Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8723

Search results for: direct numerical simulation

8723 Developing a Modified Version of KIVA-3V, Enabling Gaseous Injections

Authors: Hossein Keshtkar, Ali Nasiri Toosi


With the growing concerns about gasoline environmental pollution and also the need for a more widely available fuel source, natural gas is finding its way to the automotive engines. But before this could happen industrially, simulations of natural gas direct injection need to take place to maximize and optimize power output. KIVA is one of the most powerful tools when it comes to engine simulation. Widely accepted by both researchers and the industry, KIVA an open-source code, offers great in-depth simulation and analyzation. KIVA can compute complex phenomena’s which can occur inside the chamber before, whilst and after ignition. One downside to KIVA, is its in-capability of simulating gaseous injections, making it useful for only liquidized fuel. In this study, we developed a numerical code, to enable the simulation of gaseous injection within the KIVA code. By introducing our code as a subroutine, we modified the original KIVA program. To ensure the correct application of gaseous fuel injection using our modified KIVA code, we simulated two different cases and compared them with their experimental data. We concluded our modified version of KIVA’s simulation results came in very close to those measured experimentally.

Keywords: gaseous injections, KIVA, natural gas direct injection, numerical code, simulation

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8722 Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

Authors: Hassan A. Alshahrani, Mehdi H. Hojjati


In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.

Keywords: Bending stiffness, out-of-autoclave prepreg, forming process, numerical simulation.

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8721 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar


We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis

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8720 Numerical Simulation of Phase Transfer during Cryosurgery for an Irregular Tumor Using Hybrid Approach

Authors: Rama Bhargava


In the current paper, numerical simulation has been performed for the two-dimensional time dependent Pennes’ heat transfer model which is solved for irregular diseased tumor cells. An elliptic cryoprobe of varying sizes is taken at the center of the computational domain in such a manner that the location of the probe is fixed throughout the computation. The phase transition occurs due to the effect of probe with infusion of different nanoparticles Au, Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄. The cooling performance of these nanoparticles injected at very low temperature, has been studied by implementing a hybrid FEM/EFGM method in which the whole domain is decomposed into two subdomains. The results are shown in terms of temperature profile inside the computational domain. Rate of cooling is obtained for various nanoparticles and it is observed that infusion of Au nanoparticles is very much efficient in increasing the heating rate than other nanoparticles. Such numerical scheme has direct applications where the domain is irregular.

Keywords: cryosurgery, hybrid EFGM/FEM, nanoparticles, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
8719 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian


In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

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8718 Calibration of Discrete Element Method Parameters for Modelling DRI Pellets Flow

Authors: A. Hossein Madadi-Najafabadi, Masoud Nasiri


The discrete element method is a powerful technique for numerical modeling the flow of granular materials such as direct reduced iron. It would enable us to study processes and equipment related to the production and handling of the material. However, the characteristics and properties of the granules have to be adjusted precisely to achieve reliable results in a DEM simulation. The main properties for DEM simulation are size distribution, density, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and the contact coefficients of restitution, rolling friction and sliding friction. In the present paper, the mentioned properties are determined for DEM simulation of DRI pellets. A reliable DEM simulation would contribute to optimizing the handling system of DRIs in an iron-making plant. Among the mentioned properties, Young's modulus is the most important parameter, which is usually hard to get for particulate solids. Here, an especial method is utilized to precisely determine this parameter for DRI.

Keywords: discrete element method, direct reduced iron, simulation parameters, granular material

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8717 Falling and Rising of Solid Particles in Thermally Stratified Fluid

Authors: Govind Sharma, Bahni Ray


Ubiquitous nature of particle settling is governed by the presence of the surrounding fluid medium. Thermally stratified fluid alters the settling phenomenon of particles as well as their interactions. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is carried out with an open-source library Immersed Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement (IBAMR) to quantify the fundamental mechanism based on Distributed Lagrangian Multiplier (DLM). The presence of background density gradient due to thermal stratification replaces the drafting-kissing-tumbling in a homogeneous fluid to drafting-kissing-separation behavior. Simulations are performed with a varying range of particle-fluid density ratios, and it is shown that the stratification effect on particle interactions varies with density ratio. It is observed that the combined role of buoyancy and inertia govern the physical mechanism of particle-particle interaction.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, distributed lagrangian multiplier, rigidity constraint, sedimentation, stratification

