Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Smita Krishnan

54 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi

Abstract:

Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, photochemical processes, degradation, organic contaminants

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53 Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid/MDI Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

Authors: Sukhila Krishnan, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak

Abstract:

Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) are the most promising bio-based materials presently available on the market. Polylactic acid is one of the versatile biodegradable polyester showing wide range of applications in various fields and starch is a biopolymer which is renewable, cheap as well as extensively available. The usual increase in the cost of petroleum-based commodities in the next decades opens bright future for these materials. Their biodegradability and compostability was an added advantage in applications that are difficult to recycle. Currently, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used as a substitute for synthetic plastic in several commercial products. But, TPS shows some limitations mainly due to its brittle and hydrophilic nature, which has to be resolved to widen its application.The objective of the work we report here was to initiate chemical modifications on TPS and to build up a process to control its chemical structure using a solution process which can reduce its water sensitive properties and then blended it with PLA to improve compatibility between PLA and TPS. The method involves in cleavage of starch amylose and amylopectin chain backbone to plasticize with glycerol and water in batch mixer and then the prepared TPS was reacted in solution with diisocyanates i.e, 4,4'-Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI).This diisocyanate was used before with great success for the chemical modification of TPS surface. The method utilized here will form an urethane-linkages between reactive isocyanate groups (–NCO) and hydroxyl groups (-OH) of starch as well as of glycerol. New polymer synthesised shows a reduced crystallinity, less hydrophilic and enhanced compatibility with other polymers. The TPS was prepared by Haake Rheomix 600 batch mixer with roller rotors operating at 50 rpm. The produced material is then refluxed for 5hrs with MDI in toluene with constant stirring. Finally, the modified TPS was melt blended with PLA in different compositions. Blends obtained shows an improved mechanical properties. These materials produced are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR), DSC, X-Ray diffraction and mechanical tests.

Keywords: polylactic acid, thermoplastic starch, Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate, Polylactide (PLA)

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52 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation

Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan

Abstract:

This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.

Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping method

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51 Exact Solutions of K(N,N)-Type Equations Using Jacobi Elliptic Functions

Authors: Edamana Krishnan, Khalil Al-Ghafri

Abstract:

In this paper, modified K(n,n) and K(n+1,n+1) equations have been solved using mapping methods which give a variety of solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. The solutions when m approaches 0 and 1, with m as the modulus of the JEFs have also been deduced. The role of constraint conditions has been discussed.

Keywords: travelling wave solutions, solitary wave solutions, compactons, Jacobi elliptic functions, mapping methods

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50 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat

Abstract:

Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

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49 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector

Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.

Keywords: exergy, energy balance, entropy balance, work potential, degradation, honey comb, flat plate collector

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48 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

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47 Mapping Methods to Solve a Modified Korteweg de Vries Type Equation

Authors: E. V. Krishnan

Abstract:

In this paper, we employ mapping methods to construct exact travelling wave solutions for a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We have derived periodic wave solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, kink solutions and singular wave solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions.

Keywords: travelling wave solutions, Jacobi elliptic functions, solitary wave solutions, Korteweg-de Vries equation

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46 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites

Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C

Abstract:

Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.

Keywords: sandwich composites, perforated cores, flexural test, single and divided core perforated

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45 Approximation of Periodic Functions Belonging to Lipschitz Classes by Product Matrix Means of Fourier Series

Authors: Smita Sonker, Uaday Singh

Abstract:

Various investigators have determined the degree of approximation of functions belonging to the classes W(L r , ξ(t)), Lip(ξ(t), r), Lip(α, r), and Lipα using different summability methods with monotonocity conditions. Recently, Lal has determined the degree of approximation of the functions belonging to Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) classes by using Ces`aro-N¨orlund (C 1 .Np)- summability with non-increasing weights {pn}. In this paper, we shall determine the degree of approximation of 2π - periodic functions f belonging to the function classes Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) by C 1 .T - means of Fourier series of f. Our theorems generalize the results of Lal and we also improve these results in the light off. From our results, we also derive some corollaries.

Keywords: Lipschitz classes, product matrix operator, signals, trigonometric Fourier approximation

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44 Simulation of Photovoltaic Array for Specified Ratings of Converter

Authors: Smita Pareek, Ratna Dahiya

Abstract:

The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding irradiance, temperature, shading conditions, and shading pattern. This paper presents a simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink. PV Array is also simulated by series and parallel connections of modules and their characteristics curves are given. Further PV module topology/configuration are proposed for 5.5kW inverter available in the literature. Shading of a PV array either complete or partial can have a significant impact on its power output and energy yield; therefore, the simulated model characteristics curves (I-V and P-V) are drawn for uniform shading conditions (USC) and then output power, voltage and current are calculated for variation in insolation for shading conditions. Additionally the characteristics curves are also given for a predetermined shadowing condition.

