10). Conclusion: VBD estimates could be obtained automatically on a large CT dataset. Patients’ age or breast volume may not be the only variables that explain breast density. Future work will focus on assessing the usefulness of VBD as a predictive variable for radiation-induced side effects.

Keywords: breast cancer, automatic image segmentation, radiotherapy, big data, breast density, medical imaging

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93 Impact of α-Adrenoceptor Antagonists on Biochemical Relapse in Men Undergoing Radiotherapy for Localised Prostate Cancer

Authors: Briohny H. Spencer, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine McDermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, David Christie


Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men worldwide and the most prevalent in Australian men. In 2015, it was estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in Australia. Currently, for localised disease, androgen depravation therapy (ADT) and radiotherapy are a major part of the curative management of prostate cancer. ADT acts to reduce the levels of circulating androgens, primarily testosterone and the locally produced androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or by preventing the subsequent activation of the androgen receptor. Thus, the growth of the cancerous cells can be reduced or ceased. Radiation techniques such as brachytherapy (radiation delivered directly to the prostate by transperineal implant) or external beam radiation therapy (exposure to a sufficient dose of radiation aimed at eradicating malignant cells) are also common techniques used in the treatment of this condition. Radiotherapy (RT) has significant limitations, including reduced effectiveness in treating malignant cells present in hypoxic microenvironments leading to radio-resistance and poor clinical outcomes and also the significant side effects for the patients. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are used for many prostate cancer patients to control lower urinary tract symptoms, due to the progression of the disease itself or may arise as an adverse effect of the radiotherapy treatment. In Australia, a significant number (not a majority) of patients receive a α1-ADR antagonist and four drugs are available including prazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin and tamsulosin. There is currently limited published data on the effects of α1-ADR antagonists during radiotherapy, but it suggests these medications may improve patient outcomes by enhancing the effect of radiotherapy. Aim: To determine the impact of α1-ADR antagonists treatments on time to biochemical relapse following radiotherapy. Methods: A retrospective study of male patients receiving radiotherapy for biopsy-proven localised prostate cancer was undertaken to compare cancer outcomes for drug-naïve patients and those receiving α1-ADR antagonist treatments. Ethical approval for the collection of data at Genesis CancerCare QLD was obtained and biochemical relapse (defined by a PSA rise of >2ng/mL above the nadir) was recorded in months. Rates of biochemical relapse, prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were also compared. Treatment groups were those receiving α1-ADR antagonists treatment before or concurrent with their radiotherapy. Data was statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA and results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Major findings: The mean time to biochemical relapse for tamsulosin, prazosin, alfuzosin and controls were 45.3±17.4 (n=36), 41.5±19.6 (n=11), 29.3±6.02 (n=6) and 36.5±17.6 (n=16) months respectively. Tamsulosin, prazosin but not alfuzosin delayed time to biochemical relapse although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Preliminary data for the prior and/or concurrent use of tamsulosin and prazosin showed a positive trend in delaying time to biochemical relapse although no statistical significance was shown. Larger clinical studies are indicated and with thousands of patient records yet to be analysed, it may determine if there is a significant effect of these drugs on control of prostate cancer.

Keywords: alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, biochemical relapse, prostate cancer, radiotherapy

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92 Toxicities associated with EBRT and Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer, Correlated with Intra-operative Dosing

Authors: Rebecca Dunne, Cormac Small, Geraldine O'Boyle, Nazir Ibrahim, Anisha


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It is estimated that approximately 12% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Patients with intermediate, high risk, and very-high risk prostate cancer often undergo a combination of radiation treatments. These treatments include external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost, often with concomitant androgen deprivation therapy. The literature on follow-up of patients that receive brachytherapy is scarce, particularly follow-up of patients that undergo high-dose rate brachytherapy. This retrospective study aims to investigate the biochemical failure and toxicities associated with triple therapy and external beam radiotherapy given in combination with brachytherapy. Reported toxicities and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were retrospectively evaluated in eighty patients that previously underwent external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high dose-rate brachytherapy boost. The severity of toxicities were correlated with intra-operative dosing during brachytherapy on ultrasound and CT scan. The results of this study will provide further information for clinicians and patients when considering treatment options.

