Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: buoyancy

65 Development of Ceramic Spheres Buoyancy Modules for Deep-Sea Oil Exploration

Authors: G. Blugan, B. Jiang, J. Thornberry, P. Sturzenegger, U. Gonzenbach, M. Misson, D. Cartlidge, R. Stenerud, J. Kuebler


Low-cost ceramic spheres were developed and manufactured from the engineering ceramic aluminium oxide. Hollow spheres of 50 mm diameter with a wall thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm were produced via an adapted slip casting technique. It was possible to produce the spheres with good repeatability and with no defects or failures in the spheres due to the manufacturing process. The spheres were developed specifically for use in buoyancy devices for deep-sea exploration conditions at depths of 3000 m below sea level. The spheres with a 1.0 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 54% while the spheres with a 0.5 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 73%. The mechanical performance of the spheres was confirmed by performing a hydraulic burst pressure test on individual spheres. With a safety factor of 3, all spheres with 1.0 mm wall thickness survived a hydraulic pressure of greater than 150 MPa which is equivalent to a depth of more than 5000 m below sea level. The spheres were then incorporated into a buoyancy module. These hollow aluminium oxide ceramic spheres offer an excellent possibility of deep-sea exploration to depths greater than the currently used technology.

Keywords: buoyancy, ceramic spheres, deep-sea, oil exploration

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
64 Buoyancy Effects in Pressure Retarded Osmosis with Extremely High Draw Solution Concentration

Authors: Ivonne Tshuma, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch, Wendell Ela


Water crisis is a world-wide problem because of population growth and climate change. Hence, desalination is a solution to water scarcity, which threatens the world. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most used technique for desalination; unfortunately, this process, usually requires high-pressure requirement hence requires a lot of energy about 3 – 5.5 KWhr/m³ of electrical energy. The pressure requirements of RO can be alleviated by the use of PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) to drive the RO process. This paper proposes a process of utilizing the energy directly from PRO to drive an RO process. The paper mostly analyses the PRO process parameters such as cross-flow velocity, density, and buoyancy and how these have an effect on PRO hence ultimately the RO process. The experimental study of the PRO with various feed solution concentrations and cross-flow velocities at fixed applied pressure with different orientations of the PRO cell was performed. The study revealed that without cross-flow velocity, buoyancy effects were observed but not with cross-flow velocity.

Keywords: cross-flow velocity, pressure retarded osmosis, density, buoyancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
63 [Keynote Speaker]: Some Similarity Considerations for Design of Experiments for Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicle

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S. M. Ali


Buoyancy force applied on deformable symmetric bodies can be estimated by using Archimedes Principle. Such bodies like ellipsoidal bodies have high volume to surface ratio and are isometrically scaled for mass, length, area and volume to follow square cube law. For scaling up such bodies, it is worthwhile to find out the scaling relationship between the other physical quantities that represent thermodynamic, structural and inertial response etc. So, dimensionless similarities to find an allometric scale can be developed by using Bukingham π theorem which utilizes physical dimensions of important parameters. Base on this fact, physical dependencies of buoyancy system are reviewed to find the set of physical variables for deformable bodies of revolution filled with expandable gas like helium. Due to change in atmospheric conditions, this gas changes its volume and this change can effect the stability of elongated bodies on the ground as well as in te air. Special emphasis was given on the existing similarity parameters which can be used in the design of experiments of such bodies whose shape is affected by the external force like a drag, surface tension and kinetic loads acting on the surface. All these similarity criteria are based on non-dimensionalization, which also needs to be consider for scaling up such bodies.

Keywords: Bukhigham pi theorem, similitude, scaling, buoyancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
62 Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids

Authors: G. N. Sekhar, P. G. Siddheshwar, G. Jayalatha, R. Prakash


The problem of thermal convection in temperature and magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow. Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1 and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the direction of flow.

