Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Giridhar R. Nair

45 Effect of Aeration on Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation

Authors: Azila Adnan, Giridhar R. Nair, Mark C. Lay, Janis E. Swan


The effect of aeration on bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 was studied in 5-L bioreactor. Four aeration rates were applied (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) in the fermentation media at constant agitation rate, 150 rpm. One vvm enhanced BC concentration (4.4 g/L) and productivity (0.44 g/L/day) while greater agitation rate (1.5 vvm) decreased BC concentration (4.0 g/L) and productivity (0.40 g/L/day).

Keywords: aeration, bacterial cellulose, fermentation, gluconacetobacter xylinus

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
44 Happiness Determinants in MBA Student Life

Authors: Vivek Nair


The objective of this research is to find out happiness determinants in MBA student life. To figure out the factors influencing happiness in life is sorted by their personal profiles. This paper used survey method to collect data. The survey was mainly conducted among Management Students and is based on three hypothesis viz. Family relationship, Friendship and God as a source of happiness, and whether happiness is manageable and controllable. The statistics used for interpreting the results included the frequencies, percentages, and z test analysis. The findings revealed that family relationships and friendship have the same effect on individual happiness.

Keywords: happiness, family, MBA students, friends

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
43 Impact of CYP3A5 Polymorphism on Tacrolimus to Predict the Optimal Initial Dose Requirements in South Indian Renal Transplant Recipients

Authors: S. Sreeja, Radhakrishnan R. Nair, Noble Gracious, Sreeja S. Nair, M. Radhakrishna Pillai


Background: Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant clinically used for the long term treatment of antirejection of transplanted organs in liver and kidney transplant recipients though dose optimization is poorly managed. However, So far no study has been carried out on the South Indian kidney transplant patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential influence of a functional polymorphism in CYP3A5*3 gene on tacrolimus physiological availability/dose ratio in South Indian renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty five renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were enrolled in this study. Their body weight, drug dosage, and therapeutic concentration of Tacrolimus were observed. All patients were on standard immunosuppressive regime of Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate mofetil along with steroids on a starting dose of Tac 0.1 mg/kg/day. CYP3A5 genotyping was performed by PCR followed with RFLP. Conformation of RFLP analysis and variation in the nucleotide sequence of CYP3A5*3 gene were determined by direct sequencing using a validated automated generic analyzer. Results: A significant association was found between tacrolimus per dose/kg/d and CYP3A5 gene (A6986G) polymorphism in the study population. The CYP3A5 *1/*1, *1/*3 and *3/*3 genotypes were detected in 5 (20 %), 5 (20 %) and 15 (60 %) of the 25 graft recipients, respectively. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus Concentration/Dose ratio in kidney transplant recipients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors 9.483 ng/mL(4.5- 14.1) as compared with the expressors 5.154 ng/mL (4.42-6.5 ) of CYP3A5. Acute rejection episodes were significantly higher for CYP3A5*1 homozygotes compared to patients with CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes (40 % versus 20 % and 13 %, respectively ). The dose normalized TAC concentration (ng/ml/mg/kg) was significantly lower in patients having CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism. Conclusion: This is the first study to extensively determine the effect of CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in South Indian renal transplant recipients and also shows that majority of our patients carry mutant allele A6986G in CYP3A5*3 gene. Identification of CYP3A5 polymorphism prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus for each patient.

Keywords: kidney transplant patients, CYP3A5 genotype, tacrolimus, RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
42 Concept-Based Assessment in Curriculum

Authors: Nandu C. Nair, Kamal Bijlani


This paper proposes a concept-based assessment to track the performance of the students. The idea behind this approach is to map the exam questions with the concepts learned in the course. So at the end of the course, each student will know how well he learned each concept. This system will give a self assessment for the students as well as instructor. By analyzing the score of all students, instructor can decide some concepts need to be teaching again or not. The system’s efficiency is proved using three courses from M-tech program in E-Learning technologies and results show that the concept-wise assessment improved the score in final exam of majority students on various courses.

