Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Olivier Schneegans

52 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Recep Karadağ, Emine Torgan

Abstract:

Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, natural dye, dyeing, silk fabric

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51 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

Abstract:

In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
50 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria

Abstract:

The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: olivier, ecology, biometrics, Tlemcen, Algeria

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49 Sublethal Effects of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungus against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

Authors: M. Manzoor, J. N. Ahmad, R. M. Giblin Davis, N. Javed, M. S. Haider

Abstract:

The invasive Red Palm Weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus [Olivier] (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive palm pests in the world. Synthetic pesticides are environmentally hazardous pest control strategies being used in the past with emerging need of eco-friendly biological approaches including microbial entomopathogens for RPW management. The sublethal effects of a single entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) Beauveria bassiana (WG-11) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and two entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Rhabditida) were evaluated in various combinations against laboratory-reared 3rd, 5th and 8th instar larvae of RPW in laboratory assays. Individual and combined effects of both entomopathogens (EP) were observed after the pre-application of B. bassiana fungus at 1-2-week intervals. A number of parameters were measured after the application of sub-lethal doses of EPF such as diet consumption, development, frass production, mortality, and weight gain. Combined treatments were tested for additive and synergistic effects. Synergism was more frequently observed in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae combined treatments than in B. bassiana and H. bacteriophora combinations. Early instar larvae of RPW were more susceptible than older instars. Synergistic effects were observed in the 3rd and 5th instars exposed to B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae at 0, 7 and 14-day intervals. Whereas, in 8th instar larvae, the synergistic effect was observed only in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae treatments after 0 and 7 days intervals. EPN treatments decreased pupation, egg hatching and emergence of adults. Lethal effects of nematodes were also observed in all growth stages of R. ferrugineus. Reduced larval weight, increased larval, pre-pupal and pupal duration, reduced adult weight and life span were observed. Sub-lethal concentrations of both entomopathogens induced variations in the different developmental stages and reduced food consumption, frass production, growth, and weight gain. So, on the basis of results, it is concluded that synthetic pesticides should be replaced with environmentally friendly sustainable biopesticides.

Keywords: H. bacteriophora, S. carpocapsae, B. bassiana, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
48 VaR or TCE: Explaining the Preferences of Regulators

Authors: Silvia Faroni, Olivier Le Courtois, Krzysztof Ostaszewski

Abstract:

While a lot of research concentrates on the merits of VaR and TCE, which are the two most classic risk indicators used by financial institutions, little has been written on explaining why regulators favor the choice of VaR or TCE in their set of rules. In this paper, we investigate the preferences of regulators with the aim of understanding why, for instance, a VaR with a given confidence level is ultimately retained. Further, this paper provides equivalence rules that explain how a given choice of VaR can be equivalent to a given choice of TCE. Then, we introduce a new risk indicator that extends TCE by providing a more versatile weighting of the constituents of probability distribution tails. All of our results are illustrated using the generalized Pareto distribution.

Keywords: generalized pareto distribution, generalized tail conditional expectation, regulator preferences, risk measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
47 Delay-Independent Closed-Loop Stabilization of Neutral System with Infinite Delays

Authors: Iyai Davies, Olivier L. C. Haas

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of stability and stabilization for neutral delay-differential systems with infinite delay is investigated. Using Lyapunov method, new delay-independent sufficient condition for the stability of neutral systems with infinite delay is obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Memory-less state feedback controllers are then designed for the stabilization of the system using the feasible solution of the resulting LMI, which are easily solved using any optimization algorithms. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results of the proposed methods.

