Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10442

Search results for: firm performance

10442 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

Abstract:

This study empirically inspects the corporate governance and firm performance, and attempts to analyze the corporate governance and control related variables which are hypothesized to have effect on firm’s performance. Current study attempts to assess the mechanism and efficiency of corporate governance to achieve high level performance for the listed firms on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) for the period 2005 to 2008. To evaluate the firm performance level this study investigate the firm performance using three measures; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To check the link between firm performances with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to examine the relation among governance and corporate performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that governance related variables like block shareholding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When chief executive officer is also the board chairperson then it is observed that performance of firm is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative influence on the firm performance and size of firm is positively related with performance of the firm.

Keywords: corporate governance, agency cost, KSE, ROA, Tobin’s Q

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10441 Board Structure, Composition, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

Authors: Suleiman Ahmed Badayi

Abstract:

Corporate governance literature is very wide and involves several empirical studies conducted on the relationship between board structure, composition and firm performance. The separation of ownership and control in organizations were aimed at reducing the losses suffered by the investors in the event of financial scandals. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between board composition and its impact on firm performance. The findings from the studies provide different results while some are of the view that board structure is related to firm performance, many empirical studies indicates no relationship. However, others found a U-shape relationship between firm performance and board structure. Therefore, this study argued that board structure is not much significant to determine the financial performance of a firm.

Keywords: board structure, composition, firm performance, corporate governance

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10440 Determinants of Firm Financial Performance: An Empirical Investigation in Context of Public Limited Companies

Authors: Syed Hassan Amjad

Abstract:

In today’s competitive environment, in order for a company to exist, it must continually improve its Performance by reducing cost, improving quality and productivity, and easy access to market.The purpose of this thesis is to check the firm financial growth and performance and which type of factors affect the firm financial performance. This paper examines the key determinants of firm financial performance. We will differentiate between financial and non financial drivers of the firm financial performance. For the measurement of the firm financial performance there are many ways but all the measure had been taken in aggregation, such as debt, tax rate, operating expenses, earning per share and economic conditions. This study has also been done in developed countries but these researches show that foreign companies face many difficulties inimproving the firm financial performance. In findings we found that marketing expenditures and international diversification had a positive impact on firm valuation. In research also found that a firm's ownership composition, particularly the level of equity ownership by Domestic Financial Institutions and Dispersed Public Shareholders, and the leverage of the firm, tax rate and economic conditions were important factors affecting its financial performance.

Keywords: debt, tax rate, firm financial performance, operating expenses, dividend per share, economic conditions

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10439 The Impact of other Comprehensive Income Disclosure and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management and Firm Performance

Authors: Yan Wang, Yuan George Shan

Abstract:

This study examines whether earnings management reduces firm performance and how other comprehensive income (OCI) disclosure and strong corporate governance restrain earnings management. Using a data set comprising 6,260 firm-year observations from listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges during 2009–2015, the results indicate that OCI disclosure generally improves firm performance, but earnings management lowers firm performance. The study also finds that OCI disclosure and corporate governance are complementary in restraining earnings manipulation and promote firm performance. The implications of the findings are relevant policy-makers and regulators in assisting them evaluate the consequences of convergence of Chinese Accounting Standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards.

Keywords: other comprehensive income, corporate governance, earnings management, firm performance, China

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10438 Firm Performance and Evolving Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

Abstract:

This study empirically examines the corporate governance and firm performance, and tries to evaluate the governance, ownership and control related variables which are hypothesized to affect on firms performance. This study tries to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism to achieve high level performance among companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period from 2005 to 2008. To measure the firm performance level this research uses three measures of performance; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To link the performance of firms with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to test the link between corporate governance and firm performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that corporate governance variables such as percentage block holding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When CEO is also the chairperson of board then it is found that firm performance is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative impact on the performance of the firm and firm size is positively related with the firms performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, performance, agency cost, Karachi stock market

