Search results for: spacecraft
87 Analysis the Trajectory of the Spacecraft during the Transition to the Planet's Orbit Using Aerobraking in the Atmosphere of the Planet
Authors: Zaw Min Tun
Abstract:The paper focuses on the spacecraft’s trajectory transition from interplanetary hyperbolic orbit to the planet’s orbit using the aerobraking in the atmosphere of the planet. A considerable mass of fuel is consumed during the spacecraft transition from the planet’s gravitation assist trajectory into the planet’s satellite orbit. To reduce the fuel consumption in this transition need to slow down the spacecraft’s velocity in the planet’s atmosphere and reduce its orbital transition time. The paper is devoted to the use of the planet’s atmosphere for slowing down the spacecraft during its transition into the satellite orbit with uncertain atmospheric parameters. To reduce the orbital transition time of the spacecraft is controlled by the change of attack angles’ values at the aerodynamic deceleration path and adjusting the minimum flight altitude of the spacecraft at the pericenter of the planet’s upper atmosphere.
Keywords: aerobraking, atmosphere of the planet, orbital transition time, Spacecraft’s trajectoryProcedia PDF Downloads 243
86 Failure Statistics Analysis of China’s Spacecraft in Full-Life
Authors: Xin-Yan Ji
Abstract:The historical failures data of the spacecraft is very useful to improve the spacecraft design and the test philosophies and reduce the spacecraft flight risk. A study of spacecraft failures data was performed, which is the most comprehensive statistics of spacecrafts in China. 2593 on-orbit failures data and 1298 ground data that occurred on 150 spacecraft launched from 2000 to 2016 were identified and collected, which covered the navigation satellites, communication satellites, remote sensing deep space exploration manned spaceflight platforms. In this paper, the failures were analyzed to compare different spacecraft subsystem and estimate their impact on the mission, then the development of spacecraft in China was evaluated from design, software, workmanship, management, parts, and materials. Finally, the lessons learned from the past years show that electrical and mechanical failures are responsible for the largest parts, and the key solution to reduce in-orbit failures is improving design technology, enough redundancy, adequate space environment protection measures, and adequate ground testing.
Keywords: spacecraft anomalies, anomalies mechanism, failure cause, spacecraft testingProcedia PDF Downloads 65
85 An Implementation of a Dual-Spin Spacecraft Attitude Reorientation Using Properties of Its Chaotic Motion
Authors: Anton V. Doroshin
Abstract:This article contains a description of main ideas for the attitude reorientation of spacecraft (small dual-spin spacecraft, nanosatellites) using properties of its chaotic attitude motion under the action of internal perturbations. The considering method based on intentional initiations of chaotic modes of attitude motion with big amplitudes of the nutation oscillations, and also on the redistributions of the angular momentum between coaxial bodies of the dual-spin spacecraft (DSSC), which perform in the purpose of system’s phase space changing.
Keywords: spacecraft, attitude dynamics, control, chaosProcedia PDF Downloads 323
84 Research and Application of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Wireless Communications Standards for Spacecraft
Authors: Cuitao Zhang, Xiongwen He
Abstract:According to the new requirements of the future spacecraft, such as networking, modularization and non-cable, this paper studies the CCSDS wireless communications standards, and focuses on the low data-rate wireless communications for spacecraft monitoring and control. The application fields and advantages of wireless communications are analyzed. Wireless communications technology has significant advantages in reducing the weight of the spacecraft, saving time in spacecraft integration, etc. Based on this technology, a scheme for spacecraft data system is put forward. The corresponding block diagram and key wireless interface design of the spacecraft data system are given. The design proposal of the wireless node and information flow of the spacecraft are also analyzed. The results show that the wireless communications scheme is reasonable and feasible. The wireless communications technology can meet the future spacecraft demands in networking, modularization and non-cable.