Keywords: infinite delays, Lyapunov method, linear matrix inequality, neutral systems, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
46 Winter – Not Spring - Climate Drives Annual Adult Survival in Common Passerines: A Country-Wide, Multi-Species Modeling Exercise

Authors: Manon Ghislain, Timothée Bonnet, Olivier Gimenez, Olivier Dehorter, Pierre-Yves Henry

Abstract:

Climatic fluctuations affect the demography of animal populations, generating changes in population size, phenology, distribution and community assemblages. However, very few studies have identified the underlying demographic processes. For short-lived species, like common passerine birds, are these changes generated by changes in adult survival or in fecundity and recruitment? This study tests for an effect of annual climatic conditions (spring and winter) on annual, local adult survival at very large spatial (a country, 252 sites), temporal (25 years) and biological (25 species) scales. The Constant Effort Site ringing has allowed the collection of capture - mark - recapture data for 100 000 adult individuals since 1989, over metropolitan France, thus documenting annual, local survival rates of the most common passerine birds. We specifically developed a set of multi-year, multi-species, multi-site Bayesian models describing variations in local survival and recapture probabilities. This method allows for a statistically powerful hierarchical assessment (global versus species-specific) of the effects of climate variables on survival. A major part of between-year variations in survival rate was common to all species (74% of between-year variance), whereas only 26% of temporal variation was species-specific. Although changing spring climate is commonly invoked as a cause of population size fluctuations, spring climatic anomalies (mean precipitation or temperature for March-August) do not impact adult survival: only 1% of between-year variation of species survival is explained by spring climatic anomalies. However, for sedentary birds, winter climatic anomalies (North Atlantic Oscillation) had a significant, quadratic effect on adult survival, birds surviving less during intermediate years than during more extreme years. For migratory birds, we do not detect an effect of winter climatic anomalies (Sahel Rainfall). We will analyze the life history traits (migration, habitat, thermal range) that could explain a different sensitivity of species to winter climate anomalies. Overall, we conclude that changes in population sizes for passerine birds are unlikely to be the consequences of climate-driven mortality (or emigration) in spring but could be induced by other demographic parameters, like fecundity.

Keywords: Bayesian approach, capture-recapture, climate anomaly, constant effort sites scheme, passerine, seasons, survival

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45 Modified Preputial Urethrostomy as a Salvage Procedure in Four Dogs

Authors: Thomas Giansetto, Olivier Broux, Géraldine Bolen, Stéphanie Claeys

Abstract:

Objective: To describe a modified preputial urethrostomy in four dogs. Study design: Short case series. Animals: Four male dogs were treated by the modified preputial urethrostomy, three because of urethral stenosis, and one because of severe complications following perineal urethrostomy. Methods: Four dogs were presented for dysuria and urinary obstruction. secondary to urethral stenosis or tear. Obstruction was treated with a modified preputial urethrostomy. Results: Four dogs had resolution of dysuria with a modified preputial urethrostomy without penile amputation. None of the dogs presented signs of dysuria, urinary tract infection, or dermatitis postoperatively. Two dogs showed signs of urinary incontinence 15 days and one month postoperatively. Conclusion: The modified preputial urethrostomy resulted in a favorable prognosis and may be an alternative to prepubic urethrostomy in male dogs.

Keywords: urethrostomy, preputial, technique, urogenital

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44 Impact of Network Workload between Virtualization Solutions on a Testbed Environment for Cybersecurity Learning

Authors: Kevin Fernagut, Olivier Flauzac, Erick M. G. Robledo, Florent Nolot

Abstract:

The adoption of modern lightweight virtualization often comes with new threats and network vulnerabilities. This paper seeks to assess this with a different approach studying the behavior of a testbed built with tools such as Kernel-Based Virtual Machine (KVM), Linux Containers (LXC) and Docker, by performing stress tests within a platform where students experiment simultaneously with cyber-attacks, and thus observe the impact on the campus network and also find the best solution for cyber-security learning. Interesting outcomes can be found in the literature comparing these technologies. It is, however, difficult to find results of the effects on the global network where experiments are carried out. Our work shows that other physical hosts and the faculty network were impacted while performing these trials. The problems found are discussed, as well as security solutions and the adoption of new network policies.