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10437 Corporate Governance Attributes and Financial Performance in Malaysian Listed Companies

Authors: Idris Adamu Alhaji, Wan Fauziahbt Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

This study was conducted to identify the relationship between Corporate Governance attributes and Firm Performance, various studies, had been carried out mostly in developed countries, in order to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Since, the value creation of corporate governance can be measured through the firm performance, corporate governance act as a mechanism to align management's goals with the stakeholders especially to increase firm performance. Despite extensive study of corporate governance there is still an inconsistence relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Five corporate governance element were used as independent variables which include: Independent director, board size, audit committee, leadership structure and board meeting. Meanwhile, the dependent variables are two firm performance measurements; return on equity (ROE) and earning per share (EPS). This study uses quantitative approaches whereby data were gathered from secondary source data were collected from Annual Reports of the companies, online journals etc. This study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the results show that good corporate governance practice influence firm performance. Finally, it's hoped that this study provides current corporate governance scenario in Malaysia that can be used to enhance the development of corporate governance of the country.

Keywords: corporate governance, return on equity, earning per share, financial performance

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10436 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in the UAE

Authors: Bakr Ali Al-Gamrh, Ku Nor Izah B. Ku Ismail

Abstract:

We investigate the relationship between corporate governance, leverage, risk, and firm performance. We use a firm level panel that spans the period 2008 to 2012 of all listed firms on Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange and Dubai Financial Market. After constructing an index of corporate governance strength, we find a negative effect of corporate governance on firm performance. We, however, discover that corporate governance strength indirectly improves the negative influence of leverage on firm performance in normal times. On the contrary, the results completely reversed when there is a black swan event. Corporate governance strength plays a significantly negative role in moderating the relationship between leverage and firm performance during the financial crisis. We also reveal that corporate governance strength increases firms’ risk and deteriorates performance during crisis. Results provide evidence that corporate governance indirectly plays a completely different role in different time periods.

Keywords: corporate governance, firm performance, risk, leverage, the UAE

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10435 The Effects of Corporate Governance on Firm’s Financial Performance: A Study of Family and Non-family Owned Firms in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

This research will examine the impact of corporate governance on firm performance in family and non-family owned firms in Pakistan. For the purpose of this research, corporate governance mechanisms which included are board size, board composition, leadership structure, board meetings are taken as independent variable and firm performance taken as dependent variable and it will be measured with return on asset and return on equity. Firm size and firm’s age will be taken as control variables. Secondary data will collect from audited annul reports of companies and panel data regression model will applied, to check the impact of corporate governance on firm performance.

Keywords: board size, board composition, Leadership Structure, board meetings, firm performance, family and non-family owned firms

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10434 Innovative Activity and Firm Performance: The Case of Eurozone Periphery

Authors: Ilias A. Makris

Abstract:

In this work, we attempt to analyse the contribution of innovative activities to firm performance and growth. We examine economic data from some of the economies that were heavily affected by current economic crisis: the countries of southern Europe (Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain) and Ireland. Following literature, an appropriate econometric model is developed and several indicators are tested in order to disclose possible relation with innovative activity. Findings confirm the crucial effect of innovative process in economic activity, in firm and country level.

Keywords: Eurozone periphery, firm performance, innovative activity, R&D

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10433 Agency Cost, Firm Performance, Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Arnold Sanda Layuk

Abstract:

Fraud in the disclosure of financial statements by management shows that agency conflict is an important issue in the company. The conflict has consequences for the agency costs that must be borne and has an impact on the firm's performance. The effect of agency costs on firm performance is investigated in this study, as well as whether several variables such as corporate governance mechanisms can positively moderate the agency cost and firm performance relationship. The agency cost is measured by the asset utilization ratio and discretionary expenditure ratio. The firm's performance is represented by the return on equity. Data was collected from the manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2015 to 2019, then regressed on the panel data using the panel corrected standard error model (PCSE). According to the findings, agency costs are negatively related to firm performance, which supports previous empirical research findings. It also found that the agency cost and firm performance relationship is significantly moderated by board size and ownership concentration as the representatives of corporate governance mechanisms. It suggests that corporate governance can become tools to reduce agency costs and increase firm performance as well. The empirical evidence adds to previous research on agency conflict, particularly in emerging markets. These findings are expected to supplement previous research and provide additional information to shareholders in order to control opportunistic management decisions that affect their investments and discretionary operational expenses.

