Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 287

Search results for: helicopter rotor

287 Environmental Impacts on the Appearance of Disbonds in Metal Rotor Blades of Mi-2 Helicopters

Authors: Piotr Synaszko, Michał Sałaciński, Andrzej Leski

Abstract:

This paper describes the analysis of construction Mi-2 helicopter rotor blades in order to determine the causes of appearance disbonds. Authors describe construction of rotor blade with impact on bonded joins and areas of water migration. They also made analysis which determines possibility of disbond between critical parts of rotor blades based on more than one hundred non-destructive inspections results. They showed which parts of the blades most likely to damage. The main source of damage is water presence.

Keywords: disbonds, environmental effect, helicopter rotor blades, service life extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
286 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari

Abstract:

The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: flapping dynamics, flight dynamics, system identification, tilt-rotor modeling and simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
285 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. K. Saijaand, K. Prabhakaran Nair

Abstract:

This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
284 Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H.Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical study for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good Stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
283 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
282 Dynamic Analysis and Instability of a Rotating Composite Rotor

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic response for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor blade is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
281 Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery

Authors: A. Chellil, I. Gahlouz, S. Lecheb, A. Nour, S. Chellil, H. Mechakra, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the experimental study for the instability of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor are developed. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the defects effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally, the study of the rotor in the transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, frequency, finite element, specter

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
280 Designing and Simulation of the Rotor and Hub of the Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Krzysztof Skiba, Karol Scislowski

Abstract:

Today’s progress in the rotorcraft is mostly associated with an optimization of aircraft performance achieved by active and passive modifications of main rotor assemblies and a tail propeller. The key task is to improve their performance, improve the hover quality factor for rotors but not change in specific fuel consumption. One of the tasks to improve the helicopter is an active optimization of the main rotor providing for flight stages, i.e., an ascend, flight, a descend. An active interference with the airflow around the rotor blade section can significantly change characteristics of the aerodynamic airfoil. The efficiency of actuator systems modifying aerodynamic coefficients in the current solutions is relatively high and significantly affects the increase in strength. The solution to actively change aerodynamic characteristics assumes a periodic change of geometric features of blades depending on flight stages. Changing geometric parameters of blade warping enables an optimization of main rotor performance depending on helicopter flight stages. Structurally, an adaptation of shape memory alloys does not significantly affect rotor blade fatigue strength, which contributes to reduce costs associated with an adaptation of the system to the existing blades, and gains from a better performance can easily amortize such a modification and improve profitability of such a structure. In order to obtain quantitative and qualitative data to solve this research problem, a number of numerical analyses have been necessary. The main problem is a selection of design parameters of the main rotor and a preliminary optimization of its performance to improve the hover quality factor for rotors. This design concept assumes a three-bladed main rotor with a chord of 0.07 m and radius R = 1 m. The value of rotor speed is a calculated parameter of an optimization function. To specify the initial distribution of geometric warping, a special software has been created that uses a numerical method of a blade element which respects dynamic design features such as fluctuations of a blade in its joints. A number of performance analyses as a function of rotor speed, forward speed, and altitude have been performed. The calculations were carried out for the full model assembly. This approach makes it possible to observe the behavior of components and their mutual interaction resulting from the forces. The key element of each rotor is the shaft, hub and pins holding the joints and blade yokes. These components are exposed to the highest loads. As a result of the analysis, the safety factor was determined at the level of k > 1.5, which gives grounds to obtain certification for the strength of the structure. The construction of the joint rotor has numerous moving elements in its structure. Despite the high safety factor, the places with the highest stresses, where the signs of wear and tear may appear, have been indicated. The numerical analysis carried out showed that the most loaded element is the pin connecting the modular bearing of the blade yoke with the element of the horizontal oscillation joint. The stresses in this element result in a safety factor of k=1.7. The other analysed rotor components have a safety factor of more than 2 and in the case of the shaft, this factor is more than 3. However, it must be remembered that the structure is as strong as the weakest cell is. Designed rotor for unmanned aerial vehicles adapted to work with blades with intelligent materials in its structure meets the requirements for certification testing. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: main rotor, rotorcraft aerodynamics, shape memory alloy, materials, unmanned helicopter

