Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Raphaël Salot

39 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans


In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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38 Computerized Analysis of Phonological Structure of 10,400 Brazilian Sign Language Signs

Authors: Wanessa G. Oliveira, Fernando C. Capovilla


Capovilla and Raphael’s Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 4,200 Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) signs. Duduchi and Capovilla’s software SignTracking permits users to retrieve signs even when ignoring the gloss corresponding to it and to discover the meaning of all 4,200 signs sign simply by clicking on graphic menus of the sign characteristics (phonemes). Duduchi and Capovilla have discovered that the ease with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the average popularity of its component phonemes. Thus, signs composed of rare (distinct) phonemes are easier to retrieve than are those composed of common phonemes. SignTracking offers a means of computing the average popularity of the phonemes that make up each one of 4,200 signs. It provides a precise measure of the degree of ease with which signs can be retrieved, and sign meanings can be discovered. Duduchi and Capovilla’s logarithmic model proved valid: The degree with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the popularity of each component phoneme. Capovilla, Raphael and Mauricio’s New Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 10,400 Libras signs. The present analysis revealed Libras DNA structure by mapping the incidence of 501 sign phonemes resulting from the layered distribution of five parameters: 163 handshape phonemes (CherEmes-ManusIculi); 34 finger shape phonemes (DactilEmes-DigitumIculi); 55 hand placement phonemes (ArtrotoToposEmes-ArticulatiLocusIculi); 173 movement dimension phonemes (CinesEmes-MotusIculi) pertaining to direction, frequency, and type; and 76 Facial Expression phonemes (MascarEmes-PersonalIculi).

Keywords: Brazilian sign language, lexical retrieval, libras sign, sign phonology

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
37 Approximating a Funicular Shape with a Translational Surface, Example of a Glass Canopy

Authors: Raphaël Menard, Etienne Fayette, Paul Azzopardi


This paper presents the method to generate the geometry of an actual glass canopy project in Rennes, France, by architect Bruno Gaudin, with aim to achieve the best structural efficiency possible using only quadrangle meshing. The paper includes equation of the translational surface generated, the level of accuracy in approximating the funicular shape and the method of constructive implementation.

Keywords: funicular shape, glass canopy, glass panels, lowered arches, mathematics, penalization, shell structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
36 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella


This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

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35 Investigation on the Acoustical Transmission Path of Additive Printed Metals

Authors: Raphael Rehmet, Armin Lohrengel, Prof Dr-Ing


In terms of making machines more silent and convenient, it is necessary to analyze the transmission path of mechanical vibrations and structure-bone noise. A typical solution for the elimination of structure-bone noise would be to simply add stiffeners or additional masses to change the transmission behavior and, thereby, avoid the propagation of vibrations. Another solution could be to use materials with a different damping behavior, such as elastomers, to isolate the machine dynamically. This research approach investigates the damping behavior of additive printed components made from structural steel or titanium, which have been manufactured in the “Laser Powder Bed Fusion“-process. By using the design flexibility which this process comes with, it will be investigated how a local impedance difference will affect the transmission behavior of the specimens.

Keywords: 3D-printed, acoustics, dynamics, impedance

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
34 An Optimization Tool-Based Design Strategy Applied to Divide-by-2 Circuits with Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Agord M. Pinto Jr., Yuzo Iano, Leandro T. Manera, Raphael R. N. Souza


This paper describes an optimization tool-based design strategy for a Current Mode Logic CML divide-by-2 circuit. Representing a building block for output frequency generation in a RFID protocol based-frequency synthesizer, the circuit was designed to minimize the power consumption for driving of multiple loads with unbalancing (at transceiver level). Implemented with XFAB XC08 180 nm technology, the circuit was optimized through MunEDA WiCkeD tool at Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment ADE.