Keywords: agency cost, corporate governance, asset utilization ratio, firm performance

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10432 The Board Structure of Public and Private Sector Companies and Its Impact on Firm Performance: A Study of Fortune 500 Indian Companies from 2006 to 2015

Authors: Gayathri P. Nair

Abstract:

The focus of this study is to identify whether the board structure has any significant impact on the firm performance and finding out any evidence of being listed in the Fortune 500 list compiled and published by the American business magazine, Fortune and published globally by Time Inc., as the world’s wealthiest companies. The list has been released based on the ranking obtained for the total revenues for the respective fiscal year which has ended on or before March 31st. The study has been conducted on the Indian companies that were listed in the Fortune 500 list for the past 10 years. This study employs a logical regression between the variables, firm performance and board composition as mentioned in the clause 49 of companies act 1956 and 2013. For getting the firm performance, ROA has selected as the key performance metric, as it focuses the management attention on the assets required to run the business. The highlight of the study is that the tools had been applied between public and private sector firms so that, it reveals whether the board composition is helping out to maintain the position in the list. In addition, the findings reveal that apart from independent directors, all other variables have significant impact on firm performance.

Keywords: board structure, Fortune 500 company, firm performance, India

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10431 Governance Disclosure Quality and Cooperative Performance in Malaysia

Authors: Intan Waheedah Othman, Maslinawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdullah

Abstract:

Few discussions were made on cooperative governance reforms despite the fact that cooperative movements operate and compete in an identical business environment as the private as well as the public corporations. Due to the scarcity of research examining the issue of governance among cooperatives, this paper is motivated to examine the extent of governance compliance and disclosure among cooperatives, hence the relationship between cooperative governance and its firm performance. Results from the study provide empirical evidence that disclosure on ownership structure and exercise of control rights was found to have significant negative relationship with cooperative firm performance.

Keywords: cooperative, governance, firm performance, Malaysia

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10430 A Study on Determining Market Orientation, Innovation Orientation and Firm Performance

Authors: Emel Gelmez, Derya Özilhan

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between market orientation, innovation orientation and firm performance in the hotel enterprises in Konya was examined. Research data was obtained by survey method and the research was conducted on the enterprises operating in tourism business in Konya. Hypothesis were tested in terms of the main aim of the present study. According to the findings it was determined that there is a positive and significant relationship between each parameters.

Keywords: firm performance, innovation, innovation orientation, market orientation

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10429 Internal Audit Innovation Affects to the Firm Performance Effectiveness

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to examine the effects of internal audit innovation on firm performance effectiveness influences of financial report reliability, organizational process improvement, and risk management effectiveness. This paper drew upon the survey data collected from 400 employees survey conducted at Nonthaburi province, Thailand. The statistics utilized in this paper included percentage, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis. The findings revealed that the majority of samples were between 31-40 years old, married, held an undergraduate degree, and had an average income between 10,000-15,000 baht. And also the results show that auditing integration has only influence on financial report reliability. Moreover, corporate risk evaluation has effect on firm performance by risk management effectiveness and control self-assessment has effect influence on firm performance by organizational process improvement and risk management effectiveness as well.

