Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2222

Search results for: volume

2222 Incorporating Ground Sand in Production of Self-Consolidating Concrete to Decrease High Paste Volume and Improve Passing Ability of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: S. K. Ling, A. K. H. Kwan

Abstract:

The production of SCC (self-consolidating concrete) generally requires a fairy high paste volume, ranging from 35% to 40% of the total concrete volume. Such high paste volume would lead to low dimensional stability and high carbon footprint. Direct lowering the paste volume would deteriorate the performance of SCC, especially the passing ability. It is often observed that at narrow gap of congested reinforcements, the paste often flows in the front leaving the coarse aggregate particle behind to block the subsequent flow of concrete. Herein, it is suggested to increase the mortar volume through incorporating ground sand with a mean size of 0.3 mm while keeping the paste volume small. Trial concrete mixes with paste volumes of 30% and 34% and different ground sand contents have been tested to demonstrate how the paste volume can be lowered without sacrificing the passing ability. Overall, the results demonstrated that the addition of ground sand would enable the achievement of high passing ability at a relatively small paste volume.

Keywords: ground sand, mortar volume, paste volume, self-consolidating concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2221 Significance of Tridimensional Volume of Tumor in Breast Cancer Compared to Conventional TNM Stage

Authors: Jaewoo Choi, Ki-Tae Hwang, Eunyoung Ko

Abstract:

Backgrounds/Aims: Patients with breast cancer are currently classified according to TNM stage. Nevertheless, the actual volume would be mis-estimated, and it would bring on inappropriate diagnosis. Tridimensional volume-stage derived from the ellipsoid formula was presented as useful measure. Methods: The medical records of 480 consecutive breast cancer between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups according to tumor volume by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the ranges of each volume-stage were that V1 was below 2.5 cc, V2 was exceeded 2.5 and below 10.9 cc, and V3 was exceeded 10.9 cc. We analyzed outcomes of volume-stage and compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between size-stage and volume-stage with variant intrinsic factor. Results: In the T2 stage, there were patients who had a smaller volume than 4.2 cc known as maximum value of T1. These findings presented that patients in T1c had poorer DFS than T2-lesser (mean of DFS 48.7 vs. 51.8, p = 0.011). Such is also the case in OS (mean of OS 51.1 vs. 55.3, p = 0.006). The cumulative survival curves for V1, V2 compared T1, T2 showed similarity in DFS (HR 1.9 vs. 1.9), and so did it for V3 compared T3 (HR 3.5 vs. 2.6) significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tumor volume had good feasibility on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. We proposed that volume-stage should be considered for an additional stage indicator, particularly in early breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, tridimensional volume of tumor, TNM stage, volume stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2220 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2219 VaR Estimation Using the Informational Content of Futures Traded Volume

Authors: Amel Oueslati, Olfa Benouda

Abstract:

New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.

Keywords: Garch-EVT, value at risk, volume, volatility

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2218 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2217 Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Horizontal Large Volume Source Using Exvol Code

Authors: M. Y. Kang, Euntaek Yoon, H. D. Choi

Abstract:

To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the EXVol (Efficiency calculator for EXtended Voluminous source) code which is based on effective solid angle method. EXVol is possible to describe the source area as a non-uniform three-dimensional (x, y, z) source. And decompose and set it into several sets of volume units. Users can equally divide (x, y, z) coordinate system to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position of a cylindrical volume source. By determining the detection efficiency for differential volume units, the total radiative absolute distribution and the correction factor of the detection efficiency can be obtained from the nondestructive measurement of the source. In order to check the performance of the EXVol code, Si ingot of 20 cm in diameter and 50 cm in height were used as a source. The detector was moved at the collimation geometry to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position and compared with the experimental values. In this study, the performance of the EXVol code was extended to obtain the detection efficiency distribution at a specific position in a large volume source.