Keywords: divide-by-2 circuit, CMOS technology, PLL phase locked-loop, optimization tool, CML current mode logic, RF transceiver

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33 An Axisymmetric Finite Element Method for Compressible Swirling Flow

Authors: Raphael Zanella, Todd A. Oliver, Karl W. Schulz


This work deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric compressible flows with swirl velocity. We are interested in problems where the flow, while weakly dependent on the azimuthal coordinate, may have a strong azimuthal velocity component. We describe the approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with H^1-conformal spaces of axisymmetric functions. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with explicit march-in-time. The code is first verified with a convergence test on a manufactured solution. The verification is completed by comparing the numerical and analytical solutions in a Poiseuille flow case and a Taylor-Couette flow case. The code is finally applied to the problem of a swirling subsonic air flow in a plasma torch.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, continuous finite elements, swirling flow

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32 Application of the MOOD Technique to the Steady-State Euler Equations

Authors: Gaspar J. Machado, Stéphane Clain, Raphael Loubère


The goal of the present work is to numerically study steady-state nonlinear hyperbolic equations in the context of the finite volume framework. We will consider the unidimensional Burgers' equation as the reference case for the scalar situation and the unidimensional Euler equations for the vectorial situation. We consider two approaches to solve the nonlinear equations: a time marching algorithm and a direct steady-state approach. We first develop the necessary and sufficient conditions to obtain the existence and unicity of the solution. We treat regular examples and solutions with a steady shock and to provide very-high-order finite volume approximations we implement a method based on the MOOD technology (Multi-dimensional Optimal Order Detection). The main ingredient consists in using an 'a posteriori' limiting strategy to eliminate non physical oscillations deriving from the Gibbs phenomenon while keeping a high accuracy for the smooth part.

Keywords: Euler equations, finite volume, MOOD, steady-state

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31 Liquidity and Cash Management in Business-A Key to Business Survival and Growth: The Nigerian Case

Authors: Ugbor Raphael Oluchukwu


Focusing on liquidity comes more naturally to a Chief Executive Officer than an Accountant who is trained to practice accrual accounting. When business is just commencing, it is essentially run on a cheque book (cash accounting) and for as long as there is cash in the accounts, the business is solvent. When complexity sets in and the business adopts financial accounting, the effect of liquidity and cash management becomes more pronounced. The management of cash no doubts impacts positively on the survival and growth of firms. What is in doubt is the amount of cash to be held by a firm as enough cash to enable the firm stay “afloat”. The focus of this paper is to determine liquidity and cash management in business, the Nigerian case. The specific objectives of the study are to do a theoretical review of the amount of cash to be held by a firm as enough cash to enable it stay afloat and to do a theoretical analysis to show the effect of cash flow on the survival and growth of firms in Nigeria.

Keywords: cash, firm survival, growth, liquidity management

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
30 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Temperature Distribution on Power Transformer Windings Using Open Foam

Authors: Saeed Khandan Siar, Stefan Tenbohlen, Christian Breuer, Raphael Lebreton


The goal of this article is to investigate the detailed temperature distribution and the fluid flow of an oil cooled winding of a power transformer by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The experimental setup consists of three passes of a zig-zag cooled disc type winding, in which losses are modeled by heating cartridges in each winding segment. A precise temperature sensor measures the temperature of each turn. The laboratory setup allows the exact control of the boundary conditions, e.g. the oil flow rate and the inlet temperature. Furthermore, a simulation model is solved using the open source computational fluid dynamics solver OpenFOAM and validated with the experimental results. The model utilizes the laminar and turbulent flow for the different mass flow rate of the oil. The good agreement of the simulation results with experimental measurements validates the model.

Keywords: CFD, conjugated heat transfer, power transformers, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
29 Numerical Simulation of Wishart Diffusion Processes

Authors: Raphael Naryongo, Philip Ngare, Anthony Waititu


This paper deals with numerical simulation of Wishart processes for a single asset risky pricing model whose volatility is described by Wishart affine diffusion processes. The multi-factor specification of volatility will make the model more flexible enough to fit the stock market data for short or long maturities for better returns. The Wishart process is a stochastic process which is a positive semi-definite matrix-valued generalization of the square root process. The aim of the study is to model the log asset stock returns under the double Wishart stochastic volatility model. The solution of the log-asset return dynamics for Bi-Wishart processes will be obtained through Euler-Maruyama discretization schemes. The numerical results on the asset returns are compared to the existing models returns such as Heston stochastic volatility model and double Heston stochastic volatility model