Keywords: ferroconvection, magnetic field dependent viscosity, temperature dependent viscosity, throughflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
61 An Investigation of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Perceived the Results of Buoyancy Force

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt, Şükran Erdoğan


The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers perceive buoyancy force effecting an object in a liquid and identify their misconceptions. Pre-service teachers were interviewed to reveal their understandings of an object's floating, suspending and sinking in a liquid. In addition, they were asked about how an object -given its features- moved when it is provided with an external force and when it is released. The so-called circumstances were questioned in a different planet contexts. For this aim, focused group interview method was used. Six focused groups were formed and video recorded during the interval. Each focused group comprised of five pre-service teachers. It was found out pre-service teachers have common misunderstanding and misconceptions. In order to eliminate this conceptual misunderstandings, conceptual change texts were developed and further suggestions were made.

Keywords: computer simulations, conceptual change texts, physics education, students’ misconceptions in physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
60 A Rotating Facility with High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry System to Investigate the Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

Authors: Ruquan You, Haiwang Li, Zhi Tao


A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the boundary layer flow with the effect of rotating Coriolis and buoyancy force. This time-resolved PIV system consists of a 10 Watts continuous laser diode and a high-speed camera. The laser diode is able to provide a less than 1mm thickness sheet light, and the high-speed camera can capture the 6400 frames per second with 1024×1024 pixels. The whole laser and the camera are fixed on the rotating facility with 1 radius meters and up to 500 revolutions per minute, which can measure the boundary flow velocity in the rotating channel with and without ribs directly at rotating conditions. To investigate the effect of buoyancy force, transparent heater glasses are used to provide the constant thermal heat flux, and then the density differences are generated near the channel wall, and the buoyancy force can be simulated when the channel is rotating. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of the system, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) can be developed to analyze the characteristic of the turbulent boundary layer flow at rotating conditions. With this rotating facility and PIV system, the velocity profile, Reynolds shear stress, spatial and temporal correlation, and the POD modes of the turbulent boundary layer flow can be discussed.

Keywords: rotating facility, PIV, boundary layer flow, spatial and temporal resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
59 Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue

Authors: Imam Taufiqurrahman, Anugrah Adiwilaga, Egi Hidayat, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.

Keywords: control system, PID, underwater glider, marine robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
58 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal


A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
57 Investigation of Software Integration for Simulations of Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer in a Vehicle Underhood during Thermal Soak

Authors: R. Yuan, S. Sivasankaran, N. Dutta, K. Ebrahimi


This paper investigates the software capability and computer-aided engineering (CAE) method of modelling transient heat transfer process occurred in the vehicle underhood region during vehicle thermal soak phase. The heat retention from the soak period will be beneficial to the cold start with reduced friction loss for the second 14°C worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) cycle, therefore provides benefits on both CO₂ emission reduction and fuel economy. When vehicle undergoes soak stage, the airflow and the associated convective heat transfer around and inside the engine bay is driven by the buoyancy effect. This effect along with thermal radiation and conduction are the key factors to the thermal simulation of the engine bay to obtain the accurate fluids and metal temperature cool-down trajectories and to predict the temperatures at the end of the soak period. Method development has been investigated in this study on a light-duty passenger vehicle using coupled aerodynamic-heat transfer thermal transient modelling method for the full vehicle under 9 hours of thermal soak. The 3D underhood flow dynamics were solved inherently transient by the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) method using the PowerFlow software. This was further coupled with heat transfer modelling using the PowerTHERM software provided by Exa Corporation. The particle-based LBM method was capable of accurately handling extremely complicated transient flow behavior on complex surface geometries. The detailed thermal modelling, including heat conduction, radiation, and buoyancy-driven heat convection, were integrated solved by PowerTHERM. The 9 hours cool-down period was simulated and compared with the vehicle testing data of the key fluid (coolant, oil) and metal temperatures. The developed CAE method was able to predict the cool-down behaviour of the key fluids and components in agreement with the experimental data and also visualised the air leakage paths and thermal retention around the engine bay. The cool-down trajectories of the key components obtained for the 9 hours thermal soak period provide vital information and a basis for the further development of reduced-order modelling studies in future work. This allows a fast-running model to be developed and be further imbedded with the holistic study of vehicle energy modelling and thermal management. It is also found that the buoyancy effect plays an important part at the first stage of the 9 hours soak and the flow development during this stage is vital to accurately predict the heat transfer coefficients for the heat retention modelling. The developed method has demonstrated the software integration for simulating buoyancy-driven heat transfer in a vehicle underhood region during thermal soak with satisfying accuracy and efficient computing time. The CAE method developed will allow integration of the design of engine encapsulations for improving fuel consumption and reducing CO₂ emissions in a timely and robust manner, aiding the development of low-carbon transport technologies.