Keywords: corporate risk evaluation, firm performance effectiveness, internal audit innovation, marketing management

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10428 Simultaneous Relationship among Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Ayu Diar Sari, Sidharta Utama

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to examine the empirical association among strategic corporate social responsibility (Strategic CSR), corporate governance (CG), and firm performance by investigating their causal effects. In order to get the comprehensive result, this study uses CSR variables which consist of Strategic CSR, Non-Strategic CSR and CSR as a whole. Exerting the two stage least square (2SLS) method, the result showed that CG mechanism positively influences CSR, Non-Strategic CSR, and firm performance (both ROA and PBV). CSR and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence ROA. Meanwhile CSR, Strategic and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence PBV. Firm’s Strategic CSR engagement plays a significantly positive role in enhancing PBV. The results supported the social impact hypothesis, agency theory, and conflict resolution theory.

Keywords: corporate financial performance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, strategic corporate social responsibility

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10427 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert

Abstract:

We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging, firm performance

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10426 The Strategic Management Affect to Firm Performance: An Empirical Investigation of Businesses in Thailand

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships among business collaboration effectiveness, modern management excellence, proactive operational management, and firm performance to bring competitive advantage to the firm. Furthermore, the population and sample selected are exporters on textile businesses in Thailand in total of 566 companies. The data were collected by questionnaire survey and sent direct to the directors or managerial managers of each company which is appropriate as the key informant of this research. Moreover, the statistic to test hypothesis uses the hierarchical multiple regression analysis and provides those five hypotheses to testing. The results show direct effect that the business collaboration effectiveness has a significantly positive influence on firm performance, meaning that, the collaboration is an important factor in global business both internal and external of firms that reflect the linkage of business to create competitive advantage and gain benefits simultaneously of the firms efficiently also.

Keywords: business collaboration effectiveness, firm performance, modern management excellence, strategic management

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10425 Examining the Role of Corporate Culture in Driving Firm Performance

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Ivana Načinović Braje, Nevenka Čavlek

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between corporate culture and firm performance. Extensive theoretical and empirical evidence on this issue is provided. A quantitative methodology was used to explore relationship between corporate culture and performance among large Croatian companies. Corporate culture was explored by using Denison framework. The research revealed a positive, statistically significant relationship between mission and performance. Other dimensions of corporate culture (involvement, consistency and adaptability) show only partial relationship with performance.

Keywords: corporate culture, Croatia, Denison culture model, performance

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10424 The Determinant Factors of Technology Adoption for Improving Firm’s Performance; Toward a Conceptual Model

Authors: Zainal Arifin, Avanti Fontana

Abstract:

Considering that TOE framework is the most useful instrument for studying technology adoption in firm context, this paper will analyze the influence of technological, organizational and environmental (TOE) factors to the Dynamic capabilities (DCs) associated with technology adoption strategy for improving the firm’s performance. Focusing on the determinant factors of technology adoption at the firm level, the study will contribute to the broader study of resource base view (RBV) and dynamic capability (DC). There is no study connecting directly the TOE factors to the DCs, this paper proposes technology adoption as a functional competence/capability which mediates a relationship between technology adoptions with firm’s performance. The study wants to show a conceptual model of the indirect effects of DCs at the firm level, which can be key predictors of firm performance in dynamic business environment. The results of this research is mostly relevant to top corporate executives (BOD) or top management team (TMT) who seek to provide some supporting ‘hardware’ content and condition such as technological factors, organizational factors, environmental factors, and to improve firm's ‘software ‘ ability such as adaptive capability, absorptive capability and innovative capability, in order to achieve a successful technology adoption in organization. There are also mediating factors which are elaborated at this paper; timing and external network. A further research for showing its empirical results is highly recommended.