Keywords: euler schemes, log-asset return, infinitesimal generator, wishart diffusion affine processes

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28 Liquidity and Cash Management Practices of Owner-Managed Firms-A Case of South East, Nigeria

Authors: Ugbor Raphael Oluchukwu


The survey research design was adopted to examine whether liquidity and cash management practices of owner-managed firms in South East Nigeria influence their profitability, growth and survival. Four independent variables (accounting systems, working capital management, budgetary control, and managerial planning) were used in the evaluation which was restricted to eight small firms. Results indicate that one variable, working capital management alone dominate the liquidity perception of owner managers. As a result, owner managers find it difficult to meet maturing business obligations as growth sets in. The study also reveals that the four independent variables have significant impact on the profitability, growth and survival of owner managed firms. Owner managers are therefore advised to undertake regular entrepreneurship training in order to upgrade their liquidity and cash management knowledge and practices to enhance their overall performance.

Keywords: liquidity management, owner-managed firm, profitability, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
27 Seismotectonics of Southern Haiti: A Faulting Model for the 12 January 2010 M7 Earthquake

Authors: Newdeskarl Saint Fleur, Nathalie Feuillet, Raphaël Grandin, Éric Jacques, Jennifer Weil-Accardo, Yann Klinger


The prevailing consensus is that the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake left the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden strike-slip Fault (EPGF) unruptured but broke unmapped blind north-dipping thrusts. Using high-resolution topography, aerial images, bathymetry and geology we identified previously unrecognized south-dipping NW-SE-striking active thrusts in southern Haiti. One of them, Lamentin thrust (LT), cuts across the crowded city of Carrefour, extends offshore into Port-au-Prince Bay and connects at depth with the EPGF. We propose that both faults broke in 2010. The rupture likely initiated on the thrust and propagated further along the EPGF due to unclamping. This scenario is consistent with geodetic, seismological and field data. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on the unruptured segments of the EPGF and on neighboring thrusts, significantly increasing the seismic hazard in the Port-au-Prince urban area. The numerous active thrusts recognized in that area must be considered for future evaluation of the seismic hazard.

Keywords: active faulting, enriquillo-plantain garden fault, Haiti earthquake, seismic hazard

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26 Effectiveness of Laughter Yoga in Reducing Anxiety among Pre-Operative Patients for Scheduled Major Surgery

Authors: Denise Allison D. Garcia, Camille C. Garcia, Keanu Raphael Garrido, Crestita B. Tan


Introduction: Anxiety is a common problem among pre-operative patients. Several methods or interventions are being applied in order to relieve anxiety. Laughter yoga, however, is a method that has been used to relieve anxiety but has not yet been tested to pre-operative patients. Therefore, this study determined the effectiveness of laughter yoga in reducing anxiety among pre-operative middle-aged patients scheduled for major surgery. Methods: After Ethics Review Board approval, a quasi-experimental study was conducted among 40 purposely-selected pre-operative patients in two tertiary hospitals. Anxiety level was measured prior to administration of laughter yoga using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory with a Cronbach alpha of 0.83. After Laughter yoga, anxiety level was then measured again. Gathered data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 using paired and independent t-test and ANCOVA. Results: After analysis of the data gathered, the results showed that there was a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients in the experimental group. From an anxiety level of 44.00, the rating went down to 36.85. Meanwhile in the control group, the anxiety level at the pretest at 41.25 went up to 42.50. Laughter yoga was an effective non-pharmacologic intervention for reducing anxiety of pre-operative patients. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that laughter yoga causes a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients.