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
279 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Stability

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The study of the rotor dynamic in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations. This work presents a coupled gyroscopic effect in the defects of a rotor under dynamic loading. Calculations of different energies and virtual work from the various elements of the rotor are developed. To treat real systems a model of finite element was developed. This model of the rotor makes it possible to extract the frequencies and modal deformed, and to calculate the stresses in the critical zone. The study of the rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances, crack and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, defect, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
278 Analysis of the Operating Load of Gas Bearings in the Gas Generator of the Turbine Engine during a Deceleration to Dash Maneuver

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Pawel Magryta, Mateusz Paszko

Abstract:

The paper discusses the status of loads acting on the drive unit of the unmanned helicopter during deceleration to dash maneuver. Special attention was given for the loads of bearings in the gas generator turbine engine, in which will be equipped a helicopter. The analysis was based on the speed changes as a function of time for manned flight of helicopter PZL W3-Falcon. The dependence of speed change during the flight was approximated by the least squares method and then determined for its changes in acceleration. This enabled us to specify the forces acting on the bearing of the gas generator in static and dynamic conditions. Deceleration to dash maneuvers occurs in steady flight at a speed of 222 km/h by horizontal braking and acceleration. When the speed reaches 92 km/h, it dynamically changes an inclination of the helicopter to the maximum acceleration and power to almost maximum and holds it until it reaches its initial speed. This type of maneuvers are used due to ineffective shots at significant cruising speeds. It is, therefore, important to reduce speed to the optimum as soon as possible and after giving a shot to return to the initial speed (cruising). In deceleration to dash maneuvers, we have to deal with the force of gravity of the rotor assembly, gas aerodynamics forces and the forces caused by axial acceleration during this maneuver. While we can assume that the working components of the gas generator are designed so that axial gas forces they create could balance the aerodynamic effects, the remaining ones operate with a value that results from the motion profile of the aircraft. Based on the analysis, we can make a compilation of the results. For this maneuver, the force of gravity (referring to statistical calculations) respectively equals for bearing A = 5.638 N and bearing B = 1.631 N. As overload coefficient k in this direction is 1, this force results solely from the weight of the rotor assembly. For this maneuver, the acceleration in the longitudinal direction achieved value a_max = 4.36 m/s2. Overload coefficient k is, therefore, 0.44. When we multiply overload coefficient k by the weight of all gas generator components that act on the axial bearing, the force caused by axial acceleration during deceleration to dash maneuver equals only 3.15 N. The results of the calculations are compared with other maneuvers such as acceleration and deceleration and jump up and jump down maneuvers. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: gas bearings, helicopters, helicopter maneuvers, turbine engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
277 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
276 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba

Abstract:

In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: diesel engine, helicopter, simulation, environmental impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
275 In situ Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Vibration of a Rotor-Stator with Multiple Parametric Excitations

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

This paper presents a 4-DOF nonlinear model of a cracked of Laval rotor established based on Energy Principles. The model has been used to simulate coupled torsional-lateral response of the cracked rotor stator-system with multiple parametric excitations, namely, rotor-stator-rub, a breathing transverse crack, unbalanced mass, and an axial force. Nonlinearity due to a “breathing” crack is incorporated by considering a simple hinge model which is suitable for small breathing crack. The vibration response of a cracked rotor passing through its critical speed with rotor-stator interaction is analyzed, and an attempt for crack detection and monitoring explored. Effects of unbalanced eccentricity with phase and acceleration are investigated. By solving the motion equations, steady-state vibration response is obtained in presence of several rotor faults. The presence of a crack is observable in the power spectrum despite the excitation by the axial force and rotor-stator rub impact. Presented results are consistent with existing literature and could be adopted into rotor condition monitoring strategies

Keywords: rotor, crack, rubbing, axial force, non linear

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
274 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
273 Behavior Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Rotor with Longitudinal Crack Growth

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Tchina, H. Kebir

Abstract:

This study concerned the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine rotor. Before all, we have studied the loads applied to the rotor, which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue. We also studied the movement of the longitudinal cracked rotor in order to determine stress, strain and displacement. Moreover, to study the issues of cracks in the critical zone ABAQUS software is used, which based to the finite element to give the results. In the first we compared the first six modes shapes between cracking and uncracking of HAWT rotor. In the second part, we show the evolution of six first naturals frequencies with longitudinal crack propagation. Finally, we conclude that the residual change in the naturals frequencies can be used as in shaft crack diagnosis predictive maintenance.