Keywords: technology adoption, TOE framework, dynamic capability, resources based view

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10423 Firm Performance and Stock Price in Nigeria

Authors: Tijjani Bashir Musa

Abstract:

The recent global crisis which suddenly results to Nigerian stock market crash revealed some peculiarities of Nigerian firms. Some firms in Nigeria are performing but their stock prices are not increasing while some firms are at the brink of collapse but their stock prices are increasing. Thus, this study examines the relationship between firm performance and stock price in Nigeria. The study covered the period of 2005 to 2009. This period is the period of stock boom and also marked the period of stock market crash as a result of global financial meltdown. The study is a panel study. A total of 140 firms were sampled from 216 firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). Data were collected from secondary source. These data were divided into four strata comprising the most performing stock, the least performing stock, most performing firms and the least performing firms. Each stratum contains 35 firms with characteristic of most performing stock, most performing firms, least performing stock and least performing firms. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the data while statistical/econometrics package of Stata 11.0 version was used to run the data. The study found that, relationship exists between selected firm performance parameters (operating efficiency, firm profit, earning per share and working capital) and stock price. As such firm performance gave sufficient information or has predictive power on stock prices movements in Nigeria for all the years under study.. The study recommends among others that Managers of firms in Nigeria should formulate policies and exert effort geared towards improving firm performance that will enhance stock prices movements.

Keywords: firm, Nigeria, performance, stock price

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10422 Knowledge Management and Motivation Management: Important Constituents of Firm Performance

Authors: Yassir Mahmood, Nadia Ehsan

Abstract:

In current research stream, empirical work regarding knowledge and motivation management along their dimensions is sparse. This study partially filled this void by investigating the influence of knowledge management (tacit and explicit) and motivation management (intrinsic and extrinsic) on firm performance with the mediating effects of innovative performance. Based on the quantitative research method, data were collected through questionnaire from 284 employees working in 18 different firms across the citrus industry located in Sargodha region (Pakistan). The proposed relationships were tested through regression analysis while mediation relations were analyzed through Barron and Kenny (1986) technique. The results suggested that knowledge management (KM) and motivation management (MM) have significant positive impacts on innovative performance (IP). In addition, the role of IP as full mediator between KM and firm performance (FP) is confirmed. Also, IP proved to be a partial mediator between MM and FP. From the managerial perspective, the findings of the study are vital as some of the important constituents of FP have been highlighted. The study produced important underpinnings for managers. In last, implications for policymakers along with future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: innovative performance, firm performance, knowledge management, motivation management, Sargodha

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10421 The Role of Language Strategy on International Survival of Firm: A Conceptual Framework from Resource Dependence Perspective

Authors: Sazzad Hossain Talukder

Abstract:

Survival in the competitive international market with unforeseen environmental contingencies has always been a concern of the firms that led to adopting different strategies to deal with different situations. Language strategy is considered to enhance the international performance of a firm by organizing language diversity and fostering communications within and outside the firm. Yet there is a lack of theoretical attention or model development on the role of language strategy on firm international survival. From resource dependence perspective, the adoption of language strategy and its relationship with firm survival are determined by the firm´s capability to prevent dependency concentration and/or increase relative power on the external environment. However, the impact of language strategy on firm survival is complex and multifaceted as the strategy influence firm performance indirectly through communication, coordination, learning and value creation. The evidence of various types of language strategies and different forms of firm survival also bring in complexities to understand the effects of a language strategy on the international survival of a firm. Based on language literatures and resource dependence logic, certain propositions are developed to conceptualize the relationship between language strategy and firm international survival in this conceptual paper. For the purpose of this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to examine how different kinds of language strategy foster reduction of resource dependency that lead to firm international survival in respond to local responsiveness and global integration. In this proposed model, it is theorized that language strategy has a positive relationship with the international survival of the firm, as the strategy is likely to reduce external resource dependency and increase the ability to continue independent operations both in short and long term.