Keywords: assessment, concept, examination, question, score

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
41 Kinetic Study of C₃N₄/CuWO₄: Photocatalyst towards Solar Light Inactivation of Mixed Populated Bacteria

Authors: Rimzhim Gupta, Bhanupriya Boruah, Jayant M. Modak, Giridhar Madras


Microbial contamination is one of the major concerns in the field of water treatment. AOP (advanced oxidation processes) is well-established method to resolve the issue of removal of contaminants in water. A Z-scheme composite g-C₃N₄/CuWO₄ was synthesized by sol-gel method for the photocatalytic inactivation of a mixed population of Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli). The photoinactivation was observed for different types of bacteria in the same medium together and individually in the absence of the nutrients. The lattice structures and phase purities were determined by X-ray diffraction. For morphological and topographical features, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses were carried out. The band edges of the semiconductor (valence band and conduction band) were determined by ultraviolet photoelectron microscopy. The lifetime of the charge carriers and band gap of the semiconductors were determined by time resolved florescence spectroscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of weight ratio of C₃N₄ and CuWO₄ was observed by performing photocatalytic experiments. To investigate the exact mechanism and major responsible radicals for photocatalysis, scavenger studies were performed. The rate constants and order of the inactivation reactions were obtained by power law kinetics. For E. coli and S. aureus, the order of reaction and rate constants are 1.15, 0.9 and 1.39 ± 0.03 (CFU/mL)⁻⁰.¹⁵ h⁻¹, 47.95 ± 1.2 (CFU/mL)⁰.¹ h⁻¹, respectively.

Keywords: z-scheme, E. coli, S. aureus, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
40 A System to Detect Inappropriate Messages in Online Social Networks

Authors: Shivani Singh, Shantanu Nakhare, Kalyani Nair, Rohan Shetty


As social networking is growing at a rapid pace today it is vital that we work on improving its management. Research has shown that the content present in online social networks may have significant influence on impressionable minds. If such platforms are misused, it will lead to negative consequences. Detecting insults or inappropriate messages continues to be one of the most challenging aspects of Online Social Networks (OSNs) today. We address this problem through a Machine Learning Based Soft Text Classifier approach using Support Vector Machine algorithm. The proposed system acts as a screening mechanism the alerts the user about such messages. The messages are classified according to their subject matter and each comment is labeled for the presence of profanity and insults.

Keywords: machine learning, online social networks, soft text classifier, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
39 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. K. Saijaand, K. Prabhakaran Nair


This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
38 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan


Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: rubber nanocomposites, morphology, permeability, BIIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
37 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearing Operating With Nanolubricants

Authors: R. Hariprakash, K. Prabhakaran Nair


In this paper, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings operating under nano lubricants are presented. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used in turbo machines of power plants to support heavy load. In power plants, bearings are getting failure because of its inability to support the heavy load due to various reasons. Failures of bearings make the power plant to be shutdown. The load carrying capacity of journal bearing mainly depends upon the viscosity of the lubricants. The addition of nano particles on commercially available lubricant may enhance the viscosity of lubricant and in turn, change the performance characteristics. In the literature, though many studies have been carried out for the hydrodynamic bearing operating under Newtonian and non-Newtonian lubricants, studies on hydrodynamic bearings operating under nano lubricants is scarce. Thus, it is felt that there is a need to recompute the performance characteristics of journal bearings operating under nano lubricants.

Keywords: hydrodynamic, journal, bearing, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
36 Mapping of Textile Waste Generation across the Value Chains Operating in the Textile Industry

Authors: Veena Nair, Srikanth Prakash, Mayuri Wijayasundara


Globally, the textile industry is a key contributor to the generation of solid waste which gets landfilled. Textile waste generation generally occurs in three stages, namely: producer waste, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. However, the different processes adopted in textile material extraction, manufacturing, and use have their respective impact in terms of the quantity of waste being diverted to landfills. The study is focused on assessing the value chains of the two most common textile fibres: cotton and polyester, catering to a broad categories of apparel products. This study attempts to identify and evaluate the key processes adopted by the textile industry at each of the stages in their value chain in terms of waste generation. The different processes identified in each of the stages in the textile value chains are mapped to their respective contribution in generating fibre waste which eventually gets diverted to landfill. The results of the study are beneficial for the overall industry in terms of improving the traceability of waste in the value chains and the selection of processes and behaviours facilitating the reduction of environmental impacts associated with landfills.