Keywords: toxicities, combination, brachytherapy, intra-operative dosing, biochemical failure

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91 Flame Spray Pyrolysis as a High-Throughput Method to Generate Gadolinium Doped Titania Nanoparticles for Augmented Radiotherapy

Authors: Malgorzata J. Rybak-Smith, Benedicte Thiebaut, Simon Johnson, Peter Bishop, Helen E. Townley


Gadolinium doped titania (TiO2:Gd) nanoparticles (NPs) can be activated by X-ray radiation to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can be effective in killing cancer cells. As such, treatment with these NPs can be used to enhance the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy. Incorporation of the NPs in to tumour tissue will permit the extension of radiotherapy to currently untreatable tumours deep within the body, and also reduce damage to neighbouring healthy cells. In an attempt to find a fast and scalable method for the synthesis of the TiO2:Gd NPs, the use of Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) was investigated. A series of TiO2 NPs were generated with 1, 2, 5 and 7 mol% gadolinium dopant. Post-synthesis, the TiO2:Gd NPs were silica-coated to improve their biocompatibility. Physico-chemical characterisation was used to determine the size and stability in aqueous suspensions of the NPs. All analysed TiO2:Gd NPs were shown to have relatively high photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the FSP synthesized silica-coated TiO2:Gd NPs generated enhanced ROS in chemico. Studies on rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines (RD & RH30) demonstrated that in the absence of irradiation all TiO2:Gd NPs were inert. However, application of TiO2:Gd NPs to RMS cells, followed by irradiation, showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation. Consequently, our studies showed that the X-ray-activatable TiO2:Gd NPs can be prepared by a high-throughput scalable technique to provide a novel and affordable anticancer therapy.

Keywords: cancer, gadolinium, ROS, titania nanoparticles, X-ray

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90 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush


Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space which it should pass through before reaching the lesion. Specially in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D treatment planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy

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89 Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas: Patterns of Loco Regional Relapse

Authors: Omar Nouri, Wafa Mnejja, Nejla Fourati, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Ilhem Charfeddine, Afef Khanfir, Jamel Daoud


Background and objective: Induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concomitant chemo radiotherapy with intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) technique is actually the recommended treatment modality for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors predicting loco regional relapse with this new treatment protocol. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 52 patients with NPC treated between June 2016 and July 2019. All patients received IC according to the protocol of the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Oncology Group (Gortec) NPC 2006 (3 TPF courses) followed by concomitant chemo radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin (40 mg / m2). Patients received IMRT with integrated simultaneous boost (SIB) of 33 daily fractions at a dose of 69.96 Gy for high-risk volume, 60 Gy for intermediate risk volume and 54 Gy for low-risk volume. Median age was 49 years (19-69) with a sex ratio of 3.3. Forty five tumors (86.5%) were classified as stages III - IV according to the 2017 UICC TNM classification. Loco regional relapse (LRR) was defined as a local and/or regional progression that occurs at least 6 months after the end of treatment. Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test was used to compare anatomy clinical and therapeutic factors that may influence loco regional free survival (LRFS). Results: After a median follow up of 42 months, 6 patients (11.5%) experienced LRR. A metastatic relapse was also noted for 3 of these patients (50%). Target volumes coverage was optimal for all patient with LRR. Four relapses (66.6%) were in high-risk target volume and two (33.3%) were borderline. Three years LRFS was 85,9%. Four factors predicted loco regional relapses: histologic type other than undifferentiated (UCNT) (p=0.027), a macroscopic pre chemotherapy tumor volume exceeding 100 cm³ (p=0.005), a reduction in IC doses exceeding 20% (p=0.016) and a total cumulative cisplatin dose less than 380 mg/m² (p=0.0.34). TNM classification and response to IC did not impact loco regional relapses. Conclusion: For nasopharyngeal carcinoma, tumors with initial high volume and/or histologic type other than UCNT, have a higher risk of loco regional relapse. Therefore, they require a more aggressive therapeutic approaches and a suitable monitoring protocol.

Keywords: loco regional relapse, modulation intensity radiotherapy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, prognostic factors

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88 Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases

Authors: H. Yousefnia, R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani


Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.