Keywords: attenuation, EXVol, detection efficiency, volume source

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2216 The Study of Strength and Weakness Points of Various Techniques for Calculating the Volume of Done Work in Civil Projects

Authors: Ali Fazeli Moslehabadi

Abstract:

One of the topics discussed in civil projects, during the execution of the project, which the continuous change of work volumes is usually the characteristics of these types of projects, is how to calculate the volume of done work. The difference in volumes announced by the execution unit with the estimated volume by the technical office unit, has direct effect on the announced progress of the project. This issue can show the progress of the project more or less than actual value and as a result making mistakes for stakeholders and project managers and misleading them. This article intends to introduce some practical methods for calculating the volume of done work in civil projects. It then reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, in order to resolve these contradictions and conflicts.

Keywords: technical skills, systemic skills, communication skills, done work volume calculation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
2215 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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2214 Analysis of the Influence of Fiber Volume and Fiber Orientation on Post-Cracking Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marilia M. Camargo, Luisa A. Gachet-Barbosa, Rosa C. C. Lintz

Abstract:

The addition of fibers into concrete matrix can enhance some properties of the composite, such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths, toughness, deformation capacity and post-cracking ductility. Many factors affect the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, such as concrete matrix (concrete strength, additions, aggregate diameter, etc.), characteristics of the fiber (geometry, type, aspect ratio, volume, orientation, distribution, strength, stiffness, etc.), specimen (size, geometry, method of preparation and loading rate). This research investigates the effects of fiber volume and orientation on the post-cracking behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Hooked-end steel fibers with aspect ratios of 45 were added into concrete with volume of 0,32%, 0,64%, 0,94%. The post-cracking behaviour was assessed by double punch test of cubic specimens and the actual volume and orientation of the fibers were determined by non-destructive tests by means of electromagnetic induction. The results showed that the actual volume of fibers in each sample differs in a small amount from the dosed volume of fibers and that the deformation and toughness of the concrete increase with the increase in the actual volume of fibers. In determining the orientation of the fibers, it was found that they tend to distribute more in the X and Y axes due to the influence of the walls of the mold. In addition, it was concluded that the orientation of the fibers is important in the post-cracking behaviour of FRC when analyzed together with the actual volume of fibers, since the greater the volume of fibers, the greater the number of fibers oriented orthogonally to the application of loadings and, consequently, there is a better mechanical behavior of the composite. These results provide a better understanding of the influence of volume and fiber orientation on the post-cracking behavior of the FRC.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, steel fibers, volume of fibers, orientation of fibers, post-cracking behaviour

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2213 Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season

Authors: R. Kandiah, K. Miyamoto

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.

Keywords: accessible volume, consumption volume, inflow rate, water budget

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2212 Finite Volume Method in Loop Network in Hydraulic Transient

Authors: Hossain Samani, Mohammad Ehteram

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider finite volume method (FVM) in water hammer. We will simulate these techniques on a looped network with complex boundary conditions. After comparing methods, we see the FVM method as the best method. We compare the results of FVM with experimental data. Finite volume using staggered grid is applied for solving water hammer equations.

Keywords: hydraulic transient, water hammer, interpolation, non-liner interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2211 The Cost-Effectiveness of High-Volume Hospital’s Surgical Care for Pancreatic Cancer: Economic Evidence Reviewed

Authors: Shannon Hearney, Jeffrey Hoch

Abstract:

Pancreatic cancer is a notoriously costly and deadly form of cancer. Many types of treatment centers exist for patients to seek care from, including high-volume centers which have shown promise to provide the highest quality of care. While it may be true that this type of center provides the best care it is unclear if that care is cost-effective. Studies in the US have confirmed that high-volume hospitals do provide higher quality of care but have shown inconsistencies in the cost-effectiveness of that care. Other studies, like those from Finland have shown that high-volume centers had lower mortality and lower costs than low-volume centers. This paper thus seeks to review the current scientific literature to better understand if high-volume centers are cost-effective in delivering care in both a European setting and in the US. A review of major reference databases such as Medline, Embase and PubMed will be conducted for cost-effectiveness studies on the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer at high-volume centers. Possible MeSH terms to be included, but not limited to, are: “pancreatic cancer”, “cost analysis”, “cost-effectiveness”, “economic evaluation”, “pancreatic neoplasms”, “surgical”, and “high-volume”. Studies must also have been available in the English language. This review will encompass European scientific literature, as well as those in the US. Based on our preliminary findings, we anticipate high-volume hospitals to provide better care at greater costs. We anticipate that high-volume hospitals may be cost-effective in different contexts depending on the national structure of a healthcare system. Countries with more centralized and socialized healthcare may yield results that are more cost-effective. High-volume centers may differ in their cost-effectiveness of the surgical care of pancreatic cancer internationally especially when comparing those in the United States to others throughout Europe.

Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis, economic evaluation, pancreatic cancer, scientific literature review

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2210 Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Augustine Osayande

Abstract:

This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.

Keywords: Edo, magnitude, gully, volume, soil, sloss

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2209 Mathematical Modeling of Cell Volume Alterations under Different Osmotic Conditions

Authors: Juliana A. Knocikova, Yann Bouret, Médéric Argentina, Laurent Counillon

Abstract:

Cell volume, together with membrane potential and intracellular hydrogen ion concentration, is an essential biophysical parameter for normal cellular activity. Cell volumes can be altered by osmotically active compounds and extracellular tonicity. In this study, a simple mathematical model of osmotically induced cell swelling and shrinking is presented. Emphasis is given to water diffusion across the membrane. The mathematical description of the cellular behavior consists in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. We compare experimental data of cell volume alterations driven by differences in osmotic pressure with mathematical simulations under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions. Implications for a future model are also discussed.

Keywords: eukaryotic cell, mathematical modeling, osmosis, volume alterations

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2208 Conduction Accompanied With Transient Radiative Heat Transfer Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Ashok, K.Satapathy, B. Prerana Nashine

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to investigate for one dimensional transient radiative transfer equations with conduction using finite volume method. Within the infrastructure of finite-volume, we obtain the conservative discretization of the terms in order to preserve the overall conservative property of finitevolume schemes. Coupling of conductive and radiative equation resulting in fluxes is governed by the magnitude of emissivity, extinction coefficient, and temperature of the medium as well as geometry of the problem. The problem under consideration has been solved, for a slab dominating radiation coupled with transient conduction based on finite volume method. The boundary conditions are also chosen so as to give a good model of the discretized form of radiation transfer equation. The important feature of the present method is flexibility in specifying the control angles in the FVM, while keeping the simplicity in the solution procedure. Effects of various model parameters are examined on the distributions of temperature, radiative and conductive heat fluxes and incident radiation energy etc. The finite volume method is considered to effectively evaluate the propagation of radiation intensity through a participating medium.

Keywords: participating media, finite volume method, radiation coupled with conduction, transient radiative heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2207 Relationship of Mean Platelets Volume with Ischemic Cerebrovascular Stroke

Authors: Pritam Kitey

Abstract:

Platelets play a key role in the development of atherothrombosis, a major contributor of cardiovascular evevts. The contributor of platelets to cardiovascular events has been noted for decades. Mean paltelets volume [MPV] is a marker of platelets size that is easily determined on routine automated haemograms and routinely available at low cost. Subjects with higher MPV have larger platelets that are metabolically and enzamatically more active and have greater prothombotic potential than smaller platelets. In fact several studies have demonstrated a significant association between higher MPV and an increased incidence of cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality.