Keywords: textile waste, textile value chains, landfill waste, waste mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
35 A Study on Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Rural Development

Authors: N. Amruth Raj, Suja S. Nair


The last six decades have borne witness to a radical change in the private sectors relationship with both the state and civil society. Firms have been increasingly called upon to adopt strategies beyond the financial aspects of their operations and consider the social and environmental impact of their business activities. In this context, many companies have modified their policies and activities and engaged into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) especially on Rural development in India. At the firm level, CSR is implemented through various practices, which aim to enhance the company’s social and environmental performance and may cover various topics. Examples of CSR practices are abundant in Andhra Pradesh relevant literature. For instance, in India especially at Andhra Pradesh companies like Amara Raaja requires from its suppliers to prohibit child labour, Nagarjuna Cements applies a series of programs for reducing its CO2 emissions, LANCO group of Industries addresses health and safety issues in the workplace whereas GVK works limited has adopted a series of policies for addressing human rights and environmental abuse related to its operations.

Keywords: CSR, limitations, need, objectives, rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
34 Use of Beta Blockers in Patients with Reactive Airway Disease and Concomitant Hypertension or Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Dhanya Soodana Mohan, Shruti Nair, Tanwi Trushna


The study was undertaken to analyse the cardiovascular drugs being prescribed in patients with concomitant reactive airway disease and hypertension or ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Also, the effect of beta-blockers on respiratory symptoms in these patients was recorded. Data was collected from medical records of patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD. It included demographic details of the patients, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and the patient outcome regarding the exacerbation of asthma symptoms with intake of beta blockers. Medical records of 250 patients were analysed.13% of patients were prescribed beta-blockers. 12% of hypertensive patients, 16.6% of IHD patients and 20% of patients with concomitant hypertension and IHD were prescribed beta blockers. Of the 33 (13%) patients who were on beta-blockers, only 3 patients had an exacerbation of bronchial asthma symptoms. Cardioselective beta-blockers under supervision appear to be safe in patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD.

Keywords: beta blockers, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
33 Feasibility of Deployable Encasing for a CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) in Commercial Aircraft

Authors: Vishnu Nair, Rohan Kapoor


Recent commercial aircraft crashes demand a paradigm shift in how the CVDRs are located and recovered, particularly if the aircraft crashes in the sea. CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) is most vital component out of the entire wreckage that can be obtained in order to investigate the sequence of events leading to the crash. It has been a taxing and exorbitantly expensive process locating and retrieving the same in the massive water bodies as it was seen in the air crashes in the recent past, taking the unfortunate Malaysia airlines MH-370 crash into account. The study aims to provide an aid to the persisting problem by improving the buoyant as-well-as the aerodynamic properties of the proposed CVDR encasing. Alongside this the placement of the deployable CVDR on the surface of the aircraft and floatability in case of water submersion are key factors which are taken into consideration for a better resolution to the problem. All of which results into the Deployable-CVDR emerging to the surface of the water-body. Also the whole system is designed such that it can be seamlessly integrated with the current crop of commercial aircraft. The work is supported by carrying out a computational study with the help Ansys-Fluent combination.

Keywords: encasing, buoyancy, deployable CVDR, floatability, water submersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
32 An Association Model to Correlate the Experimentally Determined Mixture Solubilities of Methyl 10-Undecenoate with Methyl Ricinoleate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: V. Mani Rathnam, Giridhar Madras


