Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1886

Search results for: damage

1886 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

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1885 Experimental Study Damage in a Composite Structure by Vibration Analysis- Glass / Polyester

Authors: R. Abdeldjebar, B. Labbaci, L. Missoum, B. Moudden, M. Djermane


The basic components of a composite material made him very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. This work focuses on the detection of damage by vibration analysis, whose main objective is to exploit the dynamic response of a structure to detect understand the damage. The experimental results are compared with those predicted by numerical models to confirm the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: experimental, composite, vibration analysis, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 543
1884 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1883 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1882 Investigation of Damage in Glass Subjected to Static Indentation Using Continuum Damage Mechanics

Authors: J. Ismail, F. Zaïri, M. Naït-Abdelaziz, Z. Azari


In this work, a combined approach of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and fracture mechanics is applied to model a glass plate behavior under static indentation. A spherical indenter is used and a CDM based constitutive model with an anisotropic damage tensor was selected and implemented into a finite element code to study the damage of glass. Various regions with critical damage values were predicted in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. In these regions, the directions of crack propagation, including both cracks initiating on the surface as well as in the bulk, were predicted using the strain energy density factor.

Keywords: finite element modeling, continuum damage mechanics, indentation, cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1881 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun


With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage location

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1880 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti


Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Nepal earthquake, damage analysis, damage assessment, damage scales

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1879 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery

Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft


Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.

Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
1878 Attribute Index and Classification Method of Earthquake Damage Photographs of Engineering Structure

Authors: Ming Lu, Xiaojun Li, Bodi Lu, Juehui Xing


Earthquake damage phenomenon of each large earthquake gives comprehensive and profound real test to the dynamic performance and failure mechanism of different engineering structures. Cognitive engineering structure characteristics through seismic damage phenomenon are often far superior to expensive shaking table experiments. After the earthquake, people will record a variety of different types of engineering damage photos. However, a large number of earthquake damage photographs lack sufficient information and reduce their using value. To improve the research value and the use efficiency of engineering seismic damage photographs, this paper objects to explore and show seismic damage background information, which includes the earthquake magnitude, earthquake intensity, and the damaged structure characteristics. From the research requirement in earthquake engineering field, the authors use the 2008 China Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake photographs, and provide four kinds of attribute indexes and classification, which are seismic information, structure types, earthquake damage parts and disaster causation factors. The final object is to set up an engineering structural seismic damage database based on these four attribute indicators and classification, and eventually build a website providing seismic damage photographs.

Keywords: attribute index, classification method, earthquake damage picture, engineering structure

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1877 Damage Cost for Private Property by Extreme Wind over the past 10 Years in Korea

Authors: Gou-Moon Choi, Woo-Young Jung, Chan-Young Yune


Recently, the natural disaster has increased worldwide. In Korea, the damage to life and property caused by a typhoon, heavy rain, heavy snow, and an extreme wind also increases every year. Among natural disasters, the frequency and the strength of wind have increased because sea surface temperature has risen due to the increase of the average temperature of the Earth. In the case of extreme wind disaster, it is impossible to control or reduce the occurrence, and the recovery cost always exceeds the damage cost. Therefore, quantitative estimation of the damage cost for extreme wind needs to be established beforehand to install proactive countermeasures. In this study, the damage cost for private properties was analyzed based on the data for the past 10 years in Korea. The damage cost curve was also suggested for the metropolitan cities and provinces. The result shows the possibility for the regional application of the damage cost curve because the damage cost of the regional area is estimated based on the cost of cities and provinces.

Keywords: damage cost, extreme wind, natural disaster, private property

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1876 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner


In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, damage detection, shaking table test, structural health monitoring

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1875 Damage Assessment and Repair for Older Brick Buildings

Authors: Tim D. Sass


The experience of engineers and architects practicing today is typically limited to current building code requirements and modern construction methods and materials. However, many cities have a mix of new and old buildings with many buildings constructed over one hundred years ago when building codes and construction methods were much different. When a brick building sustains damage, a structural engineer is often hired to determine the cause of damage as well as determine the necessary repairs. Forensic studies of dozens of brick buildings shows an appreciation of historical building methods and materials is needed to correctly identify the cause of damage and design an appropriate repair. Damage on an older, brick building can be mistakenly attributed to storms or seismic events when the real source of the damage is deficient original construction. Assessing and remediating damaged brickwork on older brick buildings requires an understanding of the original construction, an understanding of older repair methods, and, an understanding of current building code requirements.