Keywords: ATCT/WLTC driving cycle, buoyancy-driven heat transfer, CAE method, heat retention, underhood modeling, vehicle thermal soak

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
56 Microplastic Storages in Riverbed Sediments: Experimental on the Settling Process and Its Deposits

Authors: Alvarez Barrantes, Robert Dorrell, Christopher Hackney, Anne Baar, Roberto Fernandez, Daniel Parsons


Microplastic particles entering fluvial environments are deposited with natural sediments. Their settling properties can change by the absorption or adsorption of contaminants, organic matter, and organisms. These deposits include positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant particles. This study aims to understand how plastic particles of different densities interact with natural sediments as they settle and how they are stored within the sediment deposit. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the deposition of microplastic particles and associated pollution in rivers. A set of 48 experiments was designed to investigate the settling process of microplastic particles in freshwater. The experimental work describes the vertical variation of cohesive and/or non-cohesive sediment versus microplastic densities in deposited sediment. The experiment consisted of adding microplastic particles, sediment, and water in a waterproof carton tube of a height of 24 cm and a diameter of 5 cm. The plastic selected is positively, neutrally, and negatively buoyant. The sediments consist of sand and clay with four different concentrations. The mixture of materials was shaken until is thoroughly mixed and left to settle for 24 hours. After the settlement, the tubes were frozen at -20 °C to be able to cut them and measure the thickness of the deposits and analyze the sediment and plastic distribution. The most representative experiments were repeated in a glass tube of the same size; to analyse the influences of current flows and depositional process. Finally, the glass tube experiments were used to study organic materials adsorption in plastic, settling the sample for four months. Defined microplastic layers were identified as the density of the plastic change. Preliminary results show that most of the positive buoyancy particles floated, neutral buoyancy particles form a layer above the sediment and negative buoyancy particles mixed with the sediment. The vertical grain size distribution of the deposits was analysed to determine deposition variation with and without plastic. It is expected that the positively buoyant particles are trapped in the sediment by the currents flows and sink due to organic material adsorption. Finally, the experiments will explain how microplastic particles, including positively buoyant ones, are stored in natural sediment deposits.

Keywords: microplastic adsorption process, microplastic deposition in natural sediment, microplastic pollution in rivers, storages of positive buoyancy microplastic particles

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55 Development, Optimization and Characterization of Gastroretentive Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System

Authors: Swapnila V. Vanshiv, Hemant P. Joshi, Atul B. Aware


Current study illustrates the formulation of floating microspheres for purpose of gastroretention of Dipyridamole which shows pH dependent solubility, with the highest solubility in acidic pH. The formulation involved hollow microsphere preparation by using solvent evaporation technique. Concentrations of rate controlling polymer, hydrophilic polymer, internal phase ratio, stirring speed were optimized to get desired responses, namely release of Dipyridamole, buoyancy of microspheres, entrapment efficiency of microspheres. In the formulation, the floating microspheres were prepared by using ethyl cellulose as release retardant and HPMC as a low density hydrophilic swellable polymer. Formulated microspheres were evaluated for their physical properties such as particle size and surface morphology by optical microscopy and SEM. Entrapment efficiency, floating behavior and drug release study as well the formulation was evaluated for in vivo gastroretention in rabbits using gamma scintigraphy. Formulation showed 75% drug release up to 10 hr with entrapment efficiency of 91% and 88% buoyancy till 10 hr. Gamma scintigraphic studies revealed that the optimized system was retained in the gastric region (stomach) for a prolonged period i.e. more than 5 hr.