Fossil fuels are depleting rapidly as the demand for energy, and its allied chemicals are continuously increasing in the modern world. Therefore, sustainable renewable energy sources based on non-edible oils are being explored as a viable option as they do not compete with the food commodities. Oils such as castor oil are rich in fatty acids and thus can be used for the synthesis of biodiesel, bio-lubricants, and many other fine industrial chemicals. There are several processes available for the synthesis of different chemicals obtained from the castor oil. One such process is the transesterification of castor oil, which results in a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. The main products in the above reaction are methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. To separate these compounds, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) was used as a green solvent. SCCO₂ was chosen as a solvent due to its easy availability, non-toxic, non-flammable, and low cost. In order to design any separation process, the preliminary requirement is the solubility or phase equilibrium data. Therefore, the solubility of a mixture of methyl ricinoleate with methyl 10-undecenoate in SCCO₂ was determined in the present study. The temperature and pressure range selected for the investigation were T = 313 K to 333 K and P = 10 MPa to 18 MPa. It was observed that the solubility (mol·mol⁻¹) of methyl 10-undecenoate varied from 2.44 x 10⁻³ to 8.42 x 10⁻³ whereas it varied from 0.203 x 10⁻³ to 6.28 x 10⁻³ for methyl ricinoleate within the chosen operating conditions. These solubilities followed a retrograde behavior (characterized by the decrease in the solubility values with the increase in temperature) throughout the range of investigated operating conditions. An association theory model, coupled with regular solution theory for activity coefficients, was developed in the present study. The deviation from the experimental data using this model can be quantified using the average absolute relative deviation (AARD). The AARD% for the present compounds is 4.69 and 8.08 for methyl 10-undecenoate and methyl ricinoleate, respectively in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The maximum solubility enhancement of 32% was observed for the methyl ricinoleate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The highest selectivity of SCCO₂ was observed to be 12 for methyl 10-undecenoate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate.

Keywords: association theory, liquid mixtures, solubilities, supercritical carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
31 The Board Structure of Public and Private Sector Companies and Its Impact on Firm Performance: A Study of Fortune 500 Indian Companies from 2006 to 2015

Authors: Gayathri P. Nair


The focus of this study is to identify whether the board structure has any significant impact on the firm performance and finding out any evidence of being listed in the Fortune 500 list compiled and published by the American business magazine, Fortune and published globally by Time Inc., as the world’s wealthiest companies. The list has been released based on the ranking obtained for the total revenues for the respective fiscal year which has ended on or before March 31st. The study has been conducted on the Indian companies that were listed in the Fortune 500 list for the past 10 years. This study employs a logical regression between the variables, firm performance and board composition as mentioned in the clause 49 of companies act 1956 and 2013. For getting the firm performance, ROA has selected as the key performance metric, as it focuses the management attention on the assets required to run the business. The highlight of the study is that the tools had been applied between public and private sector firms so that, it reveals whether the board composition is helping out to maintain the position in the list. In addition, the findings reveal that apart from independent directors, all other variables have significant impact on firm performance.

Keywords: board structure, Fortune 500 company, firm performance, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
30 NR/PEO Block Copolymer: A Chelating Exchanger for Metal Ions

Authors: M. S. Mrudula, M. R. Gopinathan Nair


In order to utilize the natural rubber for developing new green polymeric materials for specialty applications, we have prepared natural rubber and polyethylene oxide based polymeric networks by two shot method. The polymeric networks thus formed have been used as chelating exchanger for metal ion binding. Chelating exchangers are, in general, coordinating copolymers containing one or more electron donor atoms such as N, S, O, and P that can form coordinate bonds with metals. Hydrogels are water- swollen network of hydrophilic homopolymer or copolymers. They acquire a great interest due to the facility of the incorporation of different chelating groups into the polymeric networks. Such polymeric hydrogels are promising materials in the field of hydrometallurgical applications and water purification due to their chemical stability. The current study discusses the swelling response of the polymeric networks as a function of time, temperature, pH and [NaCl] and sorption studies. Equilibrium swelling has been observed to depend on both structural aspects of the polymers and environmental factors. Metal ion sorption shows that these polymeric networks can be used for removal, separation, and enrichment of metal ions from aqueous solutions and can play an important role for environmental remediation of municipal and industrial wastewater.

