Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: automation

285 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
284 Learning in the Virtual Laboratory via Design of Automation Process for Wooden Hammers Marking

Authors: A. Javorova, J. Oravcova, K. Velisek

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The article summarizes the experience of technical subjects teaching methodologies using a number of software products to solve specific assigned tasks described in this paper. Task is about the problems of automation and mechanization in the industry. Specifically, it focuses on introducing automation in the wood industry. The article describes the design of the automation process for marking wooden hammers. Similar problems are solved by students in CA laboratory.

Keywords: CA system, education, simulation, subject

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
283 CONDUCTHOME: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

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This paper presents the interface CONDUCTHOME which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using ‘invariant gesture protocols’. The function of this interface is to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
282 Identification of Risks Associated with Process Automation Systems

Authors: J. K. Visser, H. T. Malan

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A need exists to identify the sources of risks associated with the process automation systems within petrochemical companies or similar energy related industries. These companies use many different process automation technologies in its value chain. A crucial part of the process automation system is the information technology component featuring in the supervisory control layer. The ever-changing technology within the process automation layers and the rate at which it advances pose a risk to safe and predictable automation system performance. The age of the automation equipment also provides challenges to the operations and maintenance managers of the plant due to obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. The main objective of this research was to determine the risk sources associated with the equipment that is part of the process automation systems. A secondary objective was to establish whether technology managers and technicians were aware of the risks and share the same viewpoint on the importance of the risks associated with automation systems. A conceptual model for risk sources of automation systems was formulated from models and frameworks in literature. This model comprised six categories of risk which forms the basis for identifying specific risks. This model was used to develop a questionnaire that was sent to 172 instrument technicians and technology managers in the company to obtain primary data. 75 completed and useful responses were received. These responses were analyzed statistically to determine the highest risk sources and to determine whether there was difference in opinion between technology managers and technicians. The most important risks that were revealed in this study are: 1) the lack of skilled technicians, 2) integration capability of third-party system software, 3) reliability of the process automation hardware, 4) excessive costs pertaining to performing maintenance and migrations on process automation systems, and 5) requirements of having third-party communication interfacing compatibility as well as real-time communication networks.

Keywords: distributed control system, identification of risks, information technology, process automation system

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
281 Automation of Kitchen Chemical in the Textile Industry

Authors: José Luiz da Silva Neto, Renato Sipelli Silva, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

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The automation of industrial processes plays a vital role in industries today, becoming an integral and important part of the industrial process and modern production. The process control systems are designed to maximize production, reduce costs and minimize risks in production. However, these systems are generally not deployed methodologies and planning. So that this article describes the development of an automation system of a kitchen preparation of chemicals in the textile industry based on a retrofitting methodology that provides more quality into the process at a lower cost.

Keywords: automation, textile industry, kitchen chemical, information integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
280 Control Algorithm for Home Automation Systems

Authors: Marek Długosz, Paweł Skruch

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One of purposes of home automation systems is to provide appropriate comfort to the users by suitable air temperature control and stabilization inside the rooms. The control of temperature level is not a simple task and the basic difficulty results from the fact that accurate parameters of the object of control, that is a building, remain unknown. Whereas the structure of the model is known, the identification of model parameters is a difficult task. In this paper, a control algorithm allowing the present temperature to be reached inside the building within the specified time without the need to know accurate parameters of the building itself is presented.

Keywords: control, home automation system, wireless networking, automation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
279 The Effect of Computerized Systems of Office Automation on Employees' Productivity Efficiency

Authors: Mohammad Hemmati, Mohammad Taban, Ali Yasini

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One of the factors that can play an important role in increasing productivity is the optimal use of information technology, which in this area today has a significant role to play in computer systems of office automation in organizations and companies. Therefore, this research has been conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of the relationship between computerized systems of office automation and the productivity of employees in the municipality of Ilam city. The statistical population of this study was 110 people. Using Cochran formula, the minimum sample size is 78 people. The present research is a descriptive-looking research in terms of the type of objective view. A questionnaire was used to collect data. To assess the reliability of variables, Cornbrash’s alpha coefficient was used, which was equal to 0.85; SPSS19 and Pearson test were used to analyze the data and test the hypothesis of the research. In this research, three hypotheses of the relationship between office automation with efficiency, performance, and effectiveness were investigated. The results showed a direct and positive relationship between the office automation system and the increase in the efficiency, effectiveness, and efficiency of employees, and there was no reason to reject these hypotheses.