Keywords: Dipyridamole microspheres, gastroretention, HPMC, optimization method

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
54 Thermophoresis Particle Precipitate on Heated Surfaces

Authors: Rebhi A. Damseh, H. M. Duwairi, Benbella A. Shannak


This work deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of a Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with variable surface heat flux embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoresis particle deposition effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into no-similar form by using special transformation and solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference method. Many results are obtained and a representative set is displaced graphically to illustrate the influence of the various physical parameters on the wall thermophoresis deposition velocity and concentration profiles. It is found that the increasing of thermophoresis constant or temperature differences enhances heat transfer rates from vertical surfaces and increase wall thermophoresis velocities; this is due to favourable temperature gradients or buoyancy forces. It is also found that the effect of thermophoresis phenomena is more pronounced near pure natural convection heat transfer limit; because this phenomenon is directly a temperature gradient or buoyancy forces dependent. Comparisons with previously published work in the limits are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

Keywords: thermophoresis, porous medium, variable surface heat flux, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
53 Numerical Analysis of a Pilot Solar Chimney Power Plant

Authors: Ehsan Gholamalizadeh, Jae Dong Chung


Solar chimney power plant is a feasible solar thermal system which produces electricity from the Sun. The objective of this study is to investigate buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer through a built pilot solar chimney system called 'Kerman Project'. The system has a chimney with the height and diameter of 60 m and 3 m, respectively, and the average radius of its solar collector is about 20 m, and also its average collector height is about 2 m. A three-dimensional simulation was conducted to analyze the system, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this model, radiative transfer equation was solved using the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model taking into account a non-gray radiation behavior. In order to modelling solar irradiation from the sun’s rays, the solar ray tracing algorithm was coupled to the computation via a source term in the energy equation. The model was validated with comparing to the experimental data of the Manzanares prototype and also the performance of the built pilot system. Then, based on the numerical simulations, velocity and temperature distributions through the system, the temperature profile of the ground surface and the system performance were presented. The analysis accurately shows the flow and heat transfer characteristics through the pilot system and predicts its performance.

Keywords: buoyancy-driven flow, computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer, renewable energy, solar chimney power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
52 Development and Experimental Validation of Coupled Flow-Aerosol Microphysics Model for Hot Wire Generator

Authors: K. Ghosh, S. N. Tripathi, Manish Joshi, Y. S. Mayya, Arshad Khan, B. K. Sapra


We have developed a CFD coupled aerosol microphysics model in the context of aerosol generation from a glowing wire. The governing equations can be solved implicitly for mass, momentum, energy transfer along with aerosol dynamics. The computationally efficient framework can simulate temporal behavior of total number concentration and number size distribution. This formulation uniquely couples standard K-Epsilon scheme with boundary layer model with detailed aerosol dynamics through residence time. This model uses measured temperatures (wire surface and axial/radial surroundings) and wire compositional data apart from other usual inputs for simulations. The model predictions show that bulk fluid motion and local heat distribution can significantly affect the aerosol behavior when the buoyancy effect in momentum transfer is considered. Buoyancy generated turbulence was found to be affecting parameters related to aerosol dynamics and transport as well. The model was validated by comparing simulated predictions with results obtained from six controlled experiments performed with a laboratory-made hot wire nanoparticle generator. Condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used for measurement of total number concentration and number size distribution at the outlet of reactor cell during these experiments. Our model-predicted results were found to be in reasonable agreement with observed values. The developed model is fast (fully implicit) and numerically stable. It can be used specifically for applications in the context of the behavior of aerosol particles generated from glowing wire technique and in general for other similar large scale domains. Incorporation of CFD in aerosol microphysics framework provides a realistic platform to study natural convection driven systems/ applications. Aerosol dynamics sub-modules (nucleation, coagulation, wall deposition) have been coupled with Navier Stokes equations modified to include buoyancy coupled K-Epsilon turbulence model. Coupled flow-aerosol dynamics equation was solved numerically and in the implicit scheme. Wire composition and temperature (wire surface and cell domain) were obtained/measured, to be used as input for the model simulations. Model simulations showed a significant effect of fluid properties on the dynamics of aerosol particles. The role of buoyancy was highlighted by observation and interpretation of nucleation zones in the planes above the wire axis. The model was validated against measured temporal evolution, total number concentration and size distribution at the outlet of hot wire generator cell. Experimentally averaged and simulated total number concentrations were found to match closely, barring values at initial times. Steady-state number size distribution matched very well for sub 10 nm particle diameters while reasonable differences were noticed for higher size ranges. Although tuned specifically for the present context (i.e., aerosol generation from hotwire generator), the model can also be used for diverse applications, e.g., emission of particles from hot zones (chimneys, exhaust), fires and atmospheric cloud dynamics.