Keywords: block copolymer, adsorption, chelating exchanger, swelling study, polymer, metal complexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
29 Double Fortified Salt-An Effective Measure to Prevent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Indian Pregnant Women

Authors: Kejal Joshi Reddy, Sirimavo Nair


Micronutrient malnutrition affects pregnant women and children extremely with reference to growth manifestations in gestation as well as after birth. Early fetal development affected by iodine and iron deficiency leads to poor life quality. Various researchers have found interesting interrelations between iron and iodine. A few studies on impact assessment of DFS supplementation during pregnancy have been reported in India. Aim To provide meaningful contribution by assessing the efficacy of DFS supplementation on iodine and iron status of pregnant women. Design An interventional study. Setting A semi government hospital of urban Vadodara. Subjects Pregnant women (n=150) enrolled during first trimester (< 12 weeks) and followed up till the end of gestation, n=75 were divided in experimental (DFS supplemented) and control (Non supplemented) group. Results Impact on iron and iodine status was assessed by Hb concentration and UIE respectively. Mean Hb improved significantly (p < 0.001) (+0.42 g/dl) in experimental group and reduced non significantly (-0.20 g/dl) in control group at the end, since DFS provided additional 93 mg of iron within 6 months. Median UIE improved non significantly (278.6 to 299.01µg/L) in experimental group and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) (376.59 to 288.66 µg/L) in control group. Conclusion DFS could improve iron and iodine status of experimental group compared to control group. It is an effective measure to control two essential micronutrient deficiencies together.

Keywords: DFS supplementation, anemia, pregnancy, iodine deficiency, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
28 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair


There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
27 Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility and Non-Governmental Organizations

Authors: Abdul Ghafar, Malini Nair


Non-governmental organizations have been seemed to struggle the battle of balancing many concerns with corporates which may impact on their financial solvency. Some of these concerns relates to uphold the relationship where weighing up the impacts of their involvement with corporates takes priority over the main purpose of creating valuable impacts for communities. To some extent, it can be argued that NGOs are influenced by corporates’ power to tackle contemporary issues rather than eradicating the root causes of such issues and transform the results into more sustainable manner. NGOs spend massive amount of energy, time and resources in order to move some corporates to embrace their social responsibilities. It has become a norm, where an active NGO that is becoming more successful on building partnerships with corporates is perceived to be more socially responsible. In contrast to this, as some researchers argue that the social responsibility for NGOs is not a voluntary act; they must exhibit the core values in all their practices require much attention to address. This article stresses the need of understanding ‘Social Responsibility’ of NGOs that stem from an argument that NGOs tend to act on narrow mandate rather than considering broader outcomes of their CSR initiatives. This paper argues that NGOs must focus on building capabilities of the recipients from CSR initiatives which should serve as a core value of partnerships mandate between NGOs, Corporates and Governments. We argue that SEN’s Capabilities Approach can further enhance the mainstream CSR agenda of NGOs which seems to incline more towards providing palliative solutions to social issues.

Keywords: non-profit organization, corporate social responsibility, partnerships, capabilities approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
26 Human-factor and Ergonomics in Bottling Lines

Authors: Parameshwaran Nair


Filling and packaging lines for bottling of beverages into glass, PET or aluminum containers require specialized expertise and a different configuration of equipment like – Filler, Warmer, Labeller, Crater/Recrater, Shrink Packer, Carton Erector, Carton Sealer, Date Coder, Palletizer, etc. Over the period of time, the packaging industry has evolved from manually operated single station machines to highly automized high-speed lines. Human factor and ergonomics have gained significant consideration in this course of transformation. A pre-requisite for such bottling lines, irrespective of the container type and size, is to be suitable for multi-format applications. It should also be able to handle format changeovers with minimal adjustment. It should have variable capacity and speeds, for providing great flexibility of use in managing accumulation times as a function of production characteristics. In terms of layout as well, it should demonstrate flexibility for operator movement and access to machine areas for maintenance. Packaging technology during the past few decades has risen to these challenges by a series of major breakthroughs interspersed with periods of refinement and improvement. The milestones are many and varied and are described briefly in this paper. In order to have a brief understanding of the human factor and ergonomics in the modern packaging lines, this paper, highlights the various technologies, design considerations and statutory requirements in packaging equipment for different types of containers used in India.