Keywords: wind turbine rotor, natural frequencies, longitudinal crack growth, life time

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
272 Numerical Simulation of Air Flow, Exhaust and Their Mixture in a Helicopter Exhaust Injective Cooler

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Krzysztof Skiba

Abstract:

Due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, regressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This study presents the results of simulating the flow of the mixture of exhaust and air in the flow duct of an injective exhaust cooler, adapted to cooperate with the PZL 10W turbine engine. The simulation was performed using a numerical model and the ANSYS Fluent software. Simulation computations were conducted for set flight conditions of the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter. The conclusions resulting from the conducted numerical computations should allow for optimisation of the flow duct geometry in the cooler, in order to achieve the greatest possible temperature reduction of exhaust exiting into the surroundings. It is expected that the obtained results should be useful for further works related to the development of the final version of exhaust cooler for the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter, numerical simulation, stealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
271 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay

Abstract:

Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
270 Cooling of Exhaust Gases Emitted Into the Atmosphere as the Possibility to Reduce the Helicopter Radiation Emission Level

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Mirosław Wendeker, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

Every material body that temperature is higher than 0K (absolute zero) emits infrared radiation to the surroundings. Infrared radiation is highly meaningful in military aviation, especially in military applications of helicopters. Helicopters, in comparison to other aircraft, have much lower flight speeds and maneuverability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like infrared-guided missiles. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings are a major factor in infrared radiation emission and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. This paper presents the analysis of possibilities to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling exhaust in special ejection-based coolers. The paper also presents the concept 3D model and results of numeric analysis of ejective-based cooler cooperation with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter propulsion, infrared radiation, stealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
269 Self-Tuning Dead-Beat PD Controller for Pitch Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S.B. Mohd-Noor, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. I. Boby

Abstract:

This paper presents an improved robust Proportional Derivative controller for a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) bench-top helicopter by using adaptive methodology. Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter used for experimental purposes which is widely used in teaching laboratory and research. Proportional Derivative controller has been developed for a 3-DOF bench-top helicopter by Quanser. Experiments showed that the transient response of designed PD controller has very large steady state error i.e., 50%, which is very serious. The objective of this research is to improve the performance of existing pitch angle control of PD controller on the bench-top helicopter by integration of PD controller with adaptive controller. Usually standard adaptive controller will produce zero steady state error; however response time to reach desired set point is large. Therefore, this paper proposed an adaptive with deadbeat algorithm to overcome the limitations. The output response that is fast, robust and updated online is expected. Performance comparisons have been performed between the proposed self-tuning deadbeat PD controller and standard PD controller. The efficiency of the self-tuning dead beat controller has been proven from the tests results in terms of faster settling time, zero steady state error and capability of the controller to be updated online.

Keywords: adaptive control, deadbeat control, bench-top helicopter, self-tuning control

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
268 Variation of Inductance in a Switched-Reluctance Motor under Various Rotor Faults

Authors: Muhammad Asghar Saqib, Saad Saleem Khan, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Abstract:

In order to have higher efficiency, performance and reliability the regular monitoring of an electrical motor is required. This article presents a novel view of the air-gap magnetic field analysis of a switched reluctance motor under rotor cracks and rotor tilt along its shaft axis. The fault diagnosis is illustrated on the basis of a 3-D model of the motor using finite element analysis (FEA). The analytical equations of flux linkages have been used to determine the inductance. The results of the 3-D finite element analysis on a 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM) shows the variation of mutual inductance with the tilting of the rotor shaft and cracked rotor conditions. These results present useful information regarding the detection of shaft tilting and cracked rotors.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, finite element analysis, cracked rotor, 3-D modelling of a srm