Keywords: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, information flow, non-cable, spacecraft, wireless communicationsProcedia PDF Downloads 261
83 Simulation Study on Spacecraft Surface Charging Induced by Jovian Plasma Environment with Particle in Cell Method
Authors: Meihua Fang, Yipan Guo, Tao Fei, Pengyu Tian
Abstract:Space plasma caused spacecraft surface charging is the major space environment hazard. Particle in cell (PIC) method can be used to simulate the interaction between space plasma and spacecraft. It was proved that surface charging level of spacecraft in Jupiter’s orbits was high for its’ electron-heavy plasma environment. In this paper, Jovian plasma environment is modeled and surface charging analysis is carried out by PIC based software Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS). The results show that the spacecraft charging potentials exceed 1000V at 2Rj, 15Rj and 25Rj polar orbits in the dark side at worst case plasma model. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the large Jovian magnetic field increases the surface charging level for secondary electron gyration.
Keywords: Jupiter, PIC, space plasma, surface chargingProcedia PDF Downloads 80
82 Autonomous Rendezvous for Underactuated Spacecraft
Authors: Espen Oland
Abstract:This paper presents a solution to the problem of autonomous rendezvous for spacecraft equipped with one main thruster for translational control and three reaction wheels for rotational control. With fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, this constitutes an underactuated control problem, requiring a coupling between the translational and rotational dynamics to facilitate control. This paper shows how to obtain this coupling, and applies the results to autonomous rendezvous between a follower spacecraft and a leader spacecraft. Additionally, since the thrust is constrained between zero and an upper bound, no negative forces can be generated to slow down the speed of the spacecraft. A combined speed and attitude control logic is therefore created that can be divided into three main phases: 1) The orbital velocity vector is pointed towards the desired position and the thrust is used to obtain the desired speed, 2) during the coasting phase, the attitude is changed to facilitate deceleration using the main thruster, 3) the speed is decreased as the spacecraft reaches its desired position. The results are validated through simulations, showing the capabilities of the proposed approach.
Keywords: attitude control, spacecraft rendezvous, translational control, underactuated rigid bodyProcedia PDF Downloads 224
81 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array
Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun
Abstract:With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.
Keywords: acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage locationProcedia PDF Downloads 231
80 Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft
Authors: K. Parandhama Gowd
Abstract:Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further, defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) has gone up. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs, and spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly and create spacecraft traffic problems. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design concepts for adaptive spacecraft. The main idea here is to improve existing design methods of spacecraft design and development to further improve upon design considerations for futuristic adaptive spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability and self-protection. In other words, the innovative design considerations proposed here are to have future spacecraft with self-organizing capabilities for orbital control and protection from anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). Here, an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI, miniaturization, and nano antenna array technologies, including nano technologies are expected.
Keywords: satellites, low earth orbit (LEO), medium earth orbit (MEO), geostationary earth orbit (GEO), self-organizing control system, anti-satellite weapons (ASAT), orbital control, radar warning receiver, missile warning receiver, laser warning receiver, attitude and orbit control systems (AOCS), command and data handling (CDH)Procedia PDF Downloads 236
79 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft
Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan
Abstract:Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.
Keywords: leak testing, manned spacecraft, sound transmitting, ultrasonicProcedia PDF Downloads 266
78 The LIP’s Electric Propulsion Development for Chinese Spacecraft
Authors: Zhang Tianping, Jia Yanhui, Li Juan, Yang Le, Yang Hao, Yang Wei, Sun Xiaojing, Shi Kai, Li Xingda, Sun Yunkui
Abstract:Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP) is the major supplier of electric propulsion subsystems for Chinese satellite platforms. The development statuses of these electric propulsion subsystems were summarized including the LIPS-200 ion electric propulsion subsystem (IEPS) for DFH-3B platform, the LIPS-300 IEPS for DFH-5 and DFH-4SP platform, the LIPS-200+ IEPS for DFH-4E platform and near-earth asteroid exploration spacecraft, the LIPS-100 IEPS for small satellite platform, the LHT-100 hall electric propulsion subsystem (HEPS) for flight test on XY-2 satellite, the LHT-140 HEPS for large LEO spacecraft, the LIPS-400 IEPS for deep space exploration mission and other EPS for other Chinese spacecraft.