Keywords: anxiety, laughter yoga, non-pharmacologic, pre-operative

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
25 Development of Catalyst from Waste Egg Shell for Biodiesel Production by Using Waste Vegetable Oil

Authors: Victor Chinecherem Ejeke, Raphael Eze Nnam


The main objective of this research is to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using activated eggshell waste as solid catalysts. A transesterification reaction was performed for the conversion to biodiesel. Waste eggshells were calcined at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for a time period of 3hrs for the preparation of the renewable catalyst. The calcined waste eggshell catalyst was characterized using X-Ray Florescence (XRF) Spectroscopy, which revealed CaO as the major constituent (90.86%); this was further confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. The prepared catalyst was used for transesterification reaction and the effects of calcination temperature (700 to 900°C), Deep Eutectic Solvent DES loading (3 to 18 wt. %), Waste Egg Shell (WES) catalyst loading (6 to 14 wt. %) on the conversion to biodiesel were studied. The yield of biodiesel using a waste eggshell catalyst (91%) is comparable to conventional catalyst like sodium hydroxide with a yield of 80-90%. The maximum biodiesel production yield was obtained at a specific oil-to methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a temperature of 65°C and a catalyst loading of 14g-wt%. The biodiesel produced was characterized as being composed of methyl Tetradecanoate (C₁₄H₂₈O₂) 30.92% using the Gas Chromatographic (GC-MS) analysis. The fuel properties of the biodiesel (Flashpoint 138ᵒC) were comparable to commercial diesel, and hence it can be used in compression-ignition engines. The results indicated that the catalysts derived from waste eggshell had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of waste vegetable oil with the advantage of reusability and also not requiring water washing steps.

Keywords: waste vegetable oil, catalyst , biodiesel , waste egg shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
24 Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization

Authors: André C. Silva, Mariana R. Barros, Elenice M. S. Silva, Douglas. Y. Marinho, Diego F. Lopes, Débora N. Sousa, Raphael S. Tomáz


Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.

Keywords: agglomeration, briquetting, limestone, soil acidity correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
23 A Tool to Measure Efficiency and Trust Towards eXplainable Artificial Intelligence in Conflict Detection Tasks

Authors: Raphael Tuor, Denis Lalanne


The ATM research community is missing suitable tools to design, test, and validate new UI prototypes. Important stakes underline the implementation of both DSS and XAI methods into current systems. ML-based DSS are gaining in relevance as ATFM becomes increasingly complex. However, these systems only prove useful if a human can understand them, and thus new XAI methods are needed. The human-machine dyad should work as a team and should understand each other. We present xSky, a configurable benchmark tool that allows us to compare different versions of an ATC interface in conflict detection tasks. Our main contributions to the ATC research community are (1) a conflict detection task simulator (xSky) that allows to test the applicability of visual prototypes on scenarios of varying difficulty and outputting relevant operational metrics (2) a theoretical approach to the explanations of AI-driven trajectory predictions. xSky addresses several issues that were identified within available research tools. Researchers can configure the dimensions affecting scenario difficulty with a simple CSV file. Both the content and appearance of the XAI elements can be customized in a few steps. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented an XAI prototype inspired by the maritime field.

Keywords: air traffic control, air traffic simulation, conflict detection, explainable artificial intelligence, explainability, human-automation collaboration, human factors, information visualization, interpretability, trajectory prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
22 An Assessment of Trace Heavy Metal Contamination of Some Edible Oils Regularly Marketed in Benue and Taraba States of Nigeria

Authors: Raphael Odoh, Obida J. Oko, Mary S. Dauda


The determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) bought from various markets of Benue and Taraba state were carried out with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The method 3031 developed acid digestion of oils for metal analysis by atomic absorption or ICP spectrometry was used in the preparation of the edible oil samples for the determination of total metal content in this study. The overall results (µg/g) in palm oil sample ranged from 0.028-0.076, 0.035-0.092, 1.011-1.955, 2.101-4.892, 0.666-0.922, 0.054-0.095, 0.031-0.068 and 1.987-2.971 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively, while in ground-nut oil the overall results ranged from 0.011-0.042, 0.011-0.052, 0.133-0.788, 1.789-2.511, 0.078-0.765, 0.045-0.092, 0.011-0.028 and 1.098-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. Of the heavy metals considered Cd and Ni showed the highest contamination in the soybean oil sample. The overall results in soybean oil samples ranged from 0.011-0.015, 0.017-0.032, 0.453-0.987, 1.789-2.511, 0.089-0.321, 0.011-0.016, 0.012-0.065 and 1.011-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The concentration of Pb was the highest. The degree of contamination by each metal was estimated by the transfer factor. The transfer factors obtained for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) were 10.800, 16.500, 16.000, 18.813, 15.115, 14.230, 23.000 and 9.418 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in palm oil, and 7.000, 12.500, 8.880, 11.333, 7.708, 10.833, 15.00 and 6.608 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in ground-nut oil while for soybean oil the transfer factors were 13.000, 11.000, 7.642, 11.578, 4.486, 13.00, 12.333 and 4.412 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The inter-element correlation was found among metals in edible oil samples using Pearson’s correlation co-efficient. There were positive and negative correlations among the metals determined. All Metals determined showed degree of contamination but concentrations lower than the USP specification.

