Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 877

Search results for: Sandeep Singh Sandhua

877 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Arun Kumar, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Sandeep Singh Sandhua

Abstract:

Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, SMAW, stellite 21, frictional wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
876 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, shielded metal arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
875 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: sandeep singh, Sukhveer Singh

Abstract:

A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: fuzzy transportation problem, uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
874 Analysis of Big Data

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh

Abstract:

As per the user demand and growth trends of large free data the storage solutions are now becoming more challenge-able to protect, store and to retrieve data. The days are not so far when the storage companies and organizations are start saying 'no' to store our valuable data or they will start charging a huge amount for its storage and protection. On the other hand as per the environmental conditions it becomes challenge-able to maintain and establish new data warehouses and data centers to protect global warming threats. A challenge of small data is over now, the challenges are big that how to manage the exponential growth of data. In this paper we have analyzed the growth trend of big data and its future implications. We have also focused on the impact of the unstructured data on various concerns and we have also suggested some possible remedies to streamline big data.

Keywords: Big Data, Unstructured data, Variety, volume, velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
873 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: Clustering, Wireless Sensor Network, orphan node, ONI protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
872 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Ravinder Singh Sawhney, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Gurvinder Singh, Jaspreet Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, morphological processing, deep neural network, farmer suicides, punjabi text

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
871 The Effect of Size, Thickness, and Type of the Bonding Interlayer on Bullet Proof Glass as per EN 1063

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Rabinder Singh Bharj

Abstract:

This investigation presents preparation of sample and analysis of results of ballistic impact test as per EN 1063 on the size, thickness, number, position, and type of the bonding interlayer Polyvinyl Butyral, Poly Carbonate and Poly Urethane on bullet proof glass. It was observed that impact energy absorbed by bullet proof glass increases with the increase of the total thickness from 33mm to 42mm to 51mm for all the three samples respectively. Absorption impact energy is greater for samples with more number of bonding interlayers than with the number of glass layers for uniform increase in total sample thickness. There is no effect on the absorption impact energy with the change in position of the bonding interlayer.

Keywords: absorbed energy, bullet proof glass, laminated glass, safety glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
870 A Novel Approach towards Test Case Prioritization Technique

Authors: Kamna Solanki, Yudhvir Singh, Sandeep Dalal

Abstract:

Software testing is a time and cost intensive process. A scrutiny of the code and rigorous testing is required to identify and rectify the putative bugs. The process of bug identification and its consequent correction is continuous in nature and often some of the bugs are removed after the software has been launched in the market. This process of code validation of the altered software during the maintenance phase is termed as Regression testing. Regression testing ubiquitously considers resource constraints; therefore, the deduction of an appropriate set of test cases, from the ensemble of the entire gamut of test cases, is a critical issue for regression test planning. This paper presents a novel method for designing a suitable prioritization process to optimize fault detection rate and performance of regression test on predefined constraints. The proposed method for test case prioritization m-ACO alters the food source selection criteria of natural ants and is basically a modified version of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The proposed m-ACO approach has been coded in 'Perl' language and results are validated using three examples by computation of Average Percentage of Faults Detected (APFD) metric.

Keywords: Software Testing, regression testing, test case prioritization, test suite optimization

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869 Tribological Behavior of Warm Rolled Spray Formed Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite Composite

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Surendra Kumar Chourasiya, Devendra Singh

Abstract:

In the present investigation tribological behavior of Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite composite has been explained. The composite was developed through the unique spray forming route in the spray forming chamber by using N₂ gas at 7kg/cm² and the flight distance was 400 mm. Spray formed composite having a certain amount of porosity which was reduced by the deformations. The composite was subjected to the warm rolling (WR) at 250ºC up to 40% reduction. Spray forming composite shows the considerable microstructure refinement, equiaxed grains, distribution of silicon and graphite particles in the primary matrix of the composite. Graphite (Gr) was incorporated externally during the process that works as a solid lubricant. Porosity decreased after reduction and hardness increases. Pin on disc test has been performed to analyze the wear behavior which is the function of sliding distance for all percent reduction of the composite. 30% WR composite shows the better result of wear rate and coefficient of friction. The improved wear properties of the composite containing Gr are discussed in light of the microstructural features of spray formed the composite and the nature of the debris particles. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis of the present material supported the prediction of aforementioned changes.