Keywords: containerization, containers, cybersecurity, cyberattacks, isolation, performance, virtualization, virtual machines

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43 2D RF ICP Torch Modelling with Fluid Plasma

Authors: Mokhtar Labiod, Nabil Ikhlef, Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy

Abstract:

A numerical model for the radio-frequency (RF) Argon discharge chamber is developed to simulate the low pressure low temperature inductively coupled plasma. This model will be of fundamental importance in the design of the plasma magnetic control system. Electric and magnetic fields inside the discharge chamber are evaluated by solving a magnetic vector potential equation. To start with, the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory will be presented describing the basic behaviour of magnetically confined plasma and equations are discretized with finite element method in cylindrical coordinates. The discharge chamber is assumed to be axially symmetric and the plasma is treated as a compressible gas. Plasma generation due to ionization is added to the continuity equation. Magnetic vector potential equation is solved for the electromagnetic fields. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

Keywords: direct-coupled model, magnetohydrodynamic, modelling, plasma torch simulation

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42 An Automated Approach to Consolidate Galileo System Availability

Authors: Marie Bieber, Fabrice Cosson, Olivier Schmitt

Abstract:

Europe's Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, provides worldwide positioning and navigation services. The satellites in space are only one part of the Galileo system. An extensive ground infrastructure is essential to oversee the satellites and ensure accurate navigation signals. High reliability and availability of the entire Galileo system are crucial to continuously provide positioning information of high quality to users. Outages are tracked, and operational availability is regularly assessed. A highly flexible and adaptive tool has been developed to automate the Galileo system availability analysis. Not only does it enable a quick availability consolidation, but it also provides first steps towards improving the data quality of maintenance tickets used for the analysis. This includes data import and data preparation, with a focus on processing strings used for classification and identifying faulty data. Furthermore, the tool allows to handle a low amount of data, which is a major constraint when the aim is to provide accurate statistics.

Keywords: availability, data quality, system performance, Galileo, aerospace

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41 Heat Transfer Enhancement by Localized Time Varying Thermal Perturbations at Hot and Cold Walls in a Rectangular Differentially Heated Cavity

Authors: Nicolas Thiers, Romain Gers, Olivier Skurtys

Abstract:

In this work, we study numerically the effect of a thermal perturbation on the heat transfer in a rectangular differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 4, filled by air. In order to maintain the center symmetry, the thermal perturbation is imposed by a square wave at both active walls, at the same relative position of the hot or cold boundary layers. The influences of the amplitude and the vertical location of the perturbation are investigated. The air flow is calculated solving the unsteady Boussinesq-Navier-Stokes equations using the PN - PN-2 Spectral Element Method (SEM) programmed in the Nek5000 opencode, at RaH= 9x107, just before the first bifurcation which leads to periodical flow. The results show that the perturbation has a major impact for the highest amplitude, and at about three quarters of the cavity height, upstream, in both hot and cold boundary layers.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, heat transfer enhancement, localized thermal perturbations, natural convection, rectangular differentially-heated cavity

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40 An Interpolation Tool for Data Transfer in Two-Dimensional Ice Accretion Problems

Authors: Marta Cordero-Gracia, Mariola Gomez, Olivier Blesbois, Marina Carrion

Abstract:

One of the difficulties in icing simulations is for extended periods of exposure, when very large ice shapes are created. As well as being large, they can have complex shapes, such as a double horn. For icing simulations, these configurations are currently computed in several steps. The icing step is stopped when the ice shapes become too large, at which point a new mesh has to be created to allow for further CFD and ice growth simulations to be performed. This can be very costly, and is a limiting factor in the simulations that can be performed. A way to avoid the costly human intervention in the re-meshing step of multistep icing computation is to use mesh deformation instead of re-meshing. The aim of the present work is to apply an interpolation method based on Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to transfer deformations from surface mesh to volume mesh. This deformation tool has been developed specifically for icing problems. It is able to deal with localized, sharp and large deformations, unlike the tools traditionally used for more smooth wing deformations. This tool will be presented along with validation on typical two-dimensional icing shapes.