Keywords: Benue State, contamination, edible oils, heavy metals, markets, Taraba State

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21 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias


Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffness

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20 Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Débora N. Sousa, Elenice M. S. Silva, Thales P. Fontes, Raphael S. Tomaz


Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.

Keywords: froth flotation, gelatinization, sodium hydroxide, starches and flours

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
19 Stress Concentration Trend for Combined Loading Conditions

Authors: Aderet M. Pantierer, Shmuel Pantierer, Raphael Cordina, Yougashwar Budhoo


Stress concentration occurs when there is an abrupt change in geometry, a mechanical part under loading. These changes in geometry can include holes, notches, or cracks within the component. The modifications create larger stress within the part. This maximum stress is difficult to determine, as it is directly at the point of the minimum area. Strain gauges have yet to be developed to analyze stresses at such minute areas. Therefore, a stress concentration factor must be utilized. The stress concentration factor is a dimensionless parameter calculated solely on the geometry of a part. The factor is multiplied by the nominal, or average, stress of the component, which can be found analytically or experimentally. Stress concentration graphs exist for common loading conditions and geometrical configurations to aid in the determination of the maximum stress a part can withstand. These graphs were developed from historical data yielded from experimentation. This project seeks to verify a stress concentration graph for combined loading conditions. The aforementioned graph was developed using CATIA Finite Element Analysis software. The results of this analysis will be validated through further testing. The 3D modeled parts will be subjected to further finite element analysis using Patran-Nastran software. The finite element models will then be verified by testing physical specimen using a tensile testing machine. Once the data is validated, the unique stress concentration graph will be submitted for publication so it can aid engineers in future projects.

Keywords: stress concentration, finite element analysis, finite element models, combined loading

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18 Scientific Production on Lean Supply Chains Published in Journals Indexed by SCOPUS and Web of Science Databases: A Bibliometric Study

Authors: T. Botelho de Sousa, F. Raphael Cabral Furtado, O. Eduardo da Silva Ferri, A. Batista, W. Augusto Varella, C. Eduardo Pinto, J. Mimar Santa Cruz Yabarrena, S. Gibran Ruwer, F. Müller Guerrini, L. Adalberto Philippsen Júnior


Lean Supply Chain Management (LSCM) is an emerging research field in Operations Management (OM). As a strategic model that focuses on reduced cost and waste with fulfilling the needs of customers, LSCM attracts great interest among researchers and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Lean Supply Chains literature, based on bibliometric analysis through 57 papers published in indexed journals by SCOPUS and/or Web of Science databases. The results indicate that the last three years (2015, 2016, and 2017) were the most productive on LSCM discussion, especially in Supply Chain Management and International Journal of Lean Six Sigma journals. India, USA, and UK are the most productive countries; nevertheless, cross-country studies by collaboration among researchers were detected, by social network analysis, as a research practice, appearing to play a more important role on LSCM studies. Despite existing limitation, such as limited indexed journal database, bibliometric analysis helps to enlighten ongoing efforts on LSCM researches, including most used technical procedures and collaboration network, showing important research gaps, especially, for development countries researchers.