Keywords: efficiency, performance, effectiveness, automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
278 Integration Network ASI in Lab Automation and Networks Industrial in IFCE

Authors: Jorge Fernandes Teixeira Filho, André Oliveira Alcantara Fontenele, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

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The constant emergence of new technologies used in automated processes makes it necessary for teachers and traders to apply new technologies in their classes. This paper presents an application of a new technology that will be employed in a didactic plant, which represents an effluent treatment process located in a laboratory of a federal educational institution. At work were studied in the first place, all components to be placed on automation laboratory in order to determine ways to program, parameterize and organize the plant. New technologies that have been implemented to the process are basically an AS-i network and a Profinet network, a SCADA system, which represented a major innovation in the laboratory. The project makes it possible to carry out in the laboratory various practices of industrial networks and SCADA systems.

Keywords: automation, industrial networks, SCADA systems, lab automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
277 Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application

Authors: Lochan Basyal

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Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address “[email protected]” with subject heading “Device Control” with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.

Keywords: control circuit, e-mail, global automation, internet of things, IOT, Raspberry Pi

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276 Using Analytical Hierarchy Process and TOPSIS Approaches in Designing a Finite Element Analysis Automation Program

Authors: Ming Wen, Nasim Nezamoddini

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Sophisticated numerical simulations like finite element analysis (FEA) involve a complicated process from model setup to post-processing tasks that require replication of time-consuming steps. Utilizing FEA automation program simplifies the complexity of the involved steps while minimizing human errors in analysis set up, calculations, and results processing. One of the main challenges in designing FEA automation programs is to identify user requirements and link them to possible design alternatives. This paper presents a decision-making framework to design a Python based FEA automation program for modal analysis, frequency response analysis, and random vibration fatigue (RVF) analysis procedures. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are applied to evaluate design alternatives considering the feedback received from experts and program users.

Keywords: finite element analysis, FEA, random vibration fatigue, process automation, analytical hierarchy process, AHP, TOPSIS, multiple-criteria decision-making, MCDM

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275 A Framework for Automating Software Testing: A Practical Approach

Authors: Ana Paula Cavalcanti Furtado, Silvio Meira

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Context: The quality of a software product can be directly influenced by the quality of its development process. Therefore, immature or ad-hoc test processes are means that are unsuited for introducing systematic test automation, and should not be used to support improving the quality of software. Objective: In order to conduct this research, the benefits and limitations of and gaps in automating software testing had to be assessed in order to identify the best practices and to propose a strategy for systematically introducing test automation into software development processes. Method: To conduct this research, an exploratory bibliographical survey was undertaken so as to underpin the search by theory and the recent literature. After defining the proposal, two case studies were conducted so as to analyze the proposal in a real-world environment. In addition, the proposal was also assessed through a focus group with specialists in the field. Results: The proposal of a Framework for Automating Software Testing (FAST), which is a theoretical framework consisting of a hierarchical structure to introduce test automation. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that the absence of systematic processes is one of the factors that hinder the introduction of test automation. Based on the results of the case studies, FAST can be considered as a satisfactory alternative that lies within the scope of introducing and maintaining test automation in software development.

Keywords: software process improvement, software quality, software testing, test automation

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274 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

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Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
273 Derivation of Technology Element for Automation in Table Formwork in a Tall Building Construction

Authors: Junehyuck Lee, Dongmin Lee, Hunhee Cho, Kyung-In Kang

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A table formwork method has recently been widely applied in reinforced concrete structures in a tall building construction to improve safety and productivity. However, this method still depended mainly on manpower. Therefore, this study aimed at derivation of technology element to apply the automation in table formwork in a tall building construction. These results will contribute to improve productivity and labor saving in table formwork in tall building construction.

Keywords: table form, tall building, automation, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
272 Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems

Authors: Richard Joseph, Nerey Mvungi

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An electric power system includes a generating, a transmission, a distribution and consumers subsystems. An electrical power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines, capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of power systems from generation level to end user levels was determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E) version 30.3.2.

Keywords: automation, distribution subsystem, generating subsystem, PSS/E, TANESCO, transmission subsystem

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
271 System of Quality Automation for Documents (SQAD)

Authors: R. Babi Saraswathi, K. Divya, A. Habeebur Rahman, D. B. Hari Prakash, S. Jayanth, T. Kumar, N. Vijayarangan

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Document automation is the design of systems and workflows, assembling repetitive documents to meet the specific business needs. In any organization or institution, documenting employee’s information is very important for both employees as well as management. It shows an individual’s progress to the management. Many documents of the employee are in the form of papers, so it is very difficult to arrange and for future reference we need to spend more time in getting the exact document. Also, it is very tedious to generate reports according to our needs. The process gets even more difficult on getting approvals and hence lacks its security aspects. This project overcomes the above-stated issues. By storing the details in the database and maintaining the e-documents, the automation system reduces the manual work to a large extent. Then the approval process of some important documents can be done in a much-secured manner by using Digital Signature and encryption techniques. Details are maintained in the database and e-documents are stored in specific folders and generation of various kinds of reports is possible. Moreover, an efficient search method is implemented is used in the database. Automation supporting document maintenance in many aspects is useful for minimize data entry, reduce the time spent on proof-reading, avoids duplication, and reduce the risks associated with the manual error, etc.