Keywords: mean paltelets volume (MPV), platelets, cerebrovascular stroke, cardiovascular events

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2206 Mix Design Curves for High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: S. S. Awanti, Aravindakumar B. Harwalkar

Abstract:

Concrete construction in future has to be environmental friendly apart from being safe so that society at large is benefited by the huge investments made in the infrastructure projects. To achieve this, component materials of the concrete system have to be optimized with reference to sustainability. This paper presents a study on development of mix proportions of high volume fly ash concrete (HFC). A series of HFC mixtures with cement replacement levels varying between 50% and 65% were prepared with water/binder ratios of 0.3 and 0.35. Compressive strength values were obtained at different ages. From the experimental results, pozzolanic efficiency ratios and mix design curves for HFC were established.

Keywords: age factor, compressive strength, high volume fly ash concrete, pozolanic efficiency ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2205 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Flow near Moving Wall of Various Surface Types Using Moving Mesh Method

Authors: Khizir Mohd Ismail, Yu Jun Lim, Tshun Howe Yong

Abstract:

The study of flow behavior in an enclosed volume using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been around for decades. However, due to the knowledge limitation of adaptive grid methods, the flow in an enclosed volume near the moving wall using CFD is less explored. A CFD simulation of flow in an enclosed volume near a moving wall was demonstrated and studied by introducing a moving mesh method and was modeled with Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach. A static enclosed volume with controlled opening size in the bottom was positioned against a moving, translational wall with sliding mesh features. Controlled variables such as smoothed, crevices and corrugated wall characteristics, the distance between the enclosed volume to the wall and the moving wall speed against the enclosed chamber were varied to understand how the flow behaves and reacts in between these two geometries. These model simulations were validated against experimental results and provided result confidence when the simulation had shown good agreement with the experimental data. This study had provided better insight into the flow behaving in an enclosed volume when various wall types in motion were introduced within the various distance between each other and create a potential opportunity of application which involves adaptive grid methods in CFD.

Keywords: moving wall, adaptive grid methods, CFD, moving mesh method

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2204 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Study Using Discontinuous Finite Volume Method

Authors: Prawal Sinha, Peeyush Singh, Pravir Dutt

Abstract:

Problems in elastohydrodynamic lubrication have attracted a lot of attention in the last few decades. Solving a two-dimensional problem has always been a big challenge. In this paper, a new discontinuous finite volume method (DVM) for two-dimensional point contact Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) problem has been developed and analyzed. A complete algorithm has been presented for solving such a problem. The method presented is robust and easily parallelized in MPI architecture. GMRES technique is implemented to solve the matrix obtained after the formulation. A new approach is followed in which discontinuous piecewise polynomials are used for the trail functions. It is natural to assume that the advantages of using discontinuous functions in finite element methods should also apply to finite volume methods. The nature of the discontinuity of the trail function is such that the elements in the corresponding dual partition have the smallest support as compared with the Classical finite volume methods. Film thickness calculation is done using singular quadrature approach. Results obtained have been presented graphically and discussed. This method is well suited for solving EHL point contact problem and can probably be used as commercial software.

Keywords: elastohydrodynamic, lubrication, discontinuous finite volume method, GMRES technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2203 Drying and Transport Processes in Distributed Hydrological Modelling Based on Finite Volume Schemes (Iber Model)

Authors: Carlos Caro, Ernest Bladé, Pedro Acosta, Camilo Lesmes

Abstract:

The drying-wet process is one of the topics to be more careful in distributed hydrological modeling using finite volume schemes as a means of solving the equations of Saint Venant. In a hydrologic and hydraulic computer model, surface flow phenomena depend mainly on the different flow accumulation and subsequent runoff generation. These accumulations are generated by routing, cell by cell, from the heights of water, which begin to appear due to the rain at each instant of time. Determine when it is considered a dry cell and when considered wet to include in the full calculation is an issue that directly affects the quantification of direct runoff or generation of flow at the end of a zone of contribution by accumulations flow generated from cells or finite volume.