Keywords: nanoparticles, k-epsilon model, buoyancy, CFD, hot wire generator, aerosol dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
51 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou


The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: knitting technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
50 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Heat Transfer of Hot Air Bubble Injection into Water Column

Authors: Jae-Yeong Choi, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Jong-Chun Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Seok-Tae Yoon


When air flow is injected into water, bubbles are formed in various types inside the water pool along with the air flow rate. The bubbles are floated in equilibrium with forces such as buoyancy, surface tension and shear force. Single bubble generated at low flow rate maintains shape, but bubbles with high flow rate break up to make mixing and turbulence. In addition to this phenomenon, as the hot air bubbles are injected into the water, heat affects the interface of phases. Therefore, the main scope of the present work reveals how to proceed heat transfer between water and hot air bubbles injected into water. In the present study, a series of CFD simulation for the heat transfer of hot bubbles injected through a nozzle near the bottom in a cylindrical water column are performed using a commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+. The governing equations for incompressible and viscous flow are the continuous and the RaNS (Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes) equations and discretized by the FVM (Finite Volume Method) manner. For solving multi-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model is employed and the interface is defined by VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) technique. As a turbulence model, the SST k-w model considering the buoyancy effects is introduced. For spatial differencing the 3th-order MUSCL scheme is adopted and the 2nd-order implicit scheme for time integration. As the results, the dynamic behavior of the rising hot bubbles with the flow rate injected and regarding heat transfer mechanism are discussed based on the simulation results.

Keywords: heat transfer, hot bubble injection, eulerian multiphase model, flow rate, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
49 Effect of Loop Diameter, Height and Insulation on a High Temperature CO2 Based Natural Circulation Loop

Authors: S. Sadhu, M. Ramgopal, S. Bhattacharyya


Natural circulation loops (NCLs) are buoyancy driven flow systems without any moving components. NCLs have vast applications in geothermal, solar and nuclear power industry where reliability and safety are of foremost concern. Due to certain favorable thermophysical properties, especially near supercritical regions, carbon dioxide can be considered as an ideal loop fluid in many applications. In the present work, a high temperature NCL that uses supercritical carbon dioxide as loop fluid is analysed. The effects of relevant design and operating variables on loop performance are studied. The system operating under steady state is modelled taking into account the axial conduction through loop fluid and loop wall, and heat transfer with surroundings. The heat source is considered to be a heater with controlled heat flux and heat sink is modelled as an end heat exchanger with water as the external cold fluid. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation are normalized and are solved numerically using finite volume method. Results are obtained for a loop pressure of 90 bar with the power input varying from 0.5 kW to 6.0 kW. The numerical results are validated against the experimental results reported in the literature in terms of the modified Grashof number (Grm) and Reynolds number (Re). Based on the results, buoyancy and friction dominated regions are identified for a given loop. Parametric analysis has been done to show the effect of loop diameter, loop height, ambient temperature and insulation. The results show that for the high temperature loop, heat loss to surroundings affects the loop performance significantly. Hence this conjugate heat transfer between the loop and surroundings has to be considered in the analysis of high temperature NCLs.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, heat loss, natural circulation loop, supercritical carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
48 Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity

Authors: Mohammadreza Sedighi, Mohammad Said Saidi, Hesamoddin Salarian


A numerical study has been performed to investigate the effect of using different turbulent models on natural convection flow field and temperature distributions in partially heated square cavity compare to benchmark. The temperature of the right vertical wall is lower than that of heater while other walls are insulated. The commercial CFD codes are used to model. Standard k-w model provided good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Buoyancy, Cavity, CFD, Heat Transfer, Natural Convection, Turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
47 ANSYS FLUENT Simulation of Natural Convection and Radiation in a Solar Enclosure