Keywords: ice accretion, interpolation, mesh deformation, radial basis functions

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39 Analytical Approach to Study the Uncertainties Related to the Behavior of Structures Submitted to Differential Settlement

Authors: Elio El Kahi, Michel Khouri, Olivier Deck, Pierre Rahme, Rasool Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

Recent developments in civil engineering create multiple interaction problems between the soil and the structure. One of the major problems is the impact of ground movements on buildings. Consequently, managing risks associated with these movements, requires a determination of the different influencing factors and a specific knowledge of their variability/uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to study the behavior of structures submitted to differential settlement, in order to assess their vulnerability, taking into consideration the different sources of uncertainties. Analytical approach is applied to investigate on one hand the influence of these uncertainties that are related to the soil, and on the other hand the structure stiffness variation with the presence of openings and the movement transmitted between them as related to the origin and shape of the free-field movement. Results reveal the effect of taking these uncertainties into consideration, and specify the dominant and most significant parameters that control the ground movement associated with the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) phenomenon.

Keywords: analytical approach, building, damage, differential settlement, soil-structure interaction, uncertainties

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38 Accelerated Ageing of Unidirectional Flax Fibers Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Lara Alam, Laetitia Van-Schoors, Olivier Sicot, Benoit Piezel, Shahram Aivazzadeh

Abstract:

Over the last decades, worldwide environmental awareness has grown due to the depletion of raw material resources and global warming. This awareness has prompted the development of new products more environmentally friendly. Among these products are biocomposite materials reinforced with natural fibers. The main challenge in developing the use of biocomposites in exterior applications is the lack of knowledge about their durability and the evolution of their mechanical and physico-chemical properties in the long term. Few studies have been carried out on the photooxidation of unidirectional (UD) composites based on recycled matrix, which is the aim of this work. For this purpose, UD flax fiber composites based on recycled polypropylene were prepared by thermocompression. An accelerated aging test was carried out using a xenon arc WeatherOmeter. The consequences of UV exposure on the chemical composition and morphology of the surface of composites as well as on their tensile mechanical properties have been reported. The results showed that accelerated aging had a significant effect on the surface of these composites while it had little impact on their mechanical properties.

Keywords: flax fiber, photooxidation, physico-chemical properties, recycled polypropylene, tensile properties

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37 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi

Abstract:

Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
36 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon, Salima Hassas

Abstract:

During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: cognitive development, constructivist learning, hierarchical sequential learning, self-adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
35 New Approach for Minimizing Wavelength Fragmentation in Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks

Authors: Sami Baraketi, Jean Marie Garcia, Olivier Brun

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the dominant transport technology used in numerous high capacity backbone networks, based on optical infrastructures. Given the importance of costs (CapEx and OpEx) associated to these networks, resource management is becoming increasingly important, especially how the optical circuits, called “lightpaths”, are routed throughout the network. This requires the use of efficient algorithms which provide routing strategies with the lowest cost. We focus on the lightpath routing and wavelength assignment problem, known as the RWA problem, while optimizing wavelength fragmentation over the network. Wavelength fragmentation poses a serious challenge for network operators since it leads to the misuse of the wavelength spectrum, and then to the refusal of new lightpath requests. In this paper, we first establish a new Integer Linear Program (ILP) for the problem based on a node-link formulation. This formulation is based on a multilayer approach where the original network is decomposed into several network layers, each corresponding to a wavelength. Furthermore, we propose an efficient heuristic for the problem based on a greedy algorithm followed by a post-treatment procedure. The obtained results show that the optimal solution is often reached. We also compare our results with those of other RWA heuristic methods.

Keywords: WDM, lightpath, RWA, wavelength fragmentation, optimization, linear programming, heuristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
34 Fund Seekers’ Deception in Peer-to-Peer Lending in Times of COVID

Authors: Olivier Mesly

Abstract:

This article examines the likelihood of deception on the part of borrowers wishing to obtain credit from institutional or private lenders. In our first study, we identify five explanatory variables that account for nearly forty percent of the propensity to act deceitfully: a poor credit history, debt, risky behavior, and to a much lesser degree, irrational behavior and disconnection from the bundle of needs, goals, and preferences. For the second study, we remodeled the initial questionnaire to adapt it to the needs of institutional bankers and borrowers, especially those that engage in money on-line peer-to-peer lending, a growing business fueled by the COVID pandemic. We find that the three key psychological variables that help to indirectly predict the likelihood of deceitful behaviors and possible default on loan reimbursement, i.e., risky behaviors, ir-rationality, and dis-connection, interact with each other to form a loop. This study presents two benefits: first, we provide evidence that it is to some degree possible to tighten control over lending practices. Second, we offer a pragmatic tool: a questionnaire, that lenders can use or adapt to gauge potential borrowers’ deceit, notably by combining their results with standard hard-data measures of risk.