Keywords: hydrology, transport processes, hydrological modelling, finite volume schemes

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2202 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2201 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas

Abstract:

Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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2200 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai

Abstract:

The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station

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2199 Coupling of Two Discretization Schemes for the Lattice Boltzmann Equation

Authors: Tobias Horstmann, Thomas Le Garrec, Daniel-Ciprian Mincu, Emmanuel Lévêque

Abstract:

Despite the efficiency and low dissipation of the stream-collide formulation of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm, which is nowadays implemented in many commercial LBM solvers, there are certain situations, e.g. mesh transition, in which a classical finite-volume or finite-difference formulation of the LB algorithm still bear advantages. In this paper, we present an algorithm that combines the node-based streaming of the distribution functions with a second-order finite volume discretization of the advection term of the BGK-LB equation on a uniform D2Q9 lattice. It is shown that such a coupling is possible for a multi-domain approach as long as the overlap, or buffer zone, between two domains, is achieved on at least 2Δx. This also implies that a direct coupling (without buffer zone) of a stream-collide and finite-volume LB algorithm on a single grid is not stable. The critical parameter in the coupling is the CFL number equal to 1 that is imposed by the stream-collide algorithm. Nevertheless, an explicit filtering step on the finite-volume domain can stabilize the solution. In a further investigation, we demonstrate how such a coupling can be used for mesh transition, resulting in an intrinsic conservation of mass over the interface.

Keywords: algorithm coupling, finite volume formulation, grid refinement, Lattice Boltzmann method

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2198 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2197 Quality of Ram Semen in Relation to Scrotal Biometry

Authors: M. M. Islam, S. Sharmin, M. Shah Newaz, N. S. Juyena, M. M. Rahman, P. K. Jha, F. Y. Bari

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to select the high quality ram by measuring the scrotal biometry which has an effect on semen parameters. Ten rams were selected in the present study. Eight ejaculates were collected from each ram using artificial vagina method. Scrotal circumference was measured before and after semen collection on weekly basis using the Scrotal tape. Bio-metries of scrotum (scrotal length and scrotal volume) were calculated. Semen was evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The average estimated scrotal circumference (cm) and scrotal volume (cm3) in 8 different age groups were 17.16±0.05 cm and 61.30±0.70 cm3, 17.17±0.62 cm and 63.67±4.49 cm3, 17.22±0.52 cm and 64.90±4.21 cm3, 17.72±0.37 cm and 67.10±4.20 cm3, 18.41±0.35cm and 69.52±4.12cm3, 18.45±0.36cm and 77.17±3.81 cm3, 18.55±0.41 cm and 78.72±4.90 cm3, 19.10±0.30 cm and 87.35±5.45 cm3 respectively. The body weight, scrotal circumference and scrotal volume increased with the progress of age (P < 0.05). Body weight of age group 381-410 days (13.62+1.48 kg) was significantly higher than group 169-200 days (10.17±0.05 kg) and 201-230 days (10.42±1.18 kg) (p < 0.05). Scrotal circumference (SC) of age group 381-410 days (19.10±0.30 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other groups. In age group 381-410 days, scrotal volume (SCV) (87.35±5.45 cm3) was significantly higher than other first five groups (p < 0.05). Both scrotal circumference and scrotal volume development was positively correlated with the increasing of body weight (R2= 0.51). Semen volume increased accordingly with the increasing of ages, varied from 0.35±0.00 ml to 1.15+0.26 ml. Semen volume of age group 381-410 days (1.15±0.26 ml) was significantly higher than other age groups (p < 0.05) except age group 351-380 days (p > 0.05). Mass activity of different age groups varied from 2.75 (±0.35) to 4.25 (±0.29) ml in the scale of 1-5. Sperm concentration, progressive motility (%),progressively improved according to the increasing of ages, but significant changes in these parameters were seen when the animals reaches the age 291 days or more (p < 0.05). However, normal spermatozoa (%) improved significantly from the age of 261 days or more. Mass activity (mass) was positively correlated with sperm concentration (R2=0.568) and progressive motility (%) (R2=0.616). The relationships of semen volume with body weight and scrotal measurements and sperm concentration indicate that they are useful in evaluating rams for breeding soundness and genetic improvement for fertility in indigenous ram.