Authors: Sireetorn Kuharat, Anwar Beg


In this study, multi-mode heat transfer characteristics of spacecraft solar collectors are investigated computationally. Two-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar Newtonian viscous convection-radiative heat transfer in a rectangular solar collector geometry. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 17.2) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics. Several radiative transfer models are employed which are available in the ANSYS workbench, including the classical Rosseland flux model and the more elegant P1 flux model. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is conducted with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation. The influence of aspect ratio, Prandtl number (Pr), Rayleigh number (Ra) and radiative flux model on temperature, isotherms, velocity, the pressure is evaluated and visualized in color plots. Additionally, the local convective heat flux is computed and solutions are compared with the MAC solver for various buoyancy effects (e.g. Ra = 10,000,000) achieving excellent agreement. The P1 model is shown to better predict the actual influence of solar radiative flux on thermal fluid behavior compared with the limited Rosseland model. With increasing Rayleigh numbers the hot zone emanating from the base of the collector is found to penetrate deeper into the collector and rises symmetrically dividing into two vortex regions with very high buoyancy effect (Ra >100,000). With increasing Prandtl number (three gas cases are examined respectively hydrogen gas mixture, air and ammonia gas) there is also a progressive incursion of the hot zone at the solar collector base higher into the solar collector space and simultaneously a greater asymmetric behavior of the dual isothermal zones. With increasing aspect ratio (wider base relative to the height of the solar collector geometry) there is a greater thermal convection pattern around the whole geometry, higher temperatures and the elimination of the cold upper zone associated with lower aspect ratio.

Keywords: thermal convection, radiative heat transfer, solar collector, Rayleigh number

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
46 Hydrotherapy with Dual Sensory Impairment (Dsi)-Deaf and Blind

Authors: M. Warburton


Background: Case study examining hydrotherapy for a person with DSI. A 46 year-old lady completely deaf and blind post congenital rubella syndrome. Touch becomes the primary information gathering sense to optimise function in life. Communication is achieved via tactile finger spelling and signals onto her hand and skin. Hydrotherapy may provide a suitable mobility environment and somato-sensory input to people, and especially DSI persons. Buoyancy, warmth, hydrostatic pressure, viscosity and turbulence are elements of hydrotherapy that may offer a DSI person somato-sensory input to stimulate the mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and proprioceptors and offer a unique hydro-therapeutic environment. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to establish what measurable benefits could be achieved from hydrotherapy with a DSI person. Methods: Hydrotherapy was provided for 8-weeks, 2 x week, 35-minute session duration. Pool temperature 32.5 degrees centigrade. Pool length 25-metres. Each session consisted of mobility encouragement and supervision, and activities to stimulate the somato-sensory system utilising aquatic properties of buoyancy, turbulence, viscosity, warmth and hydrostatic pressure. Somato-sensory activities focused on stimulating touch and tactile exploration including objects of various shape, size, weight, contour, texture, elasticity, pliability, softness and hardness. Outcomes were measured by the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) and included mobility distance, attendance, and timed tactile responsiveness to varying objects. Results: Mobility distance and attendance exceeded baseline expectations. Timed tactile responsiveness to varying objects also changed positively from baseline. Average scale scores were 1.00 with an overall GAS t-score of 63.69. Conclusions: Hydrotherapy can be a quantifiable physio-therapeutic option for persons with DSI. It provides a relatively safe environment for mobility and allows the somato-sensory system to be fully engaged - important for the DSI population. Implications: Hydrotherapy can be a measurable therapeutic option for a DSI person. Physiotherapists should consider hydrotherapy for DSI people. Hydrotherapy can offer unique physical properties for the DSI population not available on land.

Keywords: chronic, disability, disease, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
45 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras


This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
44 Solving Momentum and Energy Equation by Using Differential Transform Techniques

Authors: Mustafa Ekici


Natural convection is a basic process which is important in a wide variety of practical applications. In essence, a heated fluid expands and rises from buoyancy due to decreased density. Numerous papers have been written on natural or mixed convection in vertical ducts heated on the side. These equations have been proved to be valuable tools for the modelling of many phenomena such as fluid dynamics. Finding solutions to such equations or system of equations are in general not an easy task. We propose a method, which is called differential transform method, of solving a non-linear equations and compare the results with some of the other techniques. Illustrative examples shows that the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: differential transform method, momentum, energy equation, boundry value problem

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43 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh


This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

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42 Flow-Induced Vibration Marine Current Energy Harvesting Using a Symmetrical Balanced Pair of Pivoted Cylinders

Authors: Brad Stappenbelt


The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) for elastically restrained cylindrical structures in cross-flows is relatively well investigated. The utility of this mechanism in harvesting energy from marine current and tidal flows is however arguably still in its infancy. With relatively few moving components, a flow-induced vibration-based energy conversion device augers low complexity compared to the commonly employed turbine design. Despite the interest in this concept, a practical device has yet to emerge. It is desirable for optimal system performance to design for a very low mass or mass moment of inertia ratio. The device operating range, in particular, is maximized below the vortex-induced vibration critical point where an infinite resonant response region is realized. An unfortunate consequence of this requirement is large buoyancy forces that need to be mitigated by gravity-based, suction-caisson or anchor mooring systems. The focus of this paper is the testing of a novel VIV marine current energy harvesting configuration that utilizes a symmetrical and balanced pair of horizontal pivoted cylinders. The results of several years of experimental investigation, utilizing the University of Wollongong fluid mechanics laboratory towing tank, are analyzed and presented. A reduced velocity test range of 0 to 60 was covered across a large array of device configurations. In particular, power take-off damping ratios spanning from 0.044 to critical damping were examined in order to determine the optimal conditions and hence the maximum device energy conversion efficiency. The experiments conducted revealed acceptable energy conversion efficiencies of around 16% and desirable low flow-speed operating ranges when compared to traditional turbine technology. The potentially out-of-phase spanwise VIV cells on each arm of the device synchronized naturally as no decrease in amplitude response and comparable energy conversion efficiencies to the single cylinder arrangement were observed. In addition to the spatial design benefits related to the horizontal device orientation, the main advantage demonstrated by the current symmetrical horizontal configuration is to allow large velocity range resonant response conditions without the excessive buoyancy. The novel configuration proposed shows clear promise in overcoming many of the practical implementation issues related to flow-induced vibration marine current energy harvesting.

Keywords: flow-induced vibration, vortex-induced vibration, energy harvesting, tidal energy

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41 Heat and Mass Transfer in a Saturated Porous Medium Confined in Cylindrical Annular Geometry

Authors: A. Ja, J. Belabid, A. Cheddadi


This paper reports the numerical simulation of double diffusive natural convection flows within a horizontal annular filled with a saturated porous medium. The analysis concerns the influence of the different parameters governing the problem, namely, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Lewis number Le and the buoyancy ratio N, on the heat and mass transfer and on the flow structure, in the case of a fixed radius ratio R = 2. The numerical model used for the discretization of the dimensionless equations governing the problem is based on the finite difference method, using the ADI scheme. The study is focused on steady-state solutions in the cooperation situation.

Keywords: natural convection, double-diffusion, porous medium, annular geometry, finite differences

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40 Vortex Flows under Effects of Buoyant-Thermocapillary Convection

Authors: Malika Imoula, Rachid Saci, Renee Gatignol


A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze vortex flows in a free surface cylinder, driven by the independent rotation and differentially heated boundaries. As a basic uncontrolled isothermal flow, we consider configurations which exhibit steady axisymmetric toroidal type vortices which occur at the free surface; under given rates of the bottom disk uniform rotation and for selected aspect ratios of the enclosure. In the isothermal case, we show that sidewall differential rotation constitutes an effective kinematic means of flow control: the reverse flow regions may be suppressed under very weak co-rotation rates, while an enhancement of the vortex patterns is remarked under weak counter-rotation. However, in this latter case, high rates of counter-rotation reduce considerably the strength of the meridian flow and cause its confinement to a narrow layer on the bottom disk, while the remaining bulk flow is diffusion dominated and controlled by the sidewall rotation. The main control parameters in this case are the rotational Reynolds number, the cavity aspect ratio and the rotation rate ratio defined. Then, the study proceeded to consider the sensitivity of the vortex pattern, within the Boussinesq approximation, to a small temperature gradient set between the ambient fluid and an axial thin rod mounted on the cavity axis. Two additional parameters are introduced; namely, the Richardson number Ri and the Marangoni number Ma (or the thermocapillary Reynolds number). Results revealed that reducing the rod length induces the formation of on-axis bubbles instead of toroidal structures. Besides, the stagnation characteristics are significantly altered under the combined effects of buoyant-thermocapillary convection. Buoyancy, induced under sufficiently high Ri, was shown to predominate over the thermocapillay motion; causing the enhancement (suppression) of breakdown when the rod is warmer (cooler) than the ambient fluid. However, over small ranges of Ri, the sensitivity of the flow to surface tension gradients was clearly evidenced and results showed its full control over the occurrence and location of breakdown. In particular, detailed timewise evolution of the flow indicated that weak thermocapillary motion was sufficient to prevent the formation of toroidal patterns. These latter detach from the surface and undergo considerable size reduction while moving towards the bulk flow before vanishing. Further calculations revealed that the pattern reappears with increasing time as steady bubble type on the rod. However, in the absence of the central rod and also in the case of small rod length l, the flow evolved into steady state without any breakdown.