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
267 A Model for Helicopter Routing Problem

Authors: Aydin Sipahioglu, Gokhan Celik

Abstract:

Helicopter routing problem (HRP) is finding good tours for helicopter so as to pick up and deliver personnel or material among specified nodes, mutually. It can be encountered in case of being lots of supply and demand points for different commodities and requiring delivering commodities with helicopter. For instance, to deliver personnel or material from shore to oil rig is a good example. In fact, HRP is a branch of vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery (VRPPD). However, it has additional constraints such that fuel capacity, performance of helicopter in different altitude and temperature, and the number of maximum takeoff and landing allowed. This kind of pickup and delivery problems can be classified into 3 groups, basically. 1-1 (one to one), M-M (many to many) and 1-M-1 (one to many to one). 1-1 means each commodity has only one supply and one demand point. M-M means there can be more than one supply and demand points for each kind of commodity. 1-M-1 means commodities at depot are delivered to demand points and commodities at customers are delivered to depot. In this case helicopter takes off from its own base, complete its tour and return to its own base. In this study, we define 1-M-M-1 type HRP. That means helicopter takes off from its home base, deliver commodities among the nodes as well as between depot and customers and return to its home base. These problems have NP-hard nature. Therefore, obtaining a good solution in a reasonable time is not easy. In this study, a model is offered for 1-M-M-1 type HRP. It is shown on small scale test instances that the model can find the optimal solution.

Keywords: helicopter routing problem, vehicle routing with pickup and delivery, integer programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
266 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method, wound rotor induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
265 Sensitivity Analysis of External-Rotor Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Hadi Aghazadeh, Seyed Ebrahim Afjei, Alireza Siadatan

Abstract:

In this paper, a proper approach is taken to assess a set of the most effective rotor design parameters for an external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMaSynRM) and therefore to tackle the design complexity of the rotor structure. There are different advantages for introducing permanent magnets into the rotor flux barriers, some of which are to saturate the rotor iron ribs, to increase the motor torque density and to improve the power factor. Moreover, the d-axis and q-axis inductances are of great importance to simultaneously achieve maximum developed torque and low torque ripple. Therefore, sensitivity analysis of the rotor geometry of an 8-pole external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor is performed. Several magnetically accurate finite element analyses (FEA) are conducted to characterize the electromagnetic performance of the motor. The analyses validate torque and power factor equations for the proposed external-rotor motor. Based upon the obtained results and due to an additional term, permanent magnet torque, added to the reluctance torque, the electromagnetic torque of the PMaSynRM increases.

Keywords: permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor, flux barrier, flux carrier, electromagnetic torque, and power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
264 Detection of Coupling Misalignment in a Rotor System Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Prabhakar Sathujoda

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system has been carried out while decelerating through its critical speed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to model the rotor system and simulate flexural vibrations. A flexible coupling with a frictionless joint is considered in the present work. The continuous wavelet transform is used to extract the misalignment features from the simulated time response. Subcritical speeds at one-half, one-third, and one-fourth the critical speed have appeared in the wavelet transformed vibration response of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system. These features are also verified through a parametric study.

Keywords: Continuous Wavelet Transform, Flexible Coupling, Rotor System, Sub Critical Speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
263 Fault-Tolerant Fuzzy Gain-Adaptive PID Control for a 2 DOF Helicopter, TRMS System

Authors: Abderrahmen Bouguerra, Kamel Kara, Djamel Saigaa, Samir Zeghlache, Keltoum Loukal

Abstract:

In this paper, a Fault-Tolerant control of 2 DOF Helicopter (TRMS System) Based on Fuzzy Gain-Adaptive PID is presented. In particular, the introduction part of the paper presents a Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC), the first part of this paper presents a description of the mathematical model of TRMS, an adaptive PID controller is proposed for fault-tolerant control of a TRMS helicopter system in the presence of actuator faults, A fuzzy inference scheme is used to tune in real-time the controller gains, The proposed adaptive PID controller is compared with the conventional PID. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: fuzzy control, gain-adaptive PID, helicopter model, PID control, TRMS system