Keywords: language strategy, language diversity, firm international survival, resource dependence logic

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10420 Impact of Board Characteristics on Financial Performance: A Study of Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

The research will examine the role of corporate governance (CG) practices on firm’s financial performance. Population of this research will be manufacture sector of Pakistan. For the purposes of measurement of impact of corporate governance practices such as board size, board independence, ceo/chairman duality, will take as independent variables and for the measurement of firm’s performance return on assets and return on equity will take as dependent variables. Panel data regression model will be used to estimate the impact of CG on firm performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, board size, board independence, leadership

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10419 Research on the Relationship between Localization Strategic Human Resource Management Practices and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japanese Multinational Enterprise Subsidiaries in Vietnam

Authors: Nana Weng

Abstract:

Firstly, based on two diamond models and Value-Rarity-Inimitability-Organization framework, this paper analyzes the Country Specific factors of and firm specific factors which influence subsidiaries’ sustainable competitive advantage. Then, according to the main content of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) research that HRM strategy should fit into corporate strategy, we explained what the SHRM practices should be in the context of localization strategies within Multinational Enterprise (MNE) companies. Then we choose two Japanese MNE subsidiaries in the same industry and tested the hypothesis that localization SHRM practices positively impact on subsidiary’s sustainable competitive advantage, further positively affect firm integrated performance (both financial performance and organizational and organizational performance) lever through High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) of local employees.

Keywords: localization SHRM, firm integrated performance, Japanese MNE subsidiaries, Vietnam

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10418 Assessment of the Two-Way Relationship between Capital Structure and Operation Performance of Listed Companies on Vietnam’s Stock

Authors: Uyen Tran Tu

Abstract:

The decision on capital structure is one of the most important and sophisticated decisions in financial management in order to improve firm performance. This article would study the two-way impact between capital structure and firm performance. The study use EVIEWS 6.0 software to determine a two-way relationship between the capital structure and firm performance based on two-stage regression (2SLS - Two-Stage Least Squares). The findings are: capital structure has the opposite effect on the business efficiency and vice versa, factors that effect on business efficiency include Size and Opportunities. Factors effects on the capital structure are size; liquidity. These factors also affect the ratio of capital structure (total debt/ total asset) of companies. In particular, liquidity has the opposite effect; and the size of the business has the same impact. The results of the study are in line with the theory and empirical studies presented, and the results of the study are unchanged for all three years 2015-2017.

Keywords: capital structure, firm performance, factors, two-way relationship

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10417 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Intensity and Capabilities on Internationalization and Firm Performance

Authors: B. Urban

Abstract:

International entrepreneurship represents the process of discovering and creatively exploiting opportunities that exist outside a firm’s national borders in order to obtain a competitive advantage. Firms in emerging economies are increasingly looking towards internationalisation since they are faced with rising competition in their domestic markets and attracted to opportunities in foreign markets. This article investigates international entrepreneurship by examining how the influence of entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities at the firm level influence performance, while at the same time considering environmental influences on this relationship. Based on past theoretical and empirical findings, hypotheses are formulated and then tested using correlational and regression analysis. Generally, the results support the hypotheses where both entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities are positively related to internationalisation and firm performance, while weak evidence is found for environmental hostility as a moderating influence. Several recommendations are made in light of the findings, where it is suggested that firms foster higher levels of innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness while developing human, social and technology related capabilities in order to enhance their performance and increase their levels of internationalisation.

Keywords: international entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intensity, capabilities, firm performance, exporting, South Africa

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10416 What Do Board Members Learn from Their External Connectedness? The Case of Firm Diversification

Authors: Pei-Gi Shu, Yin-Hua Yeh, Chao-Ting Chen

Abstract:

Using a dataset consisting of 7,120 firm-year observations from the Taiwan stock market over the 2007-2011 sample period, we find a significantly negative relationship between board external connectedness and firm diversification. We propose a learningeffect hypothesis indicating that an externally connected board member’s experiences in other companies directly affect his recommendations regarding the underlying firm’s diversification. The partial correlation between diversification and the performance of firms with externally connected board members is used as a proxy for the learning effect. The empirical results show that the learning effect is asymmetrically embedded in firm diversification, with negative experiences having a greater effect on firm diversification than positive experiences. Externally connected board members are associated with reduced diversification in one firm after they learn that diversification is detrimental to value in other companies. Moreover, the diversification of a firm due to board external connectedness is moderated by the controlling owner’s interest alignment and entrenchment.