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8716 Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Equipment for Space Environmental Simulation Facility

Authors: He Chao, Zhang Lei, Liu Ran, Li Ang


Temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen is of importance to the space environment simulator, which keep the shrouds in the temperature range from -150℃ to +150℃. Liquid nitrogen spray equipment is one of the most critical parts in the temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen. Y type jet atomizer and internal mixing atomizer of the liquid nitrogen spray equipment are studied in this paper, 2D/3D atomizer model was established and grid division was conducted respectively by the software of Catia and ICEM. Based on the above preparation, numerical simulation on the spraying process of the atomizer by FLUENT is performed. Using air and water as the medium, comparison between the tests and numerical simulation was conducted and the results of two ways match well. Hence, it can be conclude that this atomizer model can be applied in the numerical simulation of liquid nitrogen spray equipment.

Keywords: space environmental simulator, liquid nitrogen spray, Y type jet atomizer, internal mixing atomizer, numerical simulation, fluent

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8715 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed


During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
8714 Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Wake Flow Modelling of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Nor Mazlin Zahari, Lian Gan, Xuerui Mao


The power production in wind farms and the mechanical loads on the turbines are strongly impacted by the wake of the wind turbine. Thus, there is a need for understanding and modelling the turbine wake dynamic in the wind farm and the layout optimization. Having a good wake model is important in predicting plant performance and understanding fatigue loads. In this paper, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) was applied to the simulation data generated by a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of flow around a turbine, perturbed by upstream inflow noise. This technique is useful in analyzing the wake flow, to predict its future states and to reflect flow dynamics associated with the coherent structures behind wind turbine wake flow. DMD was employed to describe the dynamic of the flow around turbine from the DNS data. Since the DNS data comes with the unstructured meshes and non-uniform grid, the interpolation of each occurring within each element in the data to obtain an evenly spaced mesh was performed before the DMD was applied. DMD analyses were able to tell us characteristics of the travelling waves behind the turbine, e.g. the dominant helical flow structures and the corresponding frequencies. As the result, the dominant frequency will be detected, and the associated spatial structure will be identified. The dynamic mode which represented the coherent structure will be presented.

Keywords: coherent structure, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), dominant frequency, Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD)

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8713 Nonlinear Triad Interactions in Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma Turbulence

Authors: Yasser Rammah, Wolf-Christian Mueller


Nonlinear triad interactions in incompressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D-MHD) turbulence are studied by analyzing data from high-resolution direct numerical simulations of decaying isotropic (5123 grid points) and forced anisotropic (10242 x256 grid points) turbulence. An accurate numerical approach toward analyzing nonlinear turbulent energy transfer function and triad interactions is presented. It involves the direct numerical examination of every wavenumber triad that is associated with the nonlinear terms in the differential equations of MHD in the inertial range of turbulence. The technique allows us to compute the spectral energy transfer and energy fluxes, as well as the spectral locality property of energy transfer function. To this end, the geometrical shape of each underlying wavenumber triad that contributes to the statistical transfer density function is examined to infer the locality of the energy transfer. Results show that the total energy transfer is local via nonlocal triad interactions in decaying macroscopically isotropic MHD turbulence. In anisotropic MHD, turbulence subject to a strong mean magnetic field the nonlinear transfer is generally weaker and exhibits a moderate increase of nonlocality in both perpendicular and parallel directions compared to the isotropic case. These results support the recent mathematical findings, which also claim the locality of nonlinear energy transfer in MHD turbulence.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, transfer density function, locality function, direct numerical simulation (DNS)

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8712 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He


Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

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8711 Numerical Simulation of Lightning Strike Direct Effects on Aircraft Skin Composite Laminate

Authors: Muhammad Khalil, Nader Abuelfoutouh, Gasser Abdelal, Adrian Murphy


Nowadays, the direct effects of lightning to aircrafts are of great importance because of the massive use of composite materials. In comparison with metallic materials, composites present several weaknesses for lightning strike direct effects. Especially, their low electrical and thermal conductivities lead to severe lightning strike damage. The lightning strike direct effects are burning, heating, magnetic force, sparking and arcing. As the problem is complex, we investigated it gradually. A magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is developed to simulate the lightning strikes in order to estimate the damages on the composite materials. Then, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis is used to study the interaction between the lightning arc and the composite laminate and to investigate the material degradation.