Keywords: bone metastases, BPAMD, 153Sm, radiotherapy

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87 The application of Gel Dosimeters and Comparison with other Dosimeters in Radiotherapy: A Literature Review

Authors: Sujan Mahamud


Purpose: A major challenge in radiotherapy treatment is to deliver precise dose of radiation to the tumor with minimum dose to the healthy normal tissues. Recently, gel dosimetry has emerged as a powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution for complex delivery verification and quality assurance. These dosimeters act both as a phantom and detector, thus confirming the versatility of dosimetry technique. The aim of the study is to know the application of Gel Dosimeters in Radiotherapy and find out the comparison with 1D and 2D dimensional dosimeters. Methods and Materials: The study is carried out from Gel Dosimeter literatures. Secondary data and images have been collected from different sources such as different guidelines, books, and internet, etc. Result: Analyzing, verifying, and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) is determined that gel dosimeter is a very excellent powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous gel. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimized MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The method developed for comparing measuring gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method, was proven to be a useful for radiation treatment planning verification. In 1D and 2D Film, the depth dose and lateral for RMSD are 1.8% and 2%, and max (Di-Dj) are 2.5% and 8%. Other side 2D+ ( 3D) Film Gel and Plan Gel for RMSDstruct and RMSDstoch are 2.3% & 3.6% and 1% & 1% and system deviation are -0.6% and 2.5%. The study is investigated that the result fined 2D+ (3D) Film Dosimeter is better than the 1D and 2D Dosimeter. Discussion: Gel Dosimeters is quality control and quality assurance tool which will used the future clinical application.

Keywords: gel dosimeters, phantom, rmsd, QC, detector

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86 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Plans versus Three Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Plans

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Amjad Hussain, Latif-ur-Rehman, Sehrish Inam


Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of the cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one point or another during the course of treatment. The entire radiotherapy treatment of curative intent is divided into different phases, depending on the histology of the tumor. The established protocols are useful in deciding the total dose, fraction size, and numbers of phases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between the conventional treatment protocols and the three-dimensional conformal simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) plans for three different tumors sites (i.e. bladder, breast, and brain). A total of 30 patients with brain, breast and bladder cancers were selected in this retrospective study. All the patients were CT simulated initially. The primary physician contoured PTV1 and PTV2 in the axial slices. The conventional doses prescribed for brain and breast is 60Gy/30 fractions, and 64.8Gy/36 fractions for bladder treatment. For the SIB plans biological effective doses (BED) were calculated for 25 fractions. The two conventional (Phase I and Phase II) and a single SIB plan for each patient were generated on Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Treatment plans were compared and analyzed for coverage index, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose gradient and organs at risk doses.In both plans 95% of PTV volume received a minimum of 95% of the prescribe dose. Dose deviation in the optic chiasm was found to be less than 0.5%. There is no significant difference in lung V20 and heart V30 in the breast plans. In the rectum plans V75%, V50% and V25% were found to be less than 1.2% different. Deviation in the tumor coverage, conformity and homogeneity indices were found to be less than 1%. SIB plans with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique reduce the overall treatment time without compromising the target coverage and without increasing dose to the organs at risk. The higher dose per fraction may increase the late effects to some extent. Further studies are required to evaluate the late effects with the intention of standardizing the SIB technique for practical implementation.

Keywords: coverage index, conformity index, dose gradient, homogeneity index, simultaneously integrated boost

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85 Hypothesis of a Holistic Treatment of Cancer: Crab Method

Authors: Devasis Ghosh


The main hindrance to total cure of cancer is a) the failure to control continued production of cancer cells, b) its sustenance and c) its metastasis. This review study has tried to address this issue of total cancer cure in a more innovative way. A 10-pronged “CRAB METHOD”, a novel holistic scientific approach of Cancer treatment has been hypothesized in this paper. Apart from available Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, (which shall not be discussed here), seven other points of interference and treatment has been suggested, i.e. 1. Efficient stress management. 2. Dampening of ATF3 expression. 3. Selective inhibition of Platelet Activity. 4. Modulation of serotonin production, metabolism and 5HT receptor antagonism. 5. Auxin, its anti-proliferative potential and its modulation. 6. Melatonin supplementation because of its oncostatic properties. 7. HDAC Inhibitors especially valproic acid use due to its apoptotic role in many cancers. If all the above stated seven steps are thoroughly taken care of at the time of initial diagnosis of cancer along with the available treatment modalities of Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, then perhaps, the morbidity and mortality rate of cancer may be greatly reduced.