Keywords: e-documents, automation, digital signature, encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
270 Framework for Socio-Technical Issues in Requirements Engineering for Developing Resilient Machine Vision Systems Using Levels of Automation through the Lifecycle

Authors: Ryan Messina, Mehedi Hasan

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This research is to examine the impacts of using data to generate performance requirements for automation in visual inspections using machine vision. These situations are intended for design and how projects can smooth the transfer of tacit knowledge to using an algorithm. We have proposed a framework when specifying machine vision systems. This framework utilizes varying levels of automation as contingency planning to reduce data processing complexity. Using data assists in extracting tacit knowledge from those who can perform the manual tasks to assist design the system; this means that real data from the system is always referenced and minimizes errors between participating parties. We propose using three indicators to know if the project has a high risk of failing to meet requirements related to accuracy and reliability. All systems tested achieved a better integration into operations after applying the framework.

Keywords: automation, contingency planning, continuous engineering, control theory, machine vision, system requirements, system thinking

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269 Automated Resin Transfer Moulding of Carbon Phenolic Composites

Authors: Zhenyu Du, Ed Collings, James Meredith

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The high cost of composite materials versus conventional materials remains a major barrier to uptake in the transport sector. This is exacerbated by a shortage of skilled labour which makes the labour content of a hand laid composite component (~40 % of total cost) an obvious target for reduction. Automation is a method to remove labour cost and improve quality. This work focuses on the challenges and benefits to automating the manufacturing process from raw fibre to trimmed component. It will detail the experimental work required to complete an automation cell, the control strategy used to integrate all machines and the final benefits in terms of throughput and cost.

Keywords: automation, low cost technologies, processing and manufacturing technologies, resin transfer moulding

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
268 Human-Automation Interaction in Law: Mapping Legal Decisions and Judgments, Cognitive Processes, and Automation Levels

Authors: Dovile Petkeviciute-Barysiene

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Legal technologies not only create new ways for accessing and providing legal services but also transform the role of legal practitioners. Both lawyers and users of legal services expect automated solutions to outperform people with objectivity and impartiality. Although fairness of the automated decisions is crucial, research on assessing various characteristics of automated processes related to the perceived fairness has only begun. One of the major obstacles to this research is the lack of comprehensive understanding of what legal actions are automated and could be meaningfully automated, and to what extent. Neither public nor legal practitioners oftentimes cannot envision technological input due to the lack of general without illustrative examples. The aim of this study is to map decision making stages and automation levels which are and/or could be achieved in legal actions related to pre-trial and trial processes. Major legal decisions and judgments are identified during the consultations with legal practitioners. The dual-process model of information processing is used to describe cognitive processes taking place while making legal decisions and judgments during pre-trial and trial action. Some of the existing legal technologies are incorporated into the analysis as well. Several published automation level taxonomies are considered because none of them fit well into the legal context, as they were all created for avionics, teleoperation, unmanned aerial vehicles, etc. From the information processing perspective, analysis of the legal decisions and judgments expose situations that are most sensitive to cognitive bias, among others, also help to identify areas that would benefit from the automation the most. Automation level analysis, in turn, provides a systematic approach to interaction and cooperation between humans and algorithms. Moreover, an integrated map of legal decisions and judgments, information processing characteristics, and automation levels all together provide some groundwork for the research of legal technology perceived fairness and acceptance. Acknowledgment: This project has received funding from European Social Fund (project No 09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0116) under grant agreement with the Research Council of Lithuania (LMTLT).

Keywords: automation levels, information processing, legal judgment and decision making, legal technology

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267 Multi-Level Meta-Modeling for Enabling Dynamic Subtyping for Industrial Automation

Authors: Zoltan Theisz, Gergely Mezei

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Modern industrial automation relies on service oriented concepts of Internet of Things (IoT) device modeling in order to provide a flexible and extendable environment for service meta-repository. However, state-of-the-art meta-modeling techniques prefer design-time modeling, which results in a heavy usage of class sometimes unnecessary static subtyping. Although this approach benefits from clear-cut object-oriented design principles, it also seals the model repository for further dynamic extensions. In this paper, a dynamic multi-level modeling approach is introduced that enables dynamic subtyping through a more relaxed partial instantiation mechanism. The approach is demonstrated on a simple sensor network example.