Keywords: brick, damage, deterioration, facade

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
1874 Dynamic Response and Damage Modeling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Pipes: Numerical Investigation

Authors: Ammar Maziz, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Said Rechak


The high mechanical performance of composite pipes can be adversely affected by their low resistance to impact loads. Loads in dynamic origin are dangerous and cause consequences on the operation of pipes because the damage is often not detected and can affect the structural integrity of composite pipes. In this work, an advanced 3-D finite element (FE) model, based on the use of intralaminar damage models was developed and used to predict damage under low-velocity impact. The performance of the numerical model is validated with the confrontation with the results of experimental tests. The results show that at low impact energy, the damage happens mainly by matrix cracking and delamination. The model capabilities to simulate the low-velocity impact events on the full-scale composite structures were proved.

Keywords: composite materials, low velocity impact, FEA, dynamic behavior, progressive damage modeling

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1873 Model Updating-Based Approach for Damage Prognosis in Frames via Modal Residual Force

Authors: Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri, Mojtaba Jafarian Abyaneh, Ali Zare Hosseinzadeh


This paper presents an effective model updating strategy for damage localization and quantification in frames by defining damage detection problem as an optimization issue. A generalized version of the Modal Residual Force (MRF) is employed for presenting a new damage-sensitive cost function. Then, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is utilized for solving suggested inverse problem and the global extremums are reported as damage detection results. The applicability of the presented method is investigated by studying different damage patterns on the benchmark problem of the IASC-ASCE, as well as a planar shear frame structure. The obtained results emphasize good performance of the method not only in free-noise cases, but also when the input data are contaminated with different levels of noises.

Keywords: frame, grey wolf optimization algorithm, modal residual force, structural damage detection

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1872 Analysis of a Damage-Control Target Displacement of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier for Seismic Design

Authors: Mohd Ritzman Abdul Karim, Zhaohui Huang


A current focus in seismic engineering practice is the development of seismic design approach that focuses on the performance-based design. Performance-based design aims to design the structures to achieve specified performance based on the damage limit states. This damage limit is more restrictive limit than life safety and needs to be carefully estimated to avoid damage in piers due to failure in transverse reinforcement. In this paper, a different perspective of damage limit states has been explored by integrating two damage control material limit state, concrete and reinforcement by introduced parameters such as expected yield stress of transverse reinforcement where peak tension strain prior to bar buckling is introduced in a recent study. The different perspective of damage limit states with modified yield displacement and the modified plastic-hinge length is used in order to predict damage-control target displacement for reinforced concreate (RC) bridge pier. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model has been developed for estimating damage target displacement to validate proposed damage limit states. The result from 3D FE analysis was validated with experimental study found in the literature. The validated model then was applied to predict the damage target displacement for RC bridge pier and to validate the proposed study. The tensile strain on reinforcement and compression on concrete were used to determine the predicted damage target displacement and compared with the proposed study. The result shows that the proposed damage limit states were efficient in predicting damage-control target displacement consistent with FE simulations.

Keywords: damage-control target displacement, damage limit states, reinforced concrete bridge pier, yield displacement

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1871 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investiagation

Authors: Mohamed Elassaly


The damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings, is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story R.C. building.

Keywords: damage, frequency content, ground motion, PGA, RC building, seismic

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1870 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi


The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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1869 Retrospective Analysis of the Damage of Agricultural Crops from Hail in Eastern Georgia

Authors: Valerian Omsarashvili, Nino Jamrishvili


Georgia is one of the hail-dangerous countries of world. The work on action on hail processes in Georgia was conducted in 1960-1989 (East Georgia) over the total area of approximately 1.2 million hectares with average positive economic effect near 75 %. In 2015 in East Georgia, the anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, for the estimation of the effectiveness of action on the hail processes at present, arose the need for the detailed analysis of damage from the hail in the past. The work presents the analysis of the data about the number of days with the hail, the areas of damage of agricultural crops (general and to 100 %), and also the economic damage from the hail, of the caused loss to agricultural crops on the territories land of 123 separate populated areas of into 1982 and 1984-1989. In particular, on the average to one populated area, the total area of agricultural crops damaged from the hail was approximately 140 hectares, to 100% damage - 60 hectares, economic damage - 120 thousand US dollars. The corresponding maps of the distribution of the damaged areas on the investigated territory with the use of GIS-technologies are obtained.