Keywords: ATF3 dampening, auxin modulation, cancer, platelet activation, serotonin, stress, valproic acid

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84 Calculation of Secondary Neutron Dose Equivalent in Proton Therapy of Thyroid Gland Using FLUKA Code

Authors: M. R. Akbari, M. Sadeghi, R. Faghihi, M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, A. R. Khorrami-Moghadam


Proton radiotherapy (PRT) is becoming an established treatment modality for cancer. The localized tumors, the same as undifferentiated thyroid tumors are insufficiently handled by conventional radiotherapy, while protons would propose the prospect of increasing the tumor dose without exceeding the tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissues. In spite of relatively high advantages in giving localized radiation dose to the tumor region, in proton therapy, secondary neutron production can have significant contribution on integral dose and lessen advantages of this modality contrast to conventional radiotherapy techniques. Furthermore, neutrons have high quality factor, therefore, even a small physical dose can cause considerable biological effects. Measuring of this neutron dose is a very critical step in prediction of secondary cancer incidence. It has been found that FLUKA Monte Carlo code simulations have been used to evaluate dose due to secondaries in proton therapy. In this study, first, by validating simulated proton beam range in water phantom with CSDA range from NIST for the studied proton energy range (34-54 MeV), a proton therapy in thyroid gland cancer was simulated using FLUKA code. Secondary neutron dose equivalent of some organs and tissues after the target volume caused by 34 and 54 MeV proton interactions were calculated in order to evaluate secondary cancer incidence. A multilayer cylindrical neck phantom considering all the layers of neck tissues and a proton beam impinging normally on the phantom were also simulated. Trachea (accompanied by Larynx) had the greatest dose equivalent (1.24×10-1 and 1.45 pSv per primary 34 and 54 MeV protons, respectively) among the simulated tissues after the target volume in the neck region.

Keywords: FLUKA code, neutron dose equivalent, proton therapy, thyroid gland

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83 [Keynote] Implementation of Quality Control Procedures in Radiotherapy CT Simulator

Authors: B. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, M. Baucal, M. Teodorović, O. Čudić, B. Basarić


Purpose/Objective: Radiotherapy treatment planning requires use of CT simulator, in order to acquire CT images. The overall performance of CT simulator determines the quality of radiotherapy treatment plan, and at the end, the outcome of treatment for every single patient. Therefore, it is strongly advised by international recommendations, to set up a quality control procedures for every machine involved in radiotherapy treatment planning process, including the CT scanner/ simulator. The overall process requires number of tests, which are used on daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis, depending on the feature tested. Materials/Methods: Two phantoms were used: a dedicated phantom CIRS 062QA, and a QA phantom obtained with the CT simulator. The examined CT simulator was Siemens Somatom Definition as Open, dedicated for radiation therapy treatment planning. The CT simulator has a built in software, which enables fast and simple evaluation of CT QA parameters, using the phantom provided with the CT simulator. On the other hand, recommendations contain additional test, which were done with the CIRS phantom. Also, legislation on ionizing radiation protection requires CT testing in defined periods of time. Taking into account the requirements of law, built in tests of a CT simulator, and international recommendations, the intitutional QC programme for CT imulator is defined, and implemented. Results: The CT simulator parameters evaluated through the study were following: CT number accuracy, field uniformity, complete CT to ED conversion curve, spatial and contrast resolution, image noise, slice thickness, and patient table stability.The following limits are established and implemented: CT number accuracy limits are +/- 5 HU of the value at the comissioning. Field uniformity: +/- 10 HU in selected ROIs. Complete CT to ED curve for each tube voltage must comply with the curve obtained at comissioning, with deviations of not more than 5%. Spatial and contrast resultion tests must comply with the tests obtained at comissioning, otherwise machine requires service. Result of image noise test must fall within the limit of 20% difference of the base value. Slice thickness must meet manufacturer specifications, and patient stability with longitudinal transfer of loaded table must not differ of more than 2mm vertical deviation. Conclusion: The implemented QA tests gave overall basic understanding of CT simulator functionality and its clinical effectiveness in radiation treatment planning. The legal requirement to the clinic is to set up it’s own QA programme, with minimum testing, but it remains user’s decision whether additional testing, as recommended by international organizations, will be implemented, so to improve the overall quality of radiation treatment planning procedure, as the CT image quality used for radiation treatment planning, influences the delineation of a tumor and calculation accuracy of treatment planning system, and finally delivery of radiation treatment to a patient.