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
262 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modelled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: a breathing crack, fault, FFT, nonlinear, orbit, rotor-stator rub, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
261 Study of the Effect of the Contra-Rotating Component on the Performance of the Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Van Thang Nguyen, Amelie Danlos, Richard Paridaens, Farid Bakir

Abstract:

This article presents a study of the effect of a contra-rotating component on the efficiency of centrifugal compressors. A contra-rotating centrifugal compressor (CRCC) is constructed using two independent rotors, rotating in the opposite direction and replacing the single rotor of a conventional centrifugal compressor (REF). To respect the geometrical parameters of the REF one, two rotors of the CRCC are designed, based on a single rotor geometry, using the hub and shroud length ratio parameter of the meridional contour. Firstly, the first rotor is designed by choosing a value of length ratio. Then, the second rotor is calculated to be adapted to the fluid flow of the first rotor according aerodynamics principles. In this study, four values of length ratios 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 are used to create four configurations CF1, CF2, CF3, and CF4 respectively. For comparison purpose, the circumferential velocity at the outlet of the REF and the CRCC are preserved, which means that the single rotor of the REF and the second rotor of the CRCC rotate with the same speed of 16000rpm. The speed of the first rotor in this case is chosen to be equal to the speed of the second rotor. The CFD simulation is conducted to compare the performance of the CRCC and the REF with the same boundary conditions. The results show that the configuration with a higher length ratio gives higher pressure rise. However, its efficiency is lower. An investigation over the entire operating range shows that the CF1 is the best configuration in this case. In addition, the CRCC can improve the pressure rise as well as the efficiency by changing the speed of each rotor independently. The results of changing the first rotor speed show with a 130% speed increase, the pressure ratio rises of 8.7% while the efficiency remains stable at the flow rate of the design operating point.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, contra-rotating, interaction rotor, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
260 Design and Implementation of PD-NN Controller Optimized Neural Networks for a Quad-Rotor

Authors: Chiraz Ben Jabeur, Hassene Seddik

Abstract:

In this paper, a full approach of modeling and control of a four-rotor unmanned air vehicle (UAV), known as quad-rotor aircraft, is presented. In fact, a PD and a PD optimized Neural Networks Approaches (PD-NN) are developed to be applied to control a quad-rotor. The goal of this work is to concept a smart self-tuning PD controller based on neural networks able to supervise the quad-rotor for an optimized behavior while tracking the desired trajectory. Many challenges could arise if the quad-rotor is navigating in hostile environments presenting irregular disturbances in the form of wind added to the model on each axis. Thus, the quad-rotor is subject to three-dimensional unknown static/varying wind disturbances. The quad-rotor has to quickly perform tasks while ensuring stability and accuracy and must behave rapidly with regard to decision-making facing disturbances. This technique offers some advantages over conventional control methods such as PD controller. Simulation results are obtained with the use of Matlab/Simulink environment and are founded on a comparative study between PD and PD-NN controllers based on wind disturbances. These later are applied with several degrees of strength to test the quad-rotor behavior. These simulation results are satisfactory and have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed PD-NN approach. In fact, this controller has relatively smaller errors than the PD controller and has a better capability to reject disturbances. In addition, it has proven to be highly robust and efficient, facing turbulences in the form of wind disturbances.

Keywords: hostile environment, PD and PD-NN controllers, quad-rotor control, robustness against disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
259 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting

Abstract:

Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil

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258 PID Control of Quad-Rotor Unnamed Vehicle Based on Lagrange Approach Modelling

Authors: A. Benbouali, H. Saidi, A. Derrouazin, T. Bessaad

Abstract:

Aerial robotics is a very exciting research field dealing with a variety of subjects, including the attitude control. This paper deals with the control of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The paper presents a mathematical model based on the approach of Lagrange for the flight control of an autonomous quad-rotor. It also describes the controller architecture which is based on PID regulators. The control method has been simulated in closed loop in different situations. All the calculation stages and the simulation results have been detailed.

Keywords: quad-rotor, lagrange approach, proportional integral derivate (PID) controller, Matlab/Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 327