Keywords: damage to agricultural crops, hail, Georgia, economic damage

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1868 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar


This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: expected damage cost, limit states, loss estimation, performance based design

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
1867 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero


The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures

Keywords: optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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1866 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1865 An Approach to Low Velocity Impact Damage Modelling of Variable Stiffness Curved Composite Plates

Authors: Buddhi Arachchige, Hessam Ghasemnejad


In this study, the post impact behavior of curved composite plates subjected to low velocity impact was studied analytically and numerically. Approaches to damage modelling are proposed through the degradation of stiffness in the damaged region by reduction of thickness in the damage region. Spring-mass models were used to model the impact response of the plate and impactor. The study involved designing two damage models to compare and contrast the model best fitted with the numerical results. The theoretical force-time responses were compared with the numerical results obtained through a detailed study carried out in LS-DYNA. The modified damage model established a good prediction with the analytical force-time response for different layups and geometry. This study provides a gateway in selecting the most effective layups for variable stiffness curved composite panels able to withstand a higher impact damage.

Keywords: analytical modelling, composite damage, impact, variable stiffness

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1864 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis


An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electromechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: concrete reinforcement, damage detection, electromechanical admittance, experimental measurements, finite element method, guided waves, PZT

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1863 Damage Mesomodel Based Low-Velocity Impact Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Semayat Fanta, P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay


Damage meso-model for laminates is one of the most widely applicable approaches for the analysis of damage induced in laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. Damage meso-model for laminates has been developed over the last three decades by many researchers in experimental, theoretical, and analytical methods that have been carried out in micromechanics as well as meso-mechanics analysis approaches. It has been fundamentally developed based on the micromechanical description that aims to predict the damage initiation and evolution until the failure of structure in various loading conditions. The current damage meso-model for laminates aimed to act as a bridge between micromechanics and macro-mechanics of the laminated composite structure. This model considers two meso-constituents for the analysis of damage in ply and interface that imparted from low-velocity impact. The damages considered in this study include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and diffused damage of the lamina, and delamination of the interface. The damage initiation and evolution in laminae can be modeled in terms of damaged strain energy density using damage parameters and the thermodynamic irreversible forces. Interface damage can be modeled with a new concept of spherical micro-void in the resin-rich zone of interface material. The damage evolution is controlled by the damage parameter (d) and the radius of micro-void (r) from the point of damage nucleation to its saturation. The constitutive martial model for meso-constituents is defined in a user material subroutine VUMAT and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit finite element modeling tool. The model predicts the damages in the meso-constituents level very accurately and is considered the most effective technique of modeling low-velocity impact simulation for laminated composite structures.

Keywords: mesomodel, laminate, low-energy impact, micromechanics

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1862 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis


An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electro-mechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: concrete reinforcement, damage detection, electromechanical admittance, experimental measurements, finite element method, guided waves, PZT

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1861 Experimental Research on the Elastic Modulus of Bones at the Lamellar Level under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Xianjia Meng, Chuanyong Qu


Compact bone produces fatigue damage under the inevitable physiological load. The accumulation of fatigue damage can change the bone’s micro-structure at different scales and cause the catastrophic failure eventually. However, most tests were limited to the macroscopic modulus of bone and there is a need to assess the microscopic modulus during fatigue progress. In this paper, nano-identation was used to investigate the bone specimen subjected to four point bending. The microscopic modulus of the same area were measured at different degrees of damage including fracture. So microscopic damage can be divided into three stages: first, the modulus decreased rapidly and then They fell slowly, before fracture the decline became fast again. After fracture, the average modulus decreased by 20%. The results of inner and outer planes explained the influence of compressive and tensile loads on modulus. Both the compressive and tensile moduli decreased with the accumulation of damage. They reached the minimum at ending and increased after fracture. The modulus evolution under different strains were revealed by the side. They all fell slowly and then fast with the accumulation of damage. The fractured results indicated that the elastic modulus decreased obviously at the high strain while decreased less at the low strain. During the fatigue progress, there was a significant difference in modulus at low degree of damage. However, the dispersed modulus tended to be similar at high degree of damage, but they became different again after the failure.