Keywords: meta-modeling, dynamic subtyping, DMLA, industrial automation, arrowhead

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266 A Practical Approach and Implementation of Digital Library Towards Best Practice in Malaysian Academic Library

Authors: Zainab Ajab Mohideen, Kiran Kaur, A. Basheer Ahamadhu, Noor Azlinda Wan Jan, Sukmawati Muhammad

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The corpus in the digital library is to provide an overview and evidence from library automation that can be used to justify the needs of the digital library. This paper disperses the approach and implementation of the digital library as part of best practices by the Automation Division at Hamzah Sendut Library of the University Science Malaysia (USM). The implemented digital library model emphasizes on the entire library collections, technical perspective, and automation solution. This model served as a foundation for digital library services as part of information delivery in the USM digital library. The approach to digital library includes discussion on key factors, design, architecture, and pragmatic model that has been collected, captured, and identified during the implementation stages. At present, the USM digital library has achieved the status of an Institutional Repository (IR).

Keywords: academic digital library, digital information system, digital library best practice, digital library model

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265 Control and Automation of Sensors in Metering System of Fluid

Authors: Abdelkader Harrouz, Omar Harrouz, Ali Benatiallah

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This paper is to present the essential definitions, roles and characteristics of automation of metering system. We discuss measurement, data acquisition and metrological control of a signal sensor from dynamic metering system. After that, we present control of instruments of metering system of fluid with more detailed discussions to the reference standards.

Keywords: communication, metering, computer, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
264 The Use of Ontology Framework for Automation Digital Forensics Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Luthfi

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One of the main goals of a computer forensic analyst is to determine the cause and effect of the acquisition of a digital evidence in order to obtain relevant information on the case is being handled. In order to get fast and accurate results, this paper will discuss the approach known as ontology framework. This model uses a structured hierarchy of layers that create connectivity between the variant and searching investigation of activity that a computer forensic analysis activities can be carried out automatically. There are two main layers are used, namely analysis tools and operating system. By using the concept of ontology, the second layer is automatically designed to help investigator to perform the acquisition of digital evidence. The methodology of automation approach of this research is by utilizing forward chaining where the system will perform a search against investigative steps and atomically structured in accordance with the rules of the ontology.

Keywords: ontology, framework, automation, forensics

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263 Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation

Authors: Peter Sabev, Katalina Grigorova

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Test automation allows performing difficult and time consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully applied in real world situations in several software companies by the authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites, cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes, connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or are connected to an embedded service gateway.

Keywords: automated testing, manual testing, test automation, software testing, test prioritization

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262 Parameters Influencing Human Machine Interaction in Hospitals

Authors: Hind Bouami

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Handling life-critical systems complexity requires to be equipped with appropriate technology and the right human agents’ functions such as knowledge, experience, and competence in problem’s prevention and solving. Human agents are involved in the management and control of human-machine system’s performance. Documenting human agent’s situation awareness is crucial to support human-machine designers’ decision-making. Knowledge about risks, critical parameters and factors that can impact and threaten automation system’s performance should be collected using preventive and retrospective approaches. This paper aims to document operators’ situation awareness through the analysis of automated organizations’ feedback. The analysis of automated hospital pharmacies feedbacks helps to identify and control critical parameters influencing human machine interaction in order to enhance system’s performance and security. Our human machine system evaluation approach has been deployed in Macon hospital center’s pharmacy which is equipped with automated drug dispensing systems since 2015. Automation’s specifications are related to technical aspects, human-machine interaction, and human aspects. The evaluation of drug delivery automation performance in Macon hospital center has shown that the performance of the automated activity depends on the performance of the automated solution chosen, and also on the control of systemic factors. In fact, 80.95% of automation specification related to the chosen Sinteco’s automated solution is met. The performance of the chosen automated solution is involved in 28.38% of automation specifications performance in Macon hospital center. The remaining systemic parameters involved in automation specifications performance need to be controlled.