Keywords: Wear, Spray Forming, Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite, warm rolling

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868 A Process for Prevention of Browning in Fresh Cut Tender Jackfruit

Authors: Sabyasachi Mishra, Ramachandra Pradhan, Sandeep Singh Rama

Abstract:

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) in its tender form is consumed as a vegetable and popular for its flavour, colour and meat like texture. In South Asian countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Indonesia the market value for tender jackfruit is very high. However, due to lack of technology the marketing and transportation of the fruit is a challenge. The processing activities like washing, sorting, peeling and cutting enhances oxidative stress in fresh cut jackfruit. It is also having the ill effects on quality of fresh cut tender jackfruit by an increase in microbial contaminations, excessive tissue softening, and depletion of phytochemicals and browning. Hence, this study was conducted as a solution to the above problem. Fresh cut tender Jackfruit slices were processed by using the independent parameters such as concentration of CaCl2 (2-5%), concentration of citric acid (1-2.5%) and treatment time (4-10 min.) and the depended variables were Browning index (BI), colour change (ΔE), Firmness (F) and Overall all acceptability (OAA) after the treatment. From the response variables the best combination of independent variables was resulted as 3% concentration of CaCl2 and 2% concentration of citric acid for 6 minutes. At these optimised processing treatments, the browning can be prevented for fresh cut tender jackfruit. This technology can be used by the researcher, scientists, industries, etc. for further processing of tender jackfruit.

Keywords: Texture, firmness, tender jackfruit, browning index

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
867 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh, Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh

Abstract:

Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, PTFE, ceria, polytetrafluoroethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
866 Evaluation of High Temperature Wear Performance of as Cladded and Tig Re-Melting Stellite 6 Cladded Overlay on Aisi-304L Using SMAW Process

Authors: Manjit Singha, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, A. S. Shahi

Abstract:

Stellite 6 is cobalt based superalloy used for protective coatings. It is used to improve the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This paper reports the high temperature wear analysis of satellite 6 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiment was carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and hardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be the optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding on two plates of AISI 304 L substrate. On the first plate, seven layers seven passes of stellite 6 was overlaid which was used in as cladded form and the second plate was overlaid with five layers five passes of satellite 6 with further TIG remelting. The wear performance was examined for normal temperature environmental condition and harsh temperature environmental condition. The satellite 6 coating with TIG remelting was found to be better in both the conditions even with lesser metal deposition due to its finer grain structure.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, stellite 6, overlay, SMAW, high-temperature frictional wear, micro-structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
865 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh

Abstract:

Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: Aluminium Alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
864 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan, Jasbinder Singh

Abstract:

The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: voip, BER, coders, modulations, MOS

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
863 Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Sandeep Goyal, Sandeep Saluja

Abstract:

Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.

Keywords: Antioxidants, neurotoxicity, EGCG, rotenone

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
862 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: Mind-Wandering, vigilance, criterion response, mental status, thought probe

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
861 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: Corrosion, SiO2, Ringer’s solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
860 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: Abrasive Wear, hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
859 Application of Space Technology at Cadestral Level and Land Resources Management with Special Reference to Bhoomi Sena Project of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: A. K. Srivastava, Sandeep K. Singh, A. K. Kulshetra