Keywords: bundle of needs, default, debt, deception, risk, peer-to-peer lending

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
33 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cecile Donze

Abstract:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease, which affects the central nervous system, and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. Forty volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and two types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: balance, multiple sclerosis, nonlinear analysis, postural sway

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32 Determining a Bilingualism Index: Evidence From Lebanese Control Bilinguals

Authors: Rania Kassir, Christophe Dos Santos, Halim Abboud, Olivier Godefroy

Abstract:

The ability to communicate in at least two different languages is shared by a growing number of humans. Recently, many researchers have been studying the elderly bilingual population around the world in neuroscience, and yet, until today there’s no accurate nor universal measure or methodology used to examine bilingualism across these studies which constitute a real challenge for results generalization. This study contributes to the quest of a multidimensional bilingualism index and language proficiency literature by investigating a new bilingualism index from a reliable subjective questionnaire the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q), multi-linguistic tests, and a diverse bilingual population all featured in one analysis and one index. One hundred Lebanese subjects aged between 55 and 92 years old divided into three different bilingualism subgroups (Arabic prominent, balanced, and French prominent) were recruited and underwent the LEAP-Q with a set of linguistic and cognitive tests. The analysis of the collected data led to the creation of a robust bilingualism index from speaking and oral understanding scores that underline specifically bilingualism subtype according to cutoffs scored. The practice implications of this index, particularly its use within bilingual populations, are addressed in the conclusion of this work.

Keywords: bilingualism, language dominance, bilingualism index, balanced bilingualism, Arabic first language, Lebanese, Arabic-French bilingualism

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31 Application of the Quantile Regression Approach to the Heterogeneity of the Fine Wine Prices

Authors: Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme, Benoit Faye, Eric Le Fur

Abstract:

In this paper, the heterogeneity of the Bordeaux Legends 50 wine market price segment is addressed. For this purpose, quantile regression is applied – with market segmentation based on wine bottle price quantile – and the hedonic price of wine attributes is computed for various price segments of the market. The approach is applied to a major privately held data set which consists of approximately 30,000 transactions over the 2003–2014 period. The findings suggest that the relative hedonic prices of several wine attributes differ significantly among deciles. In particular, the elasticity coefficient of the expert ratings shows strong variation among prices. If - as suggested in the literature - expert ratings have a positive influence on wine price on average, they have a clearly decreasing impact over the quantiles. Finally, the lower the wine price, the higher the potential for price appreciation over time. Other variables such as chateaux or vintage are also shown to vary across the distribution of wine prices. While enhancing our understanding of the complex market dynamics that underlie Bordeaux wines’ price, this research provides empirical evidence that the QR approach adequately captures heterogeneity among wine price ranges, which simultaneously applies to wine stock, vintage and auctions’ house.

Keywords: hedonics, market segmentation, quantile regression, heterogeneity, wine economics

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30 Development of an Energy Independant DC Building Demonstrator for Insulated Island Site

Authors: Olivia Bory Devisme, Denis Genon-Catalot, Frederic Alicalapa, Pierre-Olivier Lucas De Peslouan, Jean-Pierre Chabriat

Abstract:

In the context of climate change, it is essential that island territories gain energy autonomy. Currently mostly dependent on fossil fuels, the island of Reunion lo- cated in the Indian Ocean nevertheless has a high potential for solar energy. As the market for photovoltaic panels has been growing in recent years, the issues of energy losses linked to the multiple conversions from direct current to alternating current are emerging. In order to quantify these advantages and disadvantages by a comparative study, this document present the measurements carried out on a direct current test bench, particularly for lighting, ventilation, air condi- tioning and office equipment for the tertiary sector. All equipment is supplied with DC power from energy produced by photovoltaic panels. A weather sta- tion, environmental indoor sensors, and drivers are also used to control energy. Self-consumption is encouraged in order to manage different priorities between user consumption and energy storage in a lithium iron phosphate battery. The measurements are compared to a conventional electrical architecture (DC-AC- DC) for energy consumption, equipment overheating, cost, and life cycle analysis.