Keywords: human-factor, ergonomics, bottling lines, automized high-speed lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
25 Prevalent Affective-Cognitive Functioning of Intimate Partner Offenders: A study with Inmates

Authors: Alexandra Serra, Nair Torrão, Rui G. Serôdio, José A. Lima


The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and the prevalence of domestic violence legitimatory beliefs, emotional regulation difficulties and, early maladaptive schemas regarding intimidate partner violence in a sample of 50 Portuguese inmates. As expected, results show high levels of legitimatory beliefs, significant difficulties of emotional regulation and a set of high levels of early maladaptive schemas that clearly compromise the inmates affective-cognitive functioning. The most prevalent set of maladaptive schemas are associated with depression, anxiety, hostility, reduced ability to empathize and, dependence on the approval of others, which, combined, may trigger aggressive responses towards the intimate’s partner. Being victimized in their childhood and having committing murder are not differentiating factors on the measures we analyzed, but alcohol consumption may be associated with an intensification of domestic violence legitimatory beliefs. In the discussion of our findings, we compare the pattern of the psychosocial measures we used with the equivalent results obtained with convicted individuals that attend a community compulsory program, specifically designed for domestic violence perpetrators. We also highlight the importance of implementing specialized interventions in prison settings focusing on an evidence-based-practice.

Keywords: domestic violence, intimate partner offenders, incidence and prevalence of legitimatory beliefs, Portuguese inmates

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
24 Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Constrained Environments for Locust Elimination

Authors: Aadiv Shah, Hari Nair, Vedant Mittal, Alice Cheeran


Present-day agricultural practices such as blanket spraying not only lead to excessive usage of pesticides but also harm the overall crop yield. This paper introduces an algorithm to optimize the traversal of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in constrained environments. The proposed system focuses on the agricultural application of targeted spraying for locust elimination. Given a satellite image of a farm, target zones that are prone to locust swarm formation are detected through the calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). This is followed by determining the optimal path for traversal of a UAV through these target zones using the proposed algorithm in order to perform pesticide spraying in the most efficient manner possible. Unlike the classic travelling salesman problem involving point-to-point optimization, the proposed algorithm determines an optimal path for multiple regions, independent of its geometry. Finally, the paper explores the idea of implementing reinforcement learning to model complex environmental behaviour and make the path planning mechanism for UAVs agnostic to external environment changes. This system not only presents a solution to the enormous losses incurred due to locust attacks but also an efficient way to automate agricultural practices across the globe in order to improve farmer ergonomics.

Keywords: locust, NDVI, optimization, path planning, reinforcement learning, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
23 Development of Multilayer Capillary Copper Wick Structure using Microsecond CO₂ Pulsed Laser

Authors: Talha Khan, Surendhar Kumaran, Rajeev Nair


The development of economical, efficient, and reliable next-generation thermal and water management systems to provide efficient cooling and water management technologies is being pursued application in compact and lightweight spacecraft. The elimination of liquid-vapor phase change-based thermal and water management systems is being done due to issues with the reliability and robustness of this technology. To achieve the motive of implementing the principle of using an innovative evaporator and condenser design utilizing bimodal wicks manufactured using a microsecond pulsed CO₂ laser has been proposed in this study. Cylin drical, multilayered capillary copper wicks with a substrate diameter of 39 mm are additively manufactured using a pulsed laser. The copper particles used for layer-by-layer addition on the substrate measure in a diameter range of 225 to 450 micrometers. The primary objective is to develop a novel, high-quality, fast turnaround, laser-based additive manufacturing process that will eliminate the current technical challenges involved with the traditional manufacturing processes for nano/micro-sized powders, like particle agglomeration. Raster-scanned, pulsed-laser sintering process has been developed to manufacture 3D wicks with controlled porosity and permeability.