Keywords: ion electric propulsion, hall electric propulsion, satellite platform, LIPProcedia PDF Downloads 485
77 Material Properties Evolution Affecting Demisability for Space Debris Mitigation
Authors: Chetan Mahawar, Sarath Chandran, Sridhar Panigrahi, V. P. Shaji
Abstract:The ever-growing advancement in space exploration has led to an alarming concern for space debris removal as it restricts further launch operations and adventurous space missions; hence numerous studies have come up with technologies for re-entry predictions and material selection processes for mitigating space debris. The selection of material and operating conditions is determined with the objective of lightweight structure and ability to demise faster subject to spacecraft survivability during its mission. Since the demisability of spacecraft depends on evolving thermal material properties such as emissivity, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, radiation intensity, etc. Therefore, this paper presents the analysis of evolving thermal material properties of spacecraft, which affect the demisability process and thus estimate demise time using the demisability model by incorporating evolving thermal properties for sensible heating followed by the complete or partial break-up of spacecraft. The demisability analysis thus concludes the best suitable spacecraft material is based on the least estimated demise time, which fulfills the criteria of design-for-survivability and as well as of design-for-demisability.
Keywords: demisability, emissivity, lightweight, re-entry, survivabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 46
76 Research on Level Adjusting Mechanism System of Large Space Environment Simulator
Authors: Han Xiao, Zhang Lei, Huang Hai, Lv Shizeng
Abstract:Space environment simulator is a device for spacecraft test. KM8 large space environment simulator built in Tianjing Space City is the largest as well as the most advanced space environment simulator in China. Large deviation of spacecraft level will lead to abnormally work of the thermal control device in spacecraft during the thermal vacuum test. In order to avoid thermal vacuum test failure, level adjusting mechanism system is developed in the KM8 large space environment simulator as one of the most important subsystems. According to the level adjusting requirements of spacecraft’s thermal vacuum tests, the four fulcrums adjusting model is established. By means of collecting level instruments and displacement sensors data, stepping motors controlled by PLC drive four supporting legs simultaneous movement. In addition, a PID algorithm is used to control the temperature of supporting legs and level instruments which long time work under the vacuum cold and black environment in KM8 large space environment simulator during thermal vacuum tests. Based on the above methods, the data acquisition and processing, the analysis and calculation, real time adjustment and fault alarming of the level adjusting mechanism system are implemented. The level adjusting accuracy reaches 1mm/m, and carrying capacity is 20 tons. Debugging showed that the level adjusting mechanism system of KM8 large space environment simulator can meet the thermal vacuum test requirement of the new generation spacecraft. The performance and technical indicators of the level adjusting mechanism system which provides important support for the development of spacecraft in China have been ahead of similar equipment in the world.
Keywords: space environment simulator, thermal vacuum test, level adjusting, spacecraft, parallel mechanismProcedia PDF Downloads 181
75 Electro Magnetic Tractor (E. M. Tractor)
Authors: Sijo Varghese
Abstract:A space craft (E. M. Tractor) which is intended to deflect or tug the asteroids which possesses threat towards the planets is the whole idea behind this paper. In this case "Electro Magnetic Induction" is used where it is known that when two separate circuits are connected to the electro magnet and on application of electric current through the one circuit in to the coil induces magnetic fields which repels the other circuit.( Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction). Basically a Spacecraft is used to attach a large sheet of aluminum on to the surface of the asteroid, the Spacecraft acts as an electro magnet and the induced magnetic field would eventually repel the aluminum intern repelling the asteroid. This method would take less time as compared to use of gravity( which requires a larger spacecraft and process will take a long time).