Keywords: DC microgrids, solar energy, smart buildings, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
29 Hygrothermal Properties of Raw Earth Material

Authors: Ichrak Hamrouni, Tariq Ouahbi, Natalija Lhuissier, Saïd Taibi, Mehrez Jemai, Olivier Crumeyrolle, Hatem Zenzri

Abstract:

Raw earth is the oldest building technique used for over 11 centuries, thanks to its various benefits. The most known raw earth construction technics are compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, raw earth concrete, and daub. The raw earth can be stabilized with hydraulic binders, mixed by fibers, or hyper-compacted in order to improve its mechanical behaviour. Moreover, raw earth is characterized by a low thermal conductivity what make it a good thermal insulator, and it has a very important capacity to condense and evaporate relative humidity. In this context, many researches have been developed. They have shown that the mechanical characteristics of earth materials increase with the hyper-compaction and adding fibers or hydraulic binders. Besides, other researches have been determined the thermal and hygroscopic properties of raw earth. They have shown that this material able to contribute to moisture and heat control in constructions. Its hygrothermal properties are better than fired earth bricks and concrete. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and hygrometric behavior of raw earth material using experimental tests allows to determine the main Hygrothermal properties such as the water Vapour permeability and thermal conductivity and compare the results with those of other building materials such as fired clay bricks and cement concrete is presented.

Keywords: raw earth material, hygro-thermal, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, building materials, building materials

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28 Conception of a Regulated, Dynamic and Intelligent Sewerage in Ostrevent

Authors: Rabaa Tlili Yaakoubi, Hind Nakouri, Olivier Blanpain

Abstract:

The current tools for real time management of sewer systems are based on two software tools: the software of weather forecast and the software of hydraulic simulation. The use of the first ones is an important cause of imprecision and uncertainty, the use of the second requires temporal important steps of decision because of their need in times of calculation. This way of proceeding fact that the obtained results are generally different from those waited. The major idea of the CARDIO project is to change the basic paradigm by approaching the problem by the "automatic" face rather than by that "hydrology". The objective is to make possible the realization of a large number of simulations at very short times (a few seconds) allowing to take place weather forecasts by using directly the real time meditative pluviometric data. The aim is to reach a system where the decision-making is realized from reliable data and where the correction of the error is permanent. A first model of control laws was realized and tested with different return-period rainfalls. The gains obtained in rejecting volume vary from 40 to 100%. The development of a new algorithm was then used to optimize calculation time and thus to overcome the subsequent combinatorial problem in our first approach. Finally, this new algorithm was tested with 16- year-rainfall series. The obtained gains are 60% of total volume rejected to the natural environment and of 80 % in the number of discharges.

Keywords: RTC, paradigm, optimization, automation

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27 Graphene-Reinforced Silicon Oxycarbide Composite with Lamellar Structures Prepared by the Phase Transfer Method

Authors: Min Yu, Olivier T. Picot, Theo Graves Saunders, Ivo Dlouhy, Amit Mahajan, Michael J. Reece

Abstract:

Graphene was successfully introduced into a polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) matrix by phase transfer of graphene oxide (GO) from an aqueous (GO dispersed in water) to an organic phase (copolymer as SiOC precursor in diethyl ether). With GO concentrations increasing up to 2 vol%, graphene-containing flakes self-assembled into a lamellar structure in the matrix leading to composite with the anisotropic property. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to densify the composites with four different GO concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 vol%) up to ~2.3 g/cm3. The fracture toughness of SiOC-2 vol% GO composites was significantly increased by ~91% (from 0.70 to 1.34 MPa·m¹/²), at the expense of a decrease in the flexural strength (from 85MPa to 55MPa), compared to SiOC-0 vol% GO composites. Moreover, the electrical conductivity in the perpendicular direction (σ┴=3×10⁻¹ S/cm) in SiOC-2 vol% GO composite was two orders of magnitude higher than the parallel direction (σ║=4.7×10⁻³ S/cm) owing to the self-assembled lamellar structure of graphene in the SiOC matrix. The composites exhibited increased electrical conductivity (σ┴) from 8.4×10⁻³ to 3×10⁻¹ S/cm, with the increasing GO content from 0.5 to 2 vol%. The SiOC-2 vol% GO composites further showed the better electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than pure graphene, exhibiting a similar onset potential (~0.75V vs. RHE) and more positive half-wave potential (~0.6V vs. RHE).