Keywords: liquid-vapor phase change, bimodal wicks, multilayered, capillary, raster-scanned, porosity, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
22 Knowledge Based Behaviour Modelling and Execution in Service Robotics

Authors: Suraj Nair, Aravindkumar Vijayalingam, Alexander Perzylo, Alois Knoll


In the last decade robotics research and development activities have grown rapidly, especially in the domain of service robotics. Integrating service robots into human occupied spaces such as homes, offices, hospitals, etc. has become increasingly worked upon. The primary motive is to ease daily lives of humans by taking over some of the household/office chores. However, several challenges remain in systematically integrating such systems in human shared work-spaces. In addition to sensing and indoor-navigation challenges, programmability of such systems is a major hurdle due to the fact that the potential user cannot be expected to have knowledge in robotics or similar mechatronic systems. In this paper, we propose a cognitive system for service robotics which allows non-expert users to easily model system behaviour in an underspecified manner through abstract tasks and objects associated with them. The system uses domain knowledge expressed in the form of an ontology along with logical reasoning mechanisms to infer all the missing pieces of information required for executing the tasks. Furthermore, the system is also capable of recovering from failed tasks arising due to on-line disturbances by using the knowledge base and inferring alternate methods to execute the same tasks. The system is demonstrated through a coffee fetching scenario in an office environment using a mobile robot equipped with sensors and software capabilities for autonomous navigation and human-interaction through natural language.

Keywords: cognitive robotics, reasoning, service robotics, task based systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
21 Fabrication and Analysis of Simplified Dragonfly Wing Structures Created Using Balsa Wood and Red Prepreg Fibre Glass for Use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles

Authors: Praveena Nair Sivasankaran, Thomas Arthur Ward, Rubentheren Viyapuri


Paper describes a methodology to fabricate a simplified dragonfly wing structure using balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. These simplified wing structures were created for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV). Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated and possess complex vein structures. In order to mimic the wings function and retain its properties, a simplified version of the wing was designed. The simplified dragonfly wing structure was created using a method called spatial network analysis which utilizes Canny edge detection method. The vein structure of the wings were carved out in balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. Balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass was chosen due to its ultra- lightweight property and hence, highly suitable to be used in our application. The fabricated structure was then immersed in a nanocomposite solution containing chitosan as a film matrix, reinforced with chitin nanowhiskers and tannic acid as a crosslinking agent. These materials closely mimic the membrane of a dragonfly wing. Finally, the wings were subjected to a bending test and comparisons were made with previous research for verification. The results had a margin of difference of about 3% and thus the structure was validated.

Keywords: dragonfly wings, simplified, Canny edge detection, balsa wood, red prepreg, chitin, chitosan, tannic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
20 Factors Influencing Paternal Involvement in Childcare: Empirical Evidence from Rural India

Authors: Anu Jose, Sapna Nair


By using the baseline data of a randomized cluster trial aiming to understand the effects of social, technological and business innovation on child development in two districts of Tamil Nadu, India, we examine the determinants of father involvement in childcare. While there is a growing literature on the role of fathers in child development and family systems, we particularly look at the effect of the attitude of mother and father towards father's involvement in childcare in rural South India. We find that father's own attitude and the mother's gatekeeping attitude significantly affect the father's behavior when other socio-economic characteristics of the parents are controlled. Further, the results are corroborated using different empirical models in which father involvement is conceptualized into three categories broadly; play, caretaking, and affection. We also examine the other socio-economic characteristics affecting paternal involvement using both quantitative and qualitative methods. For instance, child characteristics such as the age and birth order have a significant influence on the level of paternal involvement. That is, older the child, the more involved the father is and the father gets more involved in childcare of the second child as compared to the first child. The participants of the study included 1516 children of age 0 to 22 months from 1476 households. Results indicate that fathers of households where the mother and the father have less traditional attitude exhibit a higher level of involvement in childcare as opposed to parents having a more traditional attitude towards gender role in parenting. The results of this paper provide a major policy lesson aiming to improve paternal involvement in childcare.