Keywords: array, series, parallel, photovoltaic, partial shading

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43 Synthesis of Epoxidized Castor Oil Using a Sulphonated Polystyrene Type Cation Exchange Resin and Its Blend Preparation with Epoxy Resin

Authors: G. S. Sudha, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Epoxidized oils can replace petroleum derived materials in numerous industrial applications, because of their respectable oxirane oxygen content and high reactivity of oxirane ring. Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) has synthesized in the presence of a sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin. The formation of the oxirane ring was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The epoxidation reaction was evaluated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies. ECO is used as a toughening phase to increase the toughness of petroleum-based epoxy resin.

Keywords: epoxy resin, epoxidized castor oil, sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin, petroleum derived materials

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42 Entrepreneurship and the Discovery and Exploitation of Business Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from the Malawian Tourism Sector

Authors: Aravind Mohan Krishnan

Abstract:

This paper identifies a research gap in the literature on tourism entrepreneurship in Malawi, Africa, and investigates how entrepreneurs from the Malawian tourism sector discover and exploit business opportunities. In particular, the importance of prior experience and business networks in the opportunity development process is debated. Another area of empirical research examined here is the opportunity recognition-venture creation sequence. While Malawi presents fruitful business opportunities, exploiting these opportunities into fully realized business ideas is a real challenge due to the country’s difficult business environment and poor promotional and marketing efforts. The study concludes by calling for further research in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop our understanding of entrepreneurship in this (African) context.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Malawi, opportunities, tourism

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41 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan

Abstract:

A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

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40 A Conglomerate of Multiple Optical Character Recognition Table Detection and Extraction

Authors: Smita Pallavi, Raj Ratn Pranesh, Sumit Kumar

Abstract:

Information representation as tables is compact and concise method that eases searching, indexing, and storage requirements. Extracting and cloning tables from parsable documents is easier and widely used; however, industry still faces challenges in detecting and extracting tables from OCR (Optical Character Recognition) documents or images. This paper proposes an algorithm that detects and extracts multiple tables from OCR document. The algorithm uses a combination of image processing techniques, text recognition, and procedural coding to identify distinct tables in the same image and map the text to appropriate the corresponding cell in dataframe, which can be stored as comma-separated values, database, excel, and multiple other usable formats.

Keywords: table extraction, optical character recognition, image processing, text extraction, morphological transformation

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39 Degree of Approximation of Functions Conjugate to Periodic Functions Belonging to Lipschitz Classes by Product Matrix Means

Authors: Smita Sonker

Abstract:

Various investigators have determined the degree of approximation of conjugate signals (functions) of functions belonging to different classes Lipα, Lip(α,p), Lip(ξ(t),p), W(Lr,ξ(t), (β ≥ 0)) by matrix summability means, lower triangular matrix operator, product means (i.e. (C,1)(E,1), (C,1)(E,q), (E,q)(C,1) (N,p,q)(E,1), and (E,q)(N,pn) of their conjugate trigonometric Fourier series. In this paper, we shall determine the degree of approximation of 2π-periodic function conjugate functions of f belonging to the function classes Lipα and W(Lr; ξ(t); (β ≥ 0)) by (C1.T) -means of their conjugate trigonometric Fourier series. On the other hand, we shall review above-mentioned work in the light of Lenski.

Keywords: signals, trigonometric fourier approximation, class W(L^r, \xi(t), conjugate fourier series

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38 Academic Performance and Therapeutic Breathing

Authors: Abha Gupta, Seema Maira, Smita Sinha

Abstract:

This paper explores using breathing techniques to boost the academic performance of students and describes how teachers can foster the technique in their classrooms. The innovative study examines the differential impact of therapeutic breathing exercises, called pranayama, on students’ academic performance. The paper introduces approaches to therapeutic breathing exercises as an alternative to improve school performance, as well as the self-regulatory behavior, which is known to correlate with academic performance. The study was conducted in a school-wide pranayama program with positive outcomes. The intervention consisted of two breathing exercises, (1) deep breathing, and (2) alternate nostril breathing. It is a quantitative study spanning over a year with about 100 third graders was conducted using daily breathing exercises to investigate the impact of pranayama on academic performance. Significant cumulative gain-scores were found for students who practiced the approach.

Keywords: academic performance, pranayama, therapeutic breathing, yoga

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37 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

Abstract:

The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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36 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer

Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar

Abstract:

In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.

Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435

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35 Endometriosis: The Optimal Treatment of Recurrent Endometrioma in Infertile Patients

Authors: Smita Lakhotia, C. Kew, S. H. M. Siraj, B. Chern

Abstract:

Up to 50% of those with endometriosis may suffer from infertility due to either distorted pelvic anatomy/impaired oocyte release or inhibit ovum pickup and transport, altered peritoneal function, endocrine and anovulatory disorders, including LUF, impaired implantation, progesterone resistance or decreased levels of cellular immunity. The dilemma continues as to whether the surgery or IVF is the optimal management for such recurrent endometriomas. The core question is whether surgery adds anything of value for infertile women with recurrent endometriosis or not. Complete and detailed information on risks and benefits of treatment alternatives must be offered to patients, giving a realistic estimate of chances of success of repetitive surgery and of multiple IVF cycles in order to allow unbiased choices between different possible optionsAn individualized treatment plan should be developed taking into account patient age, duration of infertility, previous pregnancies and specific clinical conditions and wish.