Keywords: asteroids, electro magnetic induction, gravity, electro magnetic tractorProcedia PDF Downloads 423
74 Structure Design of Vacuum Vessel with Large Openings for Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test
Authors: Han Xiao, Ruan Qi, Zhang Lei, Qi Yan
Abstract:Space environment simulator is a facility used to conduct thermal test for spacecraft, and vacuum vessel is the main body of it. According to the requirements for thermal tests of the spacecraft and its solar array panels, the primary vessel and the side vessels are designed to be a combinative structure connected with aperture, which ratio reaches 0.7. Since the vacuum vessel suffers 0.1MPa external pressure during the process of thermal test, in order to ensure the simulator’s reliability and safety, it’s necessary to calculate the vacuum vessel’s intensity and stability. Based on the impact of large openings to vacuum vessel structure, this paper explored the reinforce design and analytical way of vacuum vessel with large openings, using a large space environment simulator’s vacuum vessel design as an example. Tests showed that the reinforce structure is effective to fulfill the requirements of external pressure and the gravity. This ensured the reliability of the space environment simulator, providing a guarantee for developing the spacecraft.
Keywords: vacuum vessel, large opening, space environment simulator, structure designProcedia PDF Downloads 443
73 Multiband Fractal Patch Antenna for Small Spacecraft of Earth Remote Sensing
Authors: Beibit Karibayev, Akmaral Imanbayeva, Timur Namazbayev
Abstract:Currently, the small spacecraft (SSC) industry is experiencing a big boom in popularity. This is primarily due to ease of use, low cost and mobility. In addition, these programs can be implemented not only at the state level but also at the level of companies, universities and other organizations. For remote sensing of the Earth (ERS), small spacecraft with an orientation system is used. It is important to take into account here that a remote sensing device, for example, a camera for photographing the Earth's surface, must be directed at the Earth's surface. But this, at first glance, the limitation can be turned into an advantage using a patch antenna. This work proposed to use a patch antenna based on a unidirectional fractal in the SSC. The CST Microwave Studio software package was used for simulation and research. Copper (ε = 1.0) was chosen as the emitting element and reflector. The height of the substrate was 1.6 mm, the type of substrate material was FR-4 (ε = 4.3). The simulation was performed in the frequency range of 0 – 6 GHz. As a result of the research, a patch antenna based on fractal geometry was developed for ERS nanosatellites. The capabilities of these antennas are modeled and investigated. A method for calculating and modeling fractal geometry for patch antennas has been developed.
Keywords: antenna, earth remote sensing, fractal, small spacecraftProcedia PDF Downloads 162
72 Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry
Authors: Zineddine Bouyahiaoui, Rabah Haoui
Abstract:The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.
Keywords: blunt body, finite volume, hypersonic flow, viscous flowProcedia PDF Downloads 174
71 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker
Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan
Abstract:Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.
Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesisProcedia PDF Downloads 290
70 Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Spacecrafts Using Quantized Two Torque Inputs Based on Random Dither
Authors: Yusuke Kuramitsu, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara
Abstract:The control problem of underactuated spacecrafts has attracted a considerable amount of interest. The control method for a spacecraft equipped with less than three control torques is useful when one of the three control torques had failed. On the other hand, the quantized control of systems is one of the important research topics in recent years. The random dither quantization method that transforms a given continuous signal to a discrete signal by adding artificial random noise to the continuous signal before quantization has also attracted a considerable amount of interest. The objective of this study is to develop the control method based on random dither quantization method for stabilizing the rotational motion of a rigid spacecraft with two control inputs. In this paper, the effectiveness of random dither quantization control method for the stabilization of rotational motion of spacecrafts with two torque inputs is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: spacecraft control, quantized control, nonlinear control, random dither methodProcedia PDF Downloads 110
69 Slosh Investigations on a Spacecraft Propellant Tank for Control Stability Studies
Authors: Sarath Chandran Nair S, Srinivas Kodati, Vasudevan R, Asraff A. K
Abstract:Spacecrafts generally employ liquid propulsion for their attitude and orbital maneuvers or raising it from geo-transfer orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Liquid propulsion systems use either mono-propellant or bi-propellants for generating thrust. These propellants are generally stored in either spherical tanks or cylindrical tanks with spherical end domes. The propellant tanks are provided with a propellant acquisition system/propellant management device along with vanes and their conical mounting structure to ensure propellant availability in the outlet for thrust generation even under a low/zero-gravity environment. Slosh is the free surface oscillations in partially filled containers under external disturbances. In a spacecraft, these can be due to control forces and due to varying acceleration. Knowledge of slosh and its effect due to internals is essential for understanding its stability through control stability studies. It is mathematically represented by a pendulum-mass model. It requires parameters such as slosh frequency, damping, sloshes mass and its location, etc. This paper enumerates various numerical and experimental methods used for evaluating the slosh parameters required for representing slosh. Numerical methods like finite element methods based on linear velocity potential theory and computational fluid dynamics based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are used for the detailed evaluation of slosh behavior in one of the spacecraft propellant tanks used in an Indian space mission. Experimental studies carried out on a scaled-down model are also discussed. Slosh parameters evaluated by different methods matched very well and finalized their dispersion bands based on experimental studies. It is observed that the presence of internals such as propellant management devices, including conical support structure, alters slosh parameters. These internals also offers one order higher damping compared to viscous/ smooth wall damping. It is an advantage factor for the stability of slosh. These slosh parameters are given for establishing slosh margins through control stability studies and finalize the spacecraft control system design.
Keywords: control stability, propellant tanks, slosh, spacecraft, slosh spacecraftProcedia PDF Downloads 166
68 Space Debris: An Environmental Hazard
Authors: Anwesha Pathak
Abstract:Space law refers to all legal provisions that may regulate or apply to space travel, as well as to space-related activity. Although there is undoubtedly a core corpus of “space law,” rather than designating a conceptually distinct single kind of law, the phrase can be seen as a label applied to a bucket that includes a variety of different laws and regulations. Similar to ‘family law' or ‘environmental law' "space law" refers to a variety of laws that are identified by the subject matter they address rather than by the logical extension of a single legal concept. The word "space law" refers to the Law of Space, which can cover anything from the specifics of an insurance agreement for a specific space launch to the most general guidelines that direct state behaviour in space. Space debris, often referred to as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage, is a term used to describe abandoned human-made objects in space, primarily in Earth orbit. These include disused spacecraft, discarded launch vehicle stages, mission-related detritus, and fragmentation material from the destruction of disused rocket bodies and spacecraft, which is particularly prevalent in Earth orbit. Other types of space debris, besides abandoned human-made objects in orbit, include pieces left over from collisions, erosion, and disintegration, or even paint specks, solidified liquids ejected from spacecraft, and unburned components from solid rocket engines. The initial action of launching or using a spacecraft in near-Earth orbit imposes an external cost on others that is typically not taken into account or fully accounted for in the cost by the launcher or payload owner.