Keywords: child development, father involvement, gender, parent’s attitude towards paternal involvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
19 Synergistic Effect of Eugenol Acetate with Betalactam Antibiotic on Betalactamase and Its Bioinformatics Analysis

Authors: Vinod Nair, C. Sadasivan


Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. The antibiotic resistance by the production of enzyme beta-lactamase is an important mechanism seen in microorganisms. Resistance to beta-lactams mediated by beta-lactamases can be overcome successfully with the use of beta-lactamase inhibitors. New generations of the antibiotics contain mostly synthetic compounds, and many side effects have been reported for them. Combinations of beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitors have become one of the most successful antimicrobial strategies in the current scenario of bacterial infections. Plant-based drugs are very cheap and having lesser adverse effect than synthetic compounds. The synergistic effect of eugenol acetate with beta-lactams restores the activity of beta-lactams, allowing their continued clinical use. It is reported here the enhanced inhibitory effect of phytochemical, eugenol acetate, isolated from the plant Syzygium aromaticum with beta-lactams on beta-lactamase. The compound was found to have synergistic effect with the antibiotic amoxicillin against antibiotic-resistant strain of S.aureus. The enzyme was purified from the organism and incubated with the compound. The assay showed that the compound could inhibit the enzymatic activity of beta-lactamase. Modeling and molecular docking studies indicated that the compound can fit into the active site of beta-lactamase and can mask the important residue for hydrolysis of beta-lactams. The synergistic effects of eugenol acetate with beta-lactam antibiotics may justify, the use of these plant compounds for the preparation of β-lactamase inhibitors against β-lactam resistant S.aureus.

Keywords: betalactamase, eugenol acetate, synergistic effect, molecular modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
18 Data Analytics in Energy Management

Authors: Sanjivrao Katakam, Thanumoorthi I., Antony Gerald, Ratan Kulkarni, Shaju Nair


With increasing energy costs and its impact on the business, sustainability today has evolved from a social expectation to an economic imperative. Therefore, finding methods to reduce cost has become a critical directive for Industry leaders. Effective energy management is the only way to cut costs. However, Energy Management has been a challenge because it requires a change in old habits and legacy systems followed for decades. Today exorbitant levels of energy and operational data is being captured and stored by Industries, but they are unable to convert these structured and unstructured data sets into meaningful business intelligence. It must be noted that for quick decisions, organizations must learn to cope with large volumes of operational data in different formats. Energy analytics not only helps in extracting inferences from these data sets, but also is instrumental in transformation from old approaches of energy management to new. This in turn assists in effective decision making for implementation. It is the requirement of organizations to have an established corporate strategy for reducing operational costs through visibility and optimization of energy usage. Energy analytics play a key role in optimization of operations. The paper describes how today energy data analytics is extensively used in different scenarios like reducing operational costs, predicting energy demands, optimizing network efficiency, asset maintenance, improving customer insights and device data insights. The paper also highlights how analytics helps transform insights obtained from energy data into sustainable solutions. The paper utilizes data from an array of segments such as retail, transportation, and water sectors.

Keywords: energy analytics, energy management, operational data, business intelligence, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
17 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah


The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
16 Performance of the Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System

Authors: Siobhan O’Shea, Sangeetha Vijaysri Nair, Hee Cheol Kim, Charles Thomas Nugent, Cheuk Yan William Tong, Sam Douthwaite, Andrew Worlock


The Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay is a fully automated assay on the Panther system. It is based on Transcription-Mediated Amplification and real time detection technologies. This assay is intended for monitoring HIV-1 viral load in plasma specimens and for the detection of HIV-1 in plasma and serum specimens. Nine-hundred and seventy nine specimens selected at random from routine testing at St Thomas’ Hospital, London were anonymised and used to compare the performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test, v2.0. Two-hundred and thirty four specimens gave quantitative HIV-1 viral load results in both assays. The quantitative results reported by the Aptima Assay were comparable those reported by the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0 with a linear regression slope of 1.04 and an intercept on -0.097. The Aptima assay detected HIV-1 in more samples than the Roche assay. This was not due to lack of specificity of the Aptima assay because this assay gave 99.83% specificity on testing plasma specimens from 600 HIV-1 negative individuals. To understand the reason for this higher detection rate a side-by-side comparison of low level panels made from the HIV-1 3rd international standard (NIBSC10/152) and clinical samples of various subtypes were tested in both assays. The Aptima assay was more sensitive than the Roche assay. The good sensitivity, specificity and agreement with other commercial assays make the HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay appropriate for both viral load monitoring and detection of HIV-1 infections.

Keywords: HIV viral load, Aptima, Roche, Panther system

Procedia PDF Downloads 211