Keywords: recurrent endometriosis, infertility, oocyte release, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
34 Effect of Depressurization Rate in Batch Foaming of Porous Microcellular Polycarbonate on Microstructure Development

Authors: Indrajeet Singh, Abhishek Gandhi, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

In this article, a focused study has been performed to comprehend the influence of change in depressurization rate on microcellular polycarbonate foamed morphological attributes. The depressurization rate considered in this study were 0.5, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.005 MPa/sec and the physical blowing agent utilized was carbon dioxide owing to its high solubility in polycarbonate at room temperature. The study was performed on two distinct saturation pressures, i.e., 3 MPa and 6 MPa to understand if saturation pressure has any effects on it. It is reported that with increase in depressurization rate, a higher amount of thermodynamic instability was induced which resulted in generation of larger number of smaller sized cells. This article puts forward an understanding of how depressurization rate control could be well exploited during the batch foaming process to develop high quality microcellular foamed products with exceedingly well controlled cell size.

Keywords: depressurization, porous polymer, foaming, microcellular

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
33 Effect of Catalyst on Castor Oil Based Polyurethane with Different Hard/Soft Segment Ratio

Authors: Swarnalata Sahoo, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Environmentally friendly Polyurethane(PU) synthesis from Castor oil(CO) has been studied extensively. Probably due to high proportion of fatty hydroxy acids and unsaturated bond, CO showed better performance than other oil, can be easily utilized as commercial applications. In this work, cured PU polymers having different –NCO/OH ratio with and without catalyst were synthesized by using partially biobased Isocyanate with castor oil (CO). Curing time has been studied by observing at the time of reaction, which can be confirmed by AT-FTIR. DSC has been studied to monitor the reaction between CO & Isocyanates using non Isothermal process. Curing kinetics have also been studied to investigate the catalytic effect of the NCO / OH ratio of Polyurethane. Adhesion properties were evaluated from Lapshear test. Tg of the PU polymer was evaluated by DSC which can be compared by DMA. Surface Properties were studied by contact angle measurement. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the nonpolar surface of Aluminum substrate and the polar adhesive has been studied by modifying surface.

Keywords: polyurethane, partially bio-based isocyanate, castor oil, catalyst

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32 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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31 Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding

Authors: Shilpa K. Nandwani, Mousumi Chakraborty, Smita Gupta

Abstract:

When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process.

Keywords: ionic liquis, interfacial tension, Na-tosylate, viscoelastic surfactants

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30 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Sumeet Kumar, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, high temperature, normal spectral emissivity, surface roughness

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29 In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites

Authors: Aiswarea Mathew, Smita Mohanty, Jr., S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.

Keywords: castor oil, epoxy, montmorillonite, polyurethane

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28 Mutual Information Based Image Registration of Satellite Images Using PSO-GA Hybrid Algorithm

Authors: Dipti Patra, Guguloth Uma, Smita Pradhan

Abstract:

Registration is a fundamental task in image processing. It is used to transform different sets of data into one coordinate system, where data are acquired from different times, different viewing angles, and/or different sensors. The registration geometrically aligns two images (the reference and target images). Registration techniques are used in satellite images and it is important in order to be able to compare or integrate the data obtained from these different measurements. In this work, mutual information is considered as a similarity metric for registration of satellite images. The transformation is assumed to be a rigid transformation. An attempt has been made here to optimize the transformation function. The proposed image registration technique hybrid PSO-GA incorporates the notion of Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm and is used for finding the best optimum values of transformation parameters. The performance comparision obtained with the experiments on satellite images found that the proposed hybrid PSO-GA algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in terms of mutual information and registration accuracy.

Keywords: image registration, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, hybrid PSO-GA algorithm and mutual information

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27 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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26 Development of Closed System for Bacterial CO2 Mitigation

Authors: Somesh Misha, Smita Raghuvanshi, Suresh Gupta

Abstract:

Increasing concentration of green house gases (GHG's), such as CO2 is of major concern and start showing its impact nowadays. The recent studies are focused on developing the continuous system using photoautotrophs for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous production of primary and secondary metabolites as a value addition. The advent of carbon concentrating mechanism had blurred the distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs and now the paradigm has shifted towards the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) rather than carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In the present work, a bioreactor was developed utilizing the chemolithotrophic bacterial species using CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition. The kinetic modeling was done and the biokinetic parameters are obtained for developing the bioreactor. The bioreactor was developed and studied for its operation and performance in terms of volumetric loading rate, mass loading rate, elimination capacity and removal efficiency. The characterization of effluent from the bioreactor was carried out for the products obtained using the analyzing techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR. The developed bioreactor promised an economic, efficient and effective solution for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition.

Keywords: CO2 mitigation, bio-reactor, chemolithotrophic bacterial species, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR

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25 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

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