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of developing countries of Asian sub-continent like India. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous and fifth largest State of India. Total population of the state is 19.95 crore, which is 16.49% of the country that is more than that of many other countries of the world. Uttar Pradesh occupies only 7.36% of the total area of India. It is a well-established fact that agriculture has virtually been the lifeline of the State’s economy in the past for long and its predominance is likely to continue for a fairly long time in future. The total geographical area of the state is 242.01 lakh hectares, out of which 120.44 lakh hectares is facing various land degradation problems. This needs to be put under various conservation and reclamation measures at much faster pace in order to enhance agriculture productivity in the State. Keeping in view the above scenario Department of Agriculture, Government of Uttar Pradesh has formulated a multi-purpose project namely Bhoomi Sena for the entire state. The main objective of the project is to improve the land degradation using low cost technology available at village level. The total outlay of the project is Rs. 39643.75 Lakhs for an area of about 226000 ha included in the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-13 to 2016-17). It is expected that the total man days would be 310.60 lakh. An attempt has been made to use the space technology like remote sensing, geographical information system, at cadastral level for the overall management of agriculture engineering work which is required for the treatment of degradation of the land. After integration of thematic maps a proposed action plan map has been prepared for the future work.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, topographic survey, cadestral mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
858 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Sandeep Potnis, Arjita Biswas

Abstract:

Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: Experiments, Performance, bituminous roads, plastic roads

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
857 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Jatinderdeep Kaur, Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: conjugate dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
856 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Trayambak Tiwari, Tara Singh, Aarushi Agarwal, Anju Lata Singh, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: Attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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855 Prediction of Anticancer Potential of Curcumin Nanoparticles by Means of Quasi-Qsar Analysis Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Ruchika Goyal, Sandeep Jain

Abstract:

The experimental data for anticancer potential of curcumin nanoparticles was calculated by means of eclectic data. The optimal descriptors were examined using Monte Carlo method based CORAL SEA software. The statistical quality of the model is following: n = 14, R² = 0.6809, Q² = 0.5943, s = 0.175, MAE = 0.114, F = 26 (sub-training set), n =5, R²= 0.9529, Q² = 0.7982, s = 0.086, MAE = 0.068, F = 61, Av Rm² = 0.7601, ∆R²m = 0.0840, k = 0.9856 and kk = 1.0146 (test set) and n = 5, R² = 0.6075 (validation set). This data can be used to build predictive QSAR models for anticancer activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Curcumin, model, QSAR, anticancer potential, optimal descriptors

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854 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, Zeolite, Ethanol, acetone, gasoline

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
853 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme

Authors: Kulbir Singh, Geeta Kasana, Satvinder Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image.

Keywords: PSNR, MSE, DWT, IWT

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852 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminum Alloys, Friction Stir Welding

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851 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, forgery detection, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification

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850 Applications of Sulfur Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Sandeep K. Shukla, Roli Jain, Soumitra S. Pande, Archna Pandey

Abstract:

Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared by different methods with different sizes and shapes. When the sulfur is present as nanoparticles they have many practical applications in our life. This research discusses sulfur nanoparticles synthesis, characterizations and applications. With dandruff being a common everyday problem and the market is loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products, it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area would be both objective to present scenario and potentially lucrative. Nanoparticles are frequently in use in some very powerful antimicrobial, antifungal cosmetics nowadays, especially silver. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments have been conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for seborrheaic dermatitis or dandruff, which have been cultured for such study in our lab.

Keywords: XRD, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), CTAB surfactant SEM, polymeric surfactant

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849 High Temperature Behavior of a 75Cr3C2–25NiCr Coated T91 Boiler Steel in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler

Authors: Buta Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the present investigation, 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature corrosion resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under cyclic conditions in the platen superheater zone coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles each of 100 h duration followed by 1 h cooling at ambient temperature. The performance of the bare and coated specimens was assessed via metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation and the depth of internal corrosion attack. 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating deposited on T91 steel imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated steel. Inferior resistance of bare T91 steel is attributed to the formation of pores and loosely bounded oxide scale rich in Fe2O3.

Keywords: HVOF process, boiler steel, coal fired boilers

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848 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Viscoelasticity, operational matrices, legendre wavelets, partial integro-differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163