Keywords: space, outer space treaty, geostationary orbit, satellites, spacecraftsProcedia PDF Downloads 11
67 Noise Mitigation Techniques to Minimize Electromagnetic Interference/Electrostatic Discharge Effects for the Lunar Mission Spacecraft
Authors: Vabya Kumar Pandit, Mudit Mittal, N. Prahlad Rao, Ramnath Babu
Abstract:TeamIndus is the only Indian team competing for the Google Lunar XPRIZE(GLXP). The GLXP is a global competition to challenge the private entities to soft land a rover on the moon, travel minimum 500 meters and transmit high definition images and videos to Earth. Towards this goal, the TeamIndus strategy is to design and developed lunar lander that will deliver a rover onto the surface of the moon which will accomplish GLXP mission objectives. This paper showcases the various system level noise control techniques adopted by Electrical Distribution System (EDS), to achieve the required Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of the spacecraft. The design guidelines followed to control Electromagnetic Interference by proper electronic package design, grounding, shielding, filtering, and cable routing within the stipulated mass budget, are explained. The paper also deals with the challenges of achieving Electromagnetic Cleanliness in presence of various Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and In-House developed components. The methods of minimizing Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) by identifying the potential noise sources, susceptible areas for charge accumulation and the methodology to prevent arcing inside spacecraft are explained. The paper then provides the EMC requirements matrix derived from the mission requirements to meet the overall Electromagnetic compatibility of the Spacecraft.
Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, electrostatic discharge, electrical distribution systems, grounding schemes, light weight harnessingProcedia PDF Downloads 239
66 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran
Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro
Abstract:The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.
Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 332
65 An Integrated Tailoring Method for Thermal Cycling Tests of Spacecraft Electronics
Authors: Xin-Yan Ji, Jing Wang, Chang Liu, Yan-Qiang Bi, Zhong-Xu Xu, Xi-Yuan Li
Abstract:Thermal tests of electronic units are critically important for the reliability validation and performance demonstration of the spacecraft hard-wares. The tailoring equation in MIL-STD-1540 is based on fatigue of solder date. In the present paper, a new test condition tailoring expression is proposed to fit different thermo-mechanical fatigue and different subsystems, by introducing an integrated evaluating method for the fatigue acceleration exponent. The validate test has been accomplished and the data has been analyzed and compared with that from the MIL-STD-1540 tailoring equations. The results are encouraging and reasonable.
Keywords: thermal cycling test, thermal fatigue, tailoring equation, test condition planningProcedia PDF Downloads 380
64 Experimental Measurement of Equatorial Ring Current Generated by Magnetoplasma Sail in Three-Dimensional Spatial Coordinate
Authors: Masato Koizumi, Yuya Oshio, Ikkoh Funaki
Abstract:Magnetoplasma Sail (MPS) is a future spacecraft propulsion that generates high levels of thrust by inducing an artificial magnetosphere to capture and deflect solar wind charged particles in order to transfer momentum to the spacecraft. By injecting plasma in the spacecraft’s magnetic field region, the ring current azimuthally drifts on the equatorial plane about the dipole magnetic field generated by the current flowing through the solenoid attached on board the spacecraft. This ring current results in magnetosphere inflation which improves the thrust performance of MPS spacecraft. In this present study, the ring current was experimentally measured using three Rogowski Current Probes positioned in a circular array about the laboratory model of MPS spacecraft. This investigation aims to determine the detailed structure of ring current through physical experimentation performed under two different magnetic field strengths engendered by varying the applied voltage on the solenoid with 300 V and 600 V. The expected outcome was that the three current probes would detect the same current since all three probes were positioned at equal radial distance of 63 mm from the center of the solenoid. Although experimental results were numerically implausible due to probable procedural error, the trends of the results revealed three pieces of perceptive evidence of the ring current behavior. The first aspect is that the drift direction of the ring current depended on the strength of the applied magnetic field. The second aspect is that the diamagnetic current developed at a radial distance not occupied by the three current probes under the presence of solar wind. The third aspect is that the ring current distribution varied along the circumferential path about the spacecraft’s magnetic field. Although this study yielded experimental evidence that differed from the original hypothesis, the three key findings of this study have informed two critical MPS design solutions that will potentially improve thrust performance. The first design solution is the positioning of the plasma injection point. Based on the implication of the first of the three aspects of ring current behavior, the plasma injection point must be located at a distance instead of at close proximity from the MPS Solenoid for the ring current to drift in the direction that will result in magnetosphere inflation. The second design solution, predicated by the third aspect of ring current behavior, is the symmetrical configuration of plasma injection points. In this study, an asymmetrical configuration of plasma injection points using one plasma source resulted in a non-uniform distribution of ring current along the azimuthal path. This distorts the geometry of the inflated magnetosphere which minimizes the deflection area for the solar wind. Therefore, to realize a ring current that best provides the maximum possible inflated magnetosphere, multiple plasma sources must be spaced evenly apart for the plasma to be injected evenly along its azimuthal path.