Keywords: Lean Supply Chains, Bibliometric Study, SCOPUS, Web of Science

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
17 Central Finite Volume Methods Applied in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: Applications in Disks and Jets

Authors: Raphael de Oliveira Garcia, Samuel Rocha de Oliveira


We have developed a new computer program in Fortran 90, in order to obtain numerical solutions of a system of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics partial differential equations with predetermined gravitation (GRMHD), capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk of matter up to his ejection. Initially we carried out a study on numerical methods of unidimensional Finite Volume, namely Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, Nessyahu-Tadmor method and Godunov methods dependent on Riemann problems, applied to equations Euler in order to verify their main features and make comparisons among those methods. It was then implemented the method of Finite Volume Centered of Nessyahu-Tadmor, a numerical schemes that has a formulation free and without dimensional separation of Riemann problem solvers, even in two or more spatial dimensions, at this point, already applied in equations GRMHD. Finally, the Nessyahu-Tadmor method was possible to obtain stable numerical solutions - without spurious oscillations or excessive dissipation - from the magnetized accretion disk process in rotation with respect to a central black hole (BH) Schwarzschild and immersed in a magnetosphere, for the ejection of matter in the form of jet over a distance of fourteen times the radius of the BH, a record in terms of astrophysical simulation of this kind. Also in our simulations, we managed to get substructures jets. A great advantage obtained was that, with the our code, we got simulate GRMHD equations in a simple personal computer.

Keywords: finite volume methods, central schemes, fortran 90, relativistic astrophysics, jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
16 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato


Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.

Keywords: blood pressure, exercise, isometric, peripheral artery disease

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15 Security Report Profiling for Mobile Banking Applications in Indonesia Based on OWASP Mobile Top 10-2016

Authors: Bambang Novianto, Rizal Aditya Herdianto, Raphael Bianco Huwae, Afifah, Alfonso Brolin Sihite, Rudi Lumanto


The mobile banking application is a type of mobile application that is growing rapidly. This is caused by the ease of service and time savings in making transactions. On the other hand, this certainly provides a challenge in security issues. The use of mobile banking can not be separated from cyberattacks that may occur which can result the theft of sensitive information or financial loss. The financial loss and the theft of sensitive information is the most avoided thing because besides harming the user, it can also cause a loss of customer trust in a bank. Cyberattacks that are often carried out against mobile applications are phishing, hacking, theft, misuse of data, etc. Cyberattack can occur when a vulnerability is successfully exploited. OWASP mobile Top 10 has recorded as many as 10 vulnerabilities that are most commonly found in mobile applications. In the others, android permissions also have the potential to cause vulnerabilities. Therefore, an overview of the profile of the mobile banking application becomes an urgency that needs to be known. So that it is expected to be a consideration of the parties involved for improving security. In this study, an experiment has been conducted to capture the profile of the mobile banking applications in Indonesia based on android permission and OWASP mobile top 10 2016. The results show that there are six basic vulnerabilities based on OWASP Mobile Top 10 that are most commonly found in mobile banking applications in Indonesia, i.e. M1:Improper Platform Usage, M2:Insecure Data Storage, M3:Insecure Communication, M5:Insufficient Cryptography, M7:Client Code Quality, and M9:Reverse Engineering. The most permitted android permissions are the internet, status network access, and telephone read status.

Keywords: mobile banking application, OWASP mobile top 10 2016, android permission, sensitive information, financial loss

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14 The Sustainability of Health and Safety on Construction Sites in Zamfara State