Keywords: life-critical systems, situation awareness, human-machine interaction, decision-making

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261 Rest API Based System-level Test Automation for Mobile Applications

Authors: Jisoo Song

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Today’s mobile applications are communicating with servers more and more in order to access external services or information. Also, server-side code changes are more frequent than client-side code changes in a mobile application. The frequent changes lead to an increase in testing cost increase. To reduce costs, UI based test automation can be one of the solutions. It is a common automation technique in system-level testing. However, it can be unsuitable for mobile applications. When you automate tests based on UI elements for mobile applications, there are some limitations such as the overhead of script maintenance or the difficulty of finding invisible defects that UI elements cannot represent. To overcome these limitations, we present a new automation technique based on Rest API. You can automate system-level tests through test scripts that you write. These scripts call a series of Rest API in a user’s action sequence. This technique does not require testers to know the internal implementation details, only input and expected output of Rest API. You can easily modify test cases by modifying Rest API input values and also find problems that might not be evident from the UI level by validating output values. For example, when an application receives price information from a payment server and user cannot see it at UI level, Rest API based scripts can check whether price information is correct or not. More than 10 mobile applications at our company are being tested automatically based on Rest API scripts whenever application source code, mostly server source code, is built. We are finding defects right away by setting a script as a build job in CI server. The build job starts when application code builds are completed. This presentation will also include field cases from our company.

Keywords: case studies at SK Planet, introduction of rest API based test automation, limitations of UI based test automation

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260 Risk Management Approach for a Secure and Performant Integration of Automated Drug Dispensing Systems in Hospitals

Authors: Hind Bouami, Patrick Millot

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Medication dispensing system is a life-critical system whose failure may result in preventable adverse events leading to longer patient stays in hospitals or patient death. Automation has led to great improvements in life-critical systems as it increased safety, efficiency, and comfort. However, critical risks related to medical organization complexity and automated solutions integration can threaten drug dispensing security and performance. Knowledge about the system’s complexity aspects and human machine parameters to control for automated equipment’s security and performance will help operators to secure their automation process and to optimize their system’s reliability. In this context, this study aims to document the operator’s situation awareness about automation risks and parameters involved in automation security and performance. Our risk management approach has been deployed in the North Luxembourg hospital center’s pharmacy, which is equipped with automated drug dispensing systems since 2009. With more than 4 million euros of gains generated, North Luxembourg hospital center’s success story was enabled by the management commitment, pharmacy’s involvement in the implementation and improvement of the automation project, and the close collaboration between the pharmacy and Sinteco’s firm to implement the necessary innovation and organizational actions for automated solutions integration security and performance. An analysis of the actions implemented by the hospital and the parameters involved in automated equipment’s integration security and performance has been made. The parameters to control for automated equipment’s integration security and performance are human aspects (6.25%), technical aspects (50%), and human-machine interaction (43.75%). The implementation of an anthropocentric analysis system before automation would have prevented and optimized the control of risks related to automation.

Keywords: Automated drug delivery systems, Hospitals, Human-centered automated system, Risk management

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259 Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Oliver Ohneiser, Francesca De Crescenzio, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jan Kraemer, Bruno Berberian, Sara Bagassi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini, Fabio Babiloni

Abstract:

An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.

Keywords: automation, human factors, air traffic controller, MINIMA, OOTL (Out-Of-The-Loop), EEG (Electroencephalography), HMI (Human Machine Interface)

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258 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan

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The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: audit fees, auditor quality, digitalization, Big4

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
257 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed

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The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: disturbance automation, electric power grid, smart grid, smart switches

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256 Training Undergraduate Engineering Students in Robotics and Automation through Model-Based Design Training: A Case Study at Assumption University of Thailand

Authors: Sajed A. Habib

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Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that originated in the medical field and has also been used extensively in other knowledge disciplines with recognized advantages and limitations. PBL has been used in various undergraduate engineering programs with mixed outcomes. The current fourth industrial revolution (digital era or Industry 4.0) has made it essential for many science and engineering students to receive effective training in advanced courses such as industrial automation and robotics. This paper presents a case study at Assumption University of Thailand, where a PBL-like approach was used to teach some aspects of automation and robotics to selected groups of undergraduate engineering students. These students were given some basic level training in automation prior to participating in a subsequent training session in order to solve technical problems with increased complexity. The participating students’ evaluation of the training sessions in terms of learning effectiveness, skills enhancement, and incremental knowledge following the problem-solving session was captured through a follow-up survey consisting of 14 questions and a 5-point scoring system. From the most recent training event, an overall 70% of the respondents indicated that their skill levels were enhanced to a much greater level than they had had before the training, whereas 60.4% of the respondents from the same event indicated that their incremental knowledge following the session was much greater than what they had prior to the training. The instructor-facilitator involved in the training events suggested that this method of learning was more suitable for senior/advanced level students than those at the freshmen level as certain skills to effectively participate in such problem-solving sessions are acquired over a period of time, and not instantly.

Keywords: automation, industry 4.0, model-based design training, problem-based learning

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