Keywords: Magnetoplasma Sail, magnetosphere inflation, ring current, spacecraft propulsionProcedia PDF Downloads 250
63 Fault Detection and Isolation in Attitude Control Subsystem of Spacecraft Formation Flying Using Extended Kalman Filters
Authors: S. Ghasemi, K. Khorasani
Abstract:In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely, centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these architectures.
Keywords: component, formation flight of satellites, extended Kalman filter, fault detection and isolation, actuator faultProcedia PDF Downloads 375
62 A New Method for Estimating the Mass Recession Rate for Ablator Systems
Authors: Bianca A. Szasz, Keiichi Okuyama
Abstract:As the human race will continue to explore the space by creating new space transportation means and sending them to other planets, the enhance of atmospheric reentry study is crucial. In this context, an analysis of mass recession rate of ablative materials for thermal shields of reentry spacecrafts is important to be carried out. The paper describes a new estimation method for calculating the mass recession of an ablator system, this method combining an old method with a new one, which was recently elaborated by Okuyama et al. The space mission of USERS spacecraft is taken as a case study and the possibility of implementing lighter ablative materials in future space missions is taking into consideration.
Keywords: ablator system, mass recession, reentry spacecraft, ablative materialsProcedia PDF Downloads 212
61 Artificial Intelligence-Aided Extended Kalman Filter for Magnetometer-Based Orbit Determination
Authors: Gilberto Goracci, Fabio Curti
Abstract:This work presents a robust, light, and inexpensive algorithm to perform autonomous orbit determination using onboard magnetometer data in real-time. Magnetometers are low-cost and reliable sensors typically available on a spacecraft for attitude determination purposes, thus representing an interesting choice to perform real-time orbit determination without the need to add additional sensors to the spacecraft itself. Magnetic field measurements can be exploited by Extended/Unscented Kalman Filters (EKF/UKF) for orbit determination purposes to make up for GPS outages, yielding errors of a few kilometers and tens of meters per second in the position and velocity of a spacecraft, respectively. While this level of accuracy shows that Kalman filtering represents a solid baseline for autonomous orbit determination, it is not enough to provide a reliable state estimation in the absence of GPS signals. This work combines the solidity and reliability of the EKF with the versatility of a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture to further increase the precision of the state estimation. Deep learning models, in fact, can grasp nonlinear relations between the inputs, in this case, the magnetometer data and the EKF state estimations, and the targets, namely the true position, and velocity of the spacecraft. The model has been pre-trained on Sun-Synchronous orbits (SSO) up to 2126 kilometers of altitude with different initial conditions and levels of noise to cover a wide range of possible real-case scenarios. The orbits have been propagated considering J2-level dynamics, and the geomagnetic field has been modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) coefficients up to the 13th order. The training of the module can be completed offline using the expected orbit of the spacecraft to heavily reduce the onboard computational burden. Once the spacecraft is launched, the model can use the GPS signal, if available, to fine-tune the parameters on the actual orbit onboard in real-time and work autonomously during GPS outages. In this way, the provided module shows versatility, as it can be applied to any mission operating in SSO, but at the same time, the training is completed and eventually fine-tuned, on the specific orbit, increasing performances and reliability. The results provided by this study show an increase of one order of magnitude in the precision of state estimate with respect to the use of the EKF alone. Tests on simulated and real data will be shown.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, extended Kalman filter, orbit determination, magnetic fieldProcedia PDF Downloads 22
60 Modeling of the Attitude Control Reaction Wheels of a Spacecraft in Software in the Loop Test Bed
Authors: Amr AbdelAzim Ali, G. A. Elsheikh, Moutaz M. Hegazy
Abstract:Reaction wheels (RWs) are generally used as main actuator in the attitude control system (ACS) of spacecraft (SC) for fast orientation and high pointing accuracy. In order to achieve the required accuracy for the RWs model, the main characteristics of the RWs that necessitate analysis during the ACS design phase include: technical features, sequence of operating and RW control logic are included in function (behavior) model. A mathematical model is developed including the various errors source. The errors in control torque including relative, absolute, and error due to time delay. While the errors in angular velocity due to differences between average and real speed, resolution error, loose in installation of angular sensor, and synchronization errors. The friction torque is presented in the model include the different feature of friction phenomena: steady velocity friction, static friction and break-away torque, and frictional lag. The model response is compared with the experimental torque and frequency-response characteristics of tested RWs. Based on the created RW model, some criteria of optimization based control torque allocation problem can be recommended like: avoiding the zero speed crossing, bias angular velocity, or preventing wheel from running on the same angular velocity.