Keywords: fatigue damage, fracture, microscopic modulus, bone, nano-identation

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1860 Damage Localization of Deterministic-Stochastic Systems

Authors: Yen-Po Wang, Ming-Chih Huang, Ming-Lian Chang


A scheme integrated with deterministic–stochastic subspace system identification and the method of damage localization vector is proposed in this study for damage detection of structures based on seismic response data. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted in National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), Taiwan. Damage condition is simulated by reducing the cross-sectional area of some of the columns at the bottom. Both single and combinations of multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged (ill-conditioned) counterpart has also been studied. The proposed scheme proves to be effective.

Keywords: damage locating vectors, deterministic-stochastic subspace system, shaking table tests, system identification

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1859 Study on Moisture-Induced-Damage of Semi-Rigid Base under Hydrodynamic Pressure

Authors: Baofeng Pan, Heng Liu


Because of the high strength and large carrying capacity, the semi-rigid base is widely used in modern road engineering. However, hydrodynamic pressure, which is one of the main factors to cause early damage of semi-rigid base, cannot be avoided in the nature environment when pavement is subjected to some loadings such as the passing vehicles. In order to investigating how moisture-induced-damage of semi-rigid base influenced by hydrodynamic pressure, a new and effective experimental research method is provided in this paper. The results show that: (a) The washing action of high hydrodynamic pressure is the direct cause of strength reducing of road semi-rigid base. (b) The damage of high hydrodynamic pressure mainly occurs at the beginning of the scoring test and with the increasing of testing time the influence reduces. (c) Under the same hydrodynamic pressure, the longer the specimen health age, the stronger ability to resist moisture induced damage.

Keywords: semi-rigid base, hydrodynamic pressure, moisture-induced-damage, experimental research

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1858 Non-Destructive Static Damage Detection of Structures Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Amir Abbas Fatemi, Zahra Tabrizian, Kabir Sadeghi


To find the location and severity of damage that occurs in a structure, characteristics changes in dynamic and static can be used. The non-destructive techniques are more common, economic, and reliable to detect the global or local damages in structures. This paper presents a non-destructive method in structural damage detection and assessment using GA and static data. Thus, a set of static forces is applied to some of degrees of freedom and the static responses (displacements) are measured at another set of DOFs. An analytical model of the truss structure is developed based on the available specification and the properties derived from static data. The damages in structure produce changes to its stiffness so this method used to determine damage based on change in the structural stiffness parameter. Changes in the static response which structural damage caused choose to produce some simultaneous equations. Genetic Algorithms are powerful tools for solving large optimization problems. Optimization is considered to minimize objective function involve difference between the static load vector of damaged and healthy structure. Several scenarios defined for damage detection (single scenario and multiple scenarios). The static damage identification methods have many advantages, but some difficulties still exist. So it is important to achieve the best damage identification and if the best result is obtained it means that the method is Reliable. This strategy is applied to a plane truss. This method is used for a plane truss. Numerical results demonstrate the ability of this method in detecting damage in given structures. Also figures show damage detections in multiple damage scenarios have really efficient answer. Even existence of noise in the measurements doesn’t reduce the accuracy of damage detections method in these structures.

Keywords: damage detection, finite element method, static data, non-destructive, genetic algorithm

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1857 Modeling Anisotropic Damage Algorithms of Metallic Structures

Authors: Bahar Ayhan


The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of the inelastic behavior of the anisotropically damaged ductile materials, which are based on a generalized macroscopic theory within the framework of continuum damage mechanics. Kinematic decomposition of the strain rates into elastic, plastic and damage parts is basis for accomplishing the structure of continuum theory. The evolution of the damage strain rate tensor is detailed with the consideration of anisotropic effects. Helmholtz free energy functions are constructed separately for the elastic and inelastic behaviors in order to be able to address the plastic and damage process. Additionally, the constitutive structure, which is based on the standard dissipative material approach, is elaborated with stress tensor, a yield criterion for plasticity and a fracture criterion for damage besides the potential functions of each inelastic phenomenon. The finite element method is used to approximate the linearized variational problem. Stress and strain outcomes are solved by using the numerical integration algorithm based on operator split methodology with a plastic and damage (multiplicator) variable separately. Numerical simulations are proposed in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the formulation by comparing the examples in the literature.

Keywords: anisotropic damage, finite element method, plasticity, coupling

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