Authors: Ismaila Oladunni Muhammed, Adegbenga Raphael Ashiru


Construction industry has been attributed to be the engine growth of Nigerian economic and infrastructural development. It promotes infrastructural development and grows an average output of Nigerian Gross Domestic Profit. However, from this great prospect, yearly reports show that consistent accidents on construction sites in Zamfara State has affected a substantial number of workers as they become temporarily or permanently disabled, thereby making many construction sites a death trap. This posed a great threat to the industry’s sustainability, de- motivate workers from working in the industry, and further have negative impact on the economy as well. It is as a result of high construction site accident currently experiencing in Zamfara state that this research was carried out to appraise the sustainability of health and safety of construction workers on sites. The proper practice and compliance to Construction Health and safety laws are very vital to the output and growth of Zamfara State construction sector. However, a quantitative approach was adopted to justify the aforesaid statement which will provide a broader understanding of the study. Descriptive statistical analysis was obtained through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20). Furthermore, the findings from the research highlighted that the performance and output of construction workers on construction sites depends on the proper practice of health and safety. The research findings also recommended ways to enhance employers and employee’s compliance with existing laws guiding health and safety on Zamfara State construction sites. Nevertheless, the purpose of the paper is to appraise the sustainability of Health and Safety on Zamfara State construction sites. This study further provided thorough information for resolving challenges of construction sites accidents to improve construction firm productivity and also ensured construction worker’s safety on site.

Keywords: construction industry, health and safety regulations, causes of accident, construction safety practices

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13 STD-NMR Based Protein Engineering of the Unique Arylpropionate-Racemase AMDase G74C

Authors: Sarah Gaßmeyer, Nadine Hülsemann, Raphael Stoll, Kenji Miyamoto, Robert Kourist


Enzymatic racemization allows the smooth interconversion of stereocenters under very mild reaction conditions. Racemases find frequent applications in deracemization and dynamic kinetic resolutions. Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) from Bordetella Bronchiseptica has high structural similarity to amino acid racemases. These cofactor-free racemases are able to break chemically strong CH-bonds under mild conditions. The racemase-like catalytic machinery of mutant G74C conveys it a unique activity in the racemisation of pharmacologically relevant derivates of 2-phenylpropionic acid (profenes), which makes AMDase G74C an interesting object for the mechanistic investigation of cofactor-independent racemases. Structure-guided protein engineering achieved a variant of this unique racemase with 40-fold increased activity in the racemisation of several arylaliphatic carboxylic acids. By saturation–transfer–difference NMR spectroscopy (STD-NMR), substrate binding during catalysis was investigated. All atoms of the substrate showed interactions with the enzyme. STD-NMR measurements revealed distinct nuclear Overhauser effects in experiments with and without molecular conversion. The spectroscopic analysis led to the identification of several amino acid residues whose variation increased the activity of G74C. While single-amino acid exchanges increased the activity moderately, structure-guided saturation mutagenesis yielded a quadruple mutant with a 40 times higher reaction rate. This study presents STD-NMR as versatile tool for the analysis of enzyme-substrate interactions in catalytically competent systems and for the guidance of protein engineering.

Keywords: racemase, rational protein design, STD-NMR, structure guided saturation mutagenesis

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12 Inhibition of Echis ocellatus Venom Metalloprotease by Flavonoid-Rich Ethyl Acetate Sub-fraction of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam.): in vitro and in silico Approaches

Authors: Adeyi Akindele Oluwatosin, Mustapha Kaosarat Keji, Ajisebiola Babafemi Siji, Adeyi Olubisi Esther, Damilohun Samuel Metibemu, Raphael Emuebie Okonji


Envenoming by Echis ocellatus is potentially life-threatening due to severe hemorrhage, renal failure, and capillary leakage. These effects are attributed to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Due to drawbacks in the use of antivenom, natural inhibitors from plants are of interest in studies of new antivenom treatment. Antagonizing effects of bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera, a known antisnake plant, are yet to be tested against SVMPs of E. ocellatus (SVMP-EO). Ethanol crude extract of M. oleifera was partitioned using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Each partition was fractionated using column chromatography and tested against SVMP-EO purified through ion-exchange chromatography with EchiTab-PLUS polyvalent anti-venom as control. Phytoconstituents of ethyl acetate fraction were screened against the catalytic site of crystal of BaP1-SVMP, while drug-likeness and ADMET toxicity of compound were equally determined. The molecular weight of isolated SVMP-EO was 43.28 kDa, with a specific activity of 245 U/ml, a percentage yield of 62.83 %, and a purification fold of 0.920. The Vmax and Km values are 2 mg/ml and 38.095 μmol/ml/min, respectively, while the optimal pH and temperature are 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Polyvalent anti-venom, crude extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited a complete inhibitory effect against SVMP-EO activity. The inhibitions of the P-1 and P-II metalloprotease’s enzymes by the ethyl acetate fraction are largely due to methanol, 6, 8, 9-trimethyl-4-(2-phenylethyl)-3-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-6-en-1-yl)- and paroxypropione, respectively. Both compounds are potential drug candidates with little or no concern of toxicity, as revealed from the in-silico predictions. The inhibitory effects suggest that this compound might be a therapeutic candidate for further exploration for treatment of Ocellatus’ envenoming.