Keywords: breeding soundness, ram, semen quality, scrotal biometry

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2196 Relationship Between Pain Intensity at the Time of the Hamstring Muscle Injury and Hamstring Muscle Lesion Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Grange Sylvain, Plancher Ronan, Reurink Guustav, Croisille Pierre, Edouard Pascal

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the potential correlation between the pain experienced at the time of a hamstring muscle injury and the volume of the lesion measured on MRI. The secondary objectives were to analyze a correlation between this pain and the lesion grade as well as the affected hamstring muscle. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data collected in a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional cohort study (HAMMER). Patients with suspected hamstring muscle injury had an MRI after the injury and at the same time were evaluated for their pain intensity experienced at the time of the injury with a Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) from 0 to 10. A total of 61 patients were included in the present analysis. MRIs were performed in an average of less than 8 days. There was a significant correlation between pain and the injury volume (r=0.287; p=0.025). There was no significant correlation between the pain and the lesion grade (p>0.05), nor between the pain and affected hamstring muscle (p>0.05). Pain at the time of injury appeared to be correlated with the volume of muscle affected. These results confirm the value of a clinical approach in the initial evaluation of hamstring injuries to better select patients eligible for further imaging.

Keywords: hamstring muscle injury, MRI, volume lesion, pain

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2195 Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids

Authors: S. Etaig, R. Hasan, N. Perera

Abstract:

This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, natural convection, nanofluid and thermal conductivity

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2194 Flame Volume Prediction and Validation for Lean Blowout of Gas Turbine Combustor

Authors: Ejaz Ahmed, Huang Yong

Abstract:

The operation of aero engines has a critical importance in the vicinity of lean blowout (LBO) limits. Lefebvre’s model of LBO based on empirical correlation has been extended to flame volume concept by the authors. The flame volume takes into account the effects of geometric configuration, the complex spatial interaction of mixing, turbulence, heat transfer and combustion processes inside the gas turbine combustion chamber. For these reasons, flame volume based LBO predictions are more accurate. Although LBO prediction accuracy has improved, it poses a challenge associated with Vf estimation in real gas turbine combustors. This work extends the approach of flame volume prediction previously based on fuel iterative approximation with cold flow simulations to reactive flow simulations. Flame volume for 11 combustor configurations has been simulated and validated against experimental data. To make prediction methodology robust as required in the preliminary design stage, reactive flow simulations were carried out with the combination of probability density function (PDF) and discrete phase model (DPM) in FLUENT 15.0. The criterion for flame identification was defined. Two important parameters i.e. critical injection diameter (Dp,crit) and critical temperature (Tcrit) were identified, and their influence on reactive flow simulation was studied for Vf estimation. Obtained results exhibit ±15% error in Vf estimation with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, gas turbine combustor, lean blowout

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2193 Air Cargo Overbooking Model under Stochastic Weight and Volume Cancellation

Authors: Naragain Phumchusri, Krisada Roekdethawesab, Manoj Lohatepanont

Abstract:

Overbooking is an approach of selling more goods or services than available capacities because sellers anticipate that some buyers will not show-up or may cancel their bookings. At present, many airlines deploy overbooking strategy in order to deal with the uncertainty of their customers. Particularly, some airlines sell more cargo capacity than what they have available to freight forwarders with beliefs that some of them will cancel later. In this paper, we propose methods to find the optimal overbooking level of volume and weight for air cargo in order to minimize the total cost, containing cost of spoilage and cost of offloaded. Cancellations of volume and weight are jointly random variables with a known joint distribution. Heuristic approaches applying the idea of weight and volume independency is considered to find an appropriate answer to the full problem. Computational experiments are used to explore the performance of approaches presented in this paper, as compared to a naïve method under different scenarios.

Keywords: air cargo overbooking, offloading capacity, optimal overbooking level, revenue management, spoilage capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 256