Keywords: board, external, connectedness, diversification

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10415 Competitive Advantage Effecting Firm Performance: Case Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Somdech Rungsrisawas

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between the competitive advantage of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their overall performance. A mixed method has been applied to identify the effect of determinants toward competitive advantage. The sample is composed of SMEs in product and service businesses. The study has been tested at an organizational level with samples of SME entrepreneurs, business successors, and board of directors or management team. Quantitative analysis has been conducted through multiple regression analysis with 400 samples. The findings illustrate that each aspect of competitive advantage needs a different set of driving factors to explain either the direct or the indirect effect on firm performance. Interestingly, technological capability is a perfect mediator and interorganizational cooperation toward competitive advantage. In addition, differentiation is difficult to be perceived by customers, as well as difficult to manage; however, it is considered important to develop an SMEs product or service for firm sustainably.

Keywords: competitive advantage, firm performance, technological capability, Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs)

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10414 Business Model Innovation and Firm Performance: Exploring Moderation Effects

Authors: Mohammad-Ali Latifi, Harry Bouwman

Abstract:

Changes in the business environment accelerated dramatically over the last decades as a result of changes in technology, regulation, market, and competitors’ behavior. Firms need to change the way they do business in order to survive or maintain their growth. Innovating business model (BM) can create competitive advantages and enhance firm performance. However, many companies fail to achieve expected outcomes in practice, mostly due to irreversible fundamental changes in key components of the company’s BM. This leads to more ambiguity, uncertainty, and risks associated with business performance. However, the relationship among BM Innovation, moderating factors, and the firm’s overall performance is by and large ignored in the current literature. In this study, we identified twenty moderating factors from our comprehensive literature review. We categorized these factors based on two criteria regarding the extent to which: the moderating factors can be controlled and managed by firms, and they are generic or specific changes to the firms. This leads to four moderation groups. The first group is BM implementation, which includes management support, employees’ commitment, employees’ skills, communication, detailed plan. The second group is called BM practices, which consists of BM tooling, BM experimentation, the scope of change, speed of change, degree of novelty. The third group is Firm characteristics, including firm size, age, and ownership. The last group is called Industry characteristics, which considers the industry sector, competitive intensity, industry life cycle, environmental dynamism, high-tech vs. low-tech industry. Through collecting data from 508 European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and using the structural equation modeling technique, the developed moderation model was examined. Results revealed that all factors highlighted through these four groups moderate the relation between BMI and firm performance significantly. Particularly, factors related to BM-Implementation and BM-Practices are more manageable and would potentially improve firm overall performance. We believe that this result is more important for researchers and practitioners since the possibility of working on factors in Firm characteristics and Industry characteristics groups are limited, and the firm can hardly control and manage them to improve the performance of BMI efforts.

Keywords: business model innovation, firm performance, implementation, moderation

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10413 Board of Directors' Structure and Corporate Restructuring: A Preliminary Evidences

Authors: Norazlan Alias, Mohd. Hasimi Yaacob

Abstract:

This study examines the impact of governance structure via corporate restructuring decision on selected firm characteristics and performance. Results of selected ratios that represent corporate decision, governance structure and performance in pre and post restructuring are analyzed for some conclusions. This study uses annual data of companies that are consistently listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia and announced completed corporate restructuring. The results show that only debt ratio is significantly different before and after asset restructuring. This study concludes that firms do not view corporate restructuring namely asset restructuring as an opportunity to simultaneous enhance governance structure that could also contribute enhance firm performance and board of directors’ structure subsequent to asset restructuring only has significantly influence on changing capital structure but not on firm performance.

Keywords: board of directors, capital structure, corporate restructuring, performance

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