Keywords: Echis ocellatus, Moringa oleifera, anti-venom, metalloproteases, snakebite, molecular docking

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11 A Concept for Flexible Battery Cell Manufacturing from Low to Medium Volumes

Authors: Tim Giesen, Raphael Adamietz, Pablo Mayer, Philipp Stiefel, Patrick Alle, Dirk Schlenker


The competitiveness and success of new electrical energy storages such as battery cells are significantly dependent on a short time-to-market. Producers who decide to supply new battery cells to the market need to be easily adaptable in manufacturing with respect to the early customers’ needs in terms of cell size, materials, delivery time and quantity. In the initial state, the required output rates do not yet allow the producers to have a fully automated manufacturing line nor to supply handmade battery cells. Yet there was no solution for manufacturing battery cells in low to medium volumes in a reproducible way. Thus, in terms of cell format and output quantity, a concept for the flexible assembly of battery cells was developed by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation. Based on clustered processes, the modular system platform can be modified, enlarged or retrofitted in a short time frame according to the ordered product. The paper shows the analysis of the production steps from a conventional battery cell assembly line. Process solutions were found by using I/O-analysis, functional structures, and morphological boxes. The identified elementary functions were subsequently clustered by functional coherences for automation solutions and thus the single process cluster was generated. The result presented in this paper enables to manufacture different cell products on the same production system using seven process clusters. The paper shows the solution for a batch-wise flexible battery cell production using advanced process control. Further, the performed tests and benefits by using the process clusters as cyber-physical systems for an integrated production and value chain are discussed. The solution lowers the hurdles for SMEs to launch innovative cell products on the global market.

Keywords: automation, battery production, carrier, advanced process control, cyber-physical system

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10 Addressing Food Grain Losses in India: Energy Trade-Offs and Nutrition Synergies

Authors: Matthew F. Gibson, Narasimha D. Rao, Raphael B. Slade, Joana Portugal Pereira, Joeri Rogelj


Globally, India’s population is among the most severely impacted by nutrient deficiency, yet millions of tonnes of food are lost before reaching consumers. Across food groups, grains represent the largest share of daily calories and overall losses by mass in India. If current losses remain unresolved and follow projected population rates, we estimate, by 2030, losses from grains for human consumption could increase by 1.3-1.8 million tonnes (Mt) per year against current levels of ~10 Mt per year. This study quantifies energy input to minimise storage losses across India, responsible for a quarter of grain supply chain losses. In doing so, we identify and explore a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) triplet between SDG₂, SDG₇, and SDG₁₂ and provide insight for development of joined up agriculture and health policy in the country. Analyzing rice, wheat, maize, bajra, and sorghum, we quantify one route to reduce losses in supply chains, by modelling the energy input to maintain favorable climatic conditions in modern silo storage. We quantify key nutrients (calories, protein, zinc, iron, vitamin A) contained within these losses and calculate roughly how much deficiency in these dietary components could be reduced if grain losses were eliminated. Our modelling indicates, with appropriate uncertainty, maize has the highest energy input intensity for storage, at 110 kWh per tonne of grain (kWh/t), and wheat the lowest (72 kWh/t). This energy trade-off represents 8%-16% of the energy input required in grain production. We estimate if grain losses across the supply chain were saved and targeted to India’s nutritionally deficient population, average protein deficiency could reduce by 46%, calorie by 27%, zinc by 26%, and iron by 11%. This study offers insight for development of Indian agriculture, food, and health policy by first quantifying and then presenting benefits and trade-offs of tackling food grain losses.

Keywords: energy, food loss, grain storage, hunger, India, sustainable development goal, SDG

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