Keywords: friction torque, reaction wheels modeling, software in the loop, spacecraft attitude controlProcedia PDF Downloads 179
59 Deorbiting Performance of Electrodynamic Tethers to Mitigate Space Debris
Authors: Giulia Sarego, Lorenzo Olivieri, Andrea Valmorbida, Carlo Bettanini, Giacomo Colombatti, Marco Pertile, Enrico C. Lorenzini
Abstract:International guidelines recommend removing any artificial body in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 25 years from mission completion. Among disposal strategies, electrodynamic tethers appear to be a promising option for LEO, thanks to the limited storage mass and the minimum interface requirements to the host spacecraft. In particular, recent technological advances make it feasible to deorbit large objects with tether lengths of a few kilometers or less. To further investigate such an innovative passive system, the European Union is currently funding the project E.T.PACK – Electrodynamic Tether Technology for Passive Consumable-less Deorbit Kit in the framework of the H2020 Future Emerging Technologies (FET) Open program. The project focuses on the design of an end of life disposal kit for LEO satellites. This kit aims to deploy a taped tether that can be activated at the spacecraft end of life to perform autonomous deorbit within the international guidelines. In this paper, the orbital performance of the E.T.PACK deorbiting kit is compared to other disposal methods. Besides, the orbital decay prediction is parametrized as a function of spacecraft mass and tether system performance. Different values of length, width, and thickness of the tether will be evaluated for various scenarios (i.e., different initial orbital parameters). The results will be compared to other end-of-life disposal methods with similar allocated resources. The analysis of the more innovative system’s performance with the tape coated with a thermionic material, which has a low work-function (LWT), for which no active component for the cathode is required, will also be briefly discussed. The results show that the electrodynamic tether option can be a competitive and performant solution for satellite disposal compared to other deorbit technologies.
Keywords: deorbiting performance, H2020, spacecraft disposal, space electrodynamic tethersProcedia PDF Downloads 93
58 Design Analysis of Tilting System for Spacecraft Transportation
Authors: P. Naresh, Amir Iqbal
Abstract:Satellite transportation is inevitable step during the course of integration testing and launch. Large satellites are transported in horizontal mode due to constraints on commercially available cargo bay dimensions & on road obstacles. To facilitate transportation of bigger size spacecraft in horizontal mode a tilting system is released. This tilting system consists of tilt table, columns, hinge pin, angular contact bearings, slewing bearing and linear actuators. The tilting system is very compact and easy to use however it is also serves the purpose of a fixture so it is of immense interest to know the stress and fundamental frequency of the system in transportation configuration. This paper discusses design aspects and finite element analysis of tilting system-cum-fixture using Hypermesh/Nastran.
Keywords: tilt table, column, slewing bearing, stress, modal analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 472