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, flexural strength, electrical conductivity, electrochemical performance

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26 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître

Abstract:

Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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25 Development of a New Characterization Method to Analyse Cypermethrin Penetration in Wood Material by Immunolabelling

Authors: Sandra Tapin-Lingua, Katia Ruel, Jean-Paul Joseleau, Daouia Messaoudi, Olivier Fahy, Michel Petit-Conil

Abstract:

The preservative efficacy of organic biocides is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to apply a new methodology based on antibody-antigen recognition and electronic microscopy to visualize directly pyrethroids in the wood material. A polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin was developed and implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples coated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on impregnated wood and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Such results correlated with chemical analyzes carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls.

Keywords: cypermethrin, insecticide, wood penetration, wood retention, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, polyclonal antibody

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24 The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio after Surgery for Hip Fracture in a New, Simple, and Objective Score to Predict Postoperative Mortality

Authors: Philippe Dillien, Patrice Forget, Harald Engel, Olivier Cornu, Marc De Kock, Jean Cyr Yombi

Abstract:

Introduction: Hip fracture precedes commonly death in elderly people. Identification of high-risk patients may contribute to target patients in whom optimal management, resource allocation and trials efficiency is needed. The aim of this study is to construct a predictive score of mortality after hip fracture on the basis of the objective prognostic factors available: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), age, and sex. C-Reactive Protein (CRP), is also considered as an alternative to the NLR. Patients and methods: After the IRB approval, we analyzed our prospective database including 286 consecutive patients with hip fracture. A score was constructed combining age (1 point per decade above 74 years), sex (1 point for males), and NLR at postoperative day+5 (1 point if >5). A receiver-operating curve (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Results: From the 286 patients included, 235 were analyzed (72 males and 163 females, 30.6%/69.4%), with a median age of 84 (range: 65 to 102) years, mean NLR values of 6.47+/-6.07. At one year, 82/280 patients died (29.3%). Graphical analysis and log-rank test confirm a highly statistically significant difference (P<0.001). Performance analysis shows an AUC of 0.72 [95%CI 0.65-0.79]. CRP shows no advantage on NLR. Conclusion: We have developed a score based on age, sex and the NLR to predict the risk of mortality at one year in elderly patients after surgery for a hip fracture. After external validation, it may be included in clinical practice as in clinical research to stratify the risk of postoperative mortality.

Keywords: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, hip fracture, postoperative mortality, medical and health sciences

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23 Molecular Characterization and Identification of C-Type Lectin in Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

Authors: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Xinghong Wang, Zhanghong Shi, Youming Hou

Abstract:

Insect’s innate immunity depends on a variety of defense responses for the recognition of invading pathogens. Pathogen recognition involves particular proteins known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens to distinguish between self and non-self. C-type lectins (CTLs) belong to a superfamily of PPRs which involved in insect immunity and defense mechanism. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier is a devastating pest of Palm cultivations in China. Although studies on R. ferrugineus immune mechanism and host defense have conducted, however, the role of CTL in immune responses of R. ferrugineus remains elusive. Here, we report RfCTL, which is a secreted protein containing a single-CRD domain. The open reading frame (ORF) of CTL is 226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 168 amino acids. Transcript expression analysis revealed that RfCTL highly expressed in immune-related tissues, i.e., hemolymph and fat body. The abundance of RfCTL in the gut and fat body dramatically increased upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial challenges, suggesting a role in defense against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Taken together, we inferred that RfCTL might be involved in the immune defense of R. ferrugineus and established a solid foundation for future studies on R. ferrugineus CTL domain proteins for better understanding of insect immunity.

Keywords: biological invasion, c-type lectin, insect immunity, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

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