Keywords: CT simulator, radiotherapy, quality control, QA programme

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82 Cardiac Pacemaker in a Patient Undergoing Breast Radiotherapy-Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: B. Petrović, M. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, I. Djan, V. Ivanović


Objective: Cardiac pacemakers are very sensitive to radiotherapy treatment from two sources: electromagnetic influence from the medical linear accelerator producing ionizing radiation- influencing electronics within the pacemaker, and the absorption of dose to the device. On the other hand, patients with cardiac pacemakers at the place of a tumor are rather rare, and single clinic hardly has experience with the management of such patients. The widely accepted international guidelines for management of radiation oncology patients recommend that these patients should be closely monitored and examined before, during and after radiotherapy treatment by cardiologist, and their device and condition followed up. The number of patients having both cancer and pacemaker, is growing every year, as both cancer incidence, as well as cardiac diseases incidence, are inevitably growing figures. Materials and methods: Female patient, age 69, was diagnozed with valvular cardiomyopathy and got implanted a pacemaker in 2005 and prosthetic mitral valve in 1993 (cancer was diagnosed in 2012). She was stable cardiologically and came to radiation therapy department with the diagnosis of right breast cancer, with the tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the right breast. Since she had all lymph nodes positive (28 in total), she had to have irradiated the supraclavicular region, as well as the breast with the tumor bed. She previously received chemotherapy, approved by the cardiologist. The patient was estimated to be with the high risk as device was within the field of irradiation, and the patient had high dependence on her pacemaker. The radiation therapy plan was conducted as 3D conformal therapy. The delineated target was breast with supraclavicular region, where the pacemaker was actually placed, with the addition of a pacemaker as organ at risk, to estimate the dose to the device and its components as recommended, and the breast. The targets received both 50 Gy in 25 fractions (where 20% of a pacemaker received 50 Gy, and 60% of a device received 40 Gy). The electrode to the heart received between 1 Gy and 50 Gy. Verification of dose planned and delivered was performed. Results: Evaluation of the patient status according to the guidelines and especially evaluation of all associated risks to the patient during treatment was done. Patient was irradiated by prescribed dose and followed up for the whole year, with no symptoms of failure of the pacemaker device during, or after treatment in follow up period. The functionality of a device was estimated to be unchanged, according to the parameters (electrode impedance and battery energy). Conclusion: Patient was closely monitored according to published guidelines during irradiation and afterwards. Pacemaker irradiated with the full dose did not show any signs of failure despite recommendations data, but in correlation with other published data.

Keywords: cardiac pacemaker, breast cancer, radiotherapy treatment planning, complications of treatment

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81 Multifunctional Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Theranostic Agent for Imaging and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Azimeh Rajaee, Lingyun Zhao, Shi Wang, Yaqiang Liu


In recent years many studies have been focused on bismuth-based nanoparticles as radiosensitizer and contrast agent in radiation therapy and imaging due to the high atomic number (Z = 82), high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity. This study aims to introduce a new multifunctional bismuth-based nanoparticle as a theranostic agent for radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We synthesized bismuth ferrite (BFO, BiFeO3) nanoparticles by sol-gel method and surface of the nanoparticles were modified by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). After proved biocompatibility of the nanoparticles, the ability of them as contract agent in Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. The relaxation time rate (R2) in MRI and Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT imaging were increased with the concentration of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on dose enhancement in low energy was investigated by clonogenic assay. According to clonogenic assay, sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) were obtained as 1.35 and 1.76 for nanoparticle concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoparticles have the ability to employ as multimodal imaging and therapy to enhance theranostic efficacy.

Keywords: molecular imaging, nanomedicine, radiotherapy, theranostics

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80 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif


This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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