Keywords: buoyancy, cylinder, surface tension, toroidal vortex

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39 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar


The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number

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38 Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar, Mohammad Azadi, Alireza Alesaadi


This paper describes a sliding mode controller for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: lyapunov stability, autonomous underwater vehicle, sliding mode controller, electronics engineering

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37 Conceptual Design of Gravity Anchor Focusing on Anchor Towing and Lowering

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg


Wind power is one of the leading renewable energy generation methods. Due to abundant higher wind speeds far away from shore, the construction of offshore wind turbines began in the last decades. However, installation of offshore foundation-based (monopiles) wind turbines in deep waters are often associated with technical and financial challenges. To overcome such challenges, the concept of floating wind turbines is expanded as the basis from the oil and gas industry. The unfolding of Universal heavyweight gravity anchor (UGA) for floating based foundation for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) sub-structures is developed in this research work. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) for a three-year (2019-2022) research program called “Offshore Wind Solutions Plus (OWSplus) - Floating Offshore Wind Solutions Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.” It’s a group consists of German institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The part of the project is focused on the numerical modeling of gravity anchor that involves to analyze and solve fluid flow problems. Compared to gravity-based torpedo anchors, these UGA will be towed and lowered via controlled machines (tug boats) at lower speeds. This kind of installation of UGA are new to the offshore wind industry, particularly for TLP, and very few research works have been carried out in recent years. Conventional methods for transporting the anchor requires a large transportation crane vessel which involves a greater cost. This conceptual UGA anchors consists of ballasting chambers which utilizes the concept of buoyancy forces; the inside chambers are filled with the required amount of water in a way that they can float on the water for towing. After reaching the installation site, those chambers are ballasted with water for lowering. After it’s lifetime, these UGA can be unballasted (for erection or replacement) results in self-rising to the sea surface; buoyancy chambers give an advantage for using an UGA without the need of heavy machinery. However, while lowering/rising the UGA towards/away from the seabed, it experiences difficult, harsh marine environments due to the interaction of waves and currents. This leads to drifting of the anchor from the desired installation position and damage to the lowering machines. To overcome such harsh environments problems, a numerical model is built to investigate the influences of different outer contours and other fluid governing shapes that can be installed on the UGA to overcome the turbulence and drifting. The presentation will highlight the importance of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model in OpenFOAM, which is open-source programming software.

Keywords: anchor lowering, towing, waves, currrents, computational fluid dynamics

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36 Development of Under Water Autonomous Vertical Profiler: Unique Solution to Oceanographic Studies

Authors: I. K. Sharma


Over the years world over system are being developed by research labs continuously monitor under water parameters in the coastal waters of sea such as conductivity, salinity, pressure, temperature, chlorophyll and biological blooms at different levels of water column. The research institutions have developed profilers which are launched by ship connected through cable, glider type profilers following underwater trajectory, buoy any driven profilers, wire guided profilers etc. In all these years, the effect was to design autonomous profilers with no cable quality connection, simple operation and on line date transfer in terms accuracy, repeatability, reliability and consistency. Hence for the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India sponsored research project to National Institute of Oceanography, GOA, India to design and develop autonomous vertical profilers, it has taken system and AVP has been successfully developed and tested.

Keywords: oceanography, water column, autonomous profiler, buoyancy

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