Keywords: composite structures, lightning multiphysics, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), coupled thermal-electrical analysis, thermal plasmas.

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8710 Simulation and Experimental of Solid Mixing of Free Flowing Material Using Solid Works in V-Blender

Authors: Amina Bouhaouche, Zineb Kaoua, Lila Lahreche, Sid Ali Kaoua, Kamel Daoud


The objective of this study is to present a novel approach for analyzing the solid dispersion and mixing performance by a numerical simulation method using solid works software of a monodisperse particles for a large span of time reached 20 minutes. To assure the viability of a numerical simulation, an experimental study of a binary mixture of monodiperse particles taken as free flowing material in a V blender was developed on the basis of relative standard deviation curves, and the arrangement of the particles in the vessel. The experimental results were discussed and compared to the numerical simulation results.

Keywords: non-cohesive material, solid mixing, solid works, v-blender

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8709 Induction Heating Process Design Using Comsol® Multiphysics Software Version 4.2a

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


Induction heating computer simulation is a powerful tool for process design and optimization, induction coil design, equipment selection, as well as education and business presentations. The authors share their vast experience in the practical use of computer simulation for different induction heating and heat treating processes. In this paper deals with mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of induction heating furnaces with axisymmetric geometries. For the numerical solution, we propose finite element methods combined with boundary (FEM) for the electromagnetic model using COMSOL® Multiphysics Software. Some numerical results for an industrial furnace are shown with high frequency.

Keywords: numerical methods, induction furnaces, induction heating, finite element method, Comsol multiphysics software

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
8708 Axle Load Estimation of Moving Vehicles Using BWIM Technique

Authors: Changgil Lee, Seunghee Park


Although vehicle driving test for the development of BWIM system is necessary, but it needs much cost and time in addition application of various driving condition. Thus, we need the numerical-simulation method resolving the cost and time problems of vehicle driving test and the way of measuring response of bridge according to the various driving condition. Using the precision analysis model reflecting the dynamic characteristic is contributed to increase accuracy in numerical simulation. In this paper, we conduct a numerical simulation to apply precision analysis model, which reflects the dynamic characteristic of bridge using Bridge Weigh-in-Motion technique and suggest overload vehicle enforcement technology using precision analysis model.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion(BWIM) system, precision analysis model, dynamic characteristic of bridge, numerical simulation

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8707 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed


Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
8706 About Multi-Resolution Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Reactive Multi-Phase Flows

Authors: Giacomo Rossi, Bernardo Favini, Eugenio Giacomazzi, Franca Rita Picchia, Nunzio Maria Salvatore Arcidiacono


A numerical technique for mesh refinement in the HeaRT (Heat Release and Transfer) numerical code is presented. In the CFD framework, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is gaining in importance as a tool for simulating turbulent combustion processes, also if this approach has an high computational cost due to the complexity of the turbulent modeling and the high number of grid points necessary to obtain a good numerical solution. In particular, when a numerical simulation of a big domain is performed with a structured grid, the number of grid points can increase so much that the simulation becomes impossible: this problem can be overcame with a mesh refinement technique. Mesh refinement technique developed for HeaRT numerical code (a staggered finite difference code) is based on an high order reconstruction of the variables at the grid interfaces by means of a least square quasi-ENO interpolation: numerical code is written in modern Fortran (2003 standard of newer) and is parallelized using domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI) standard.

Keywords: LES, multi-resolution, ENO, fortran

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
8705 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song


Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
8704 The Solution of the Direct Problem of Electrical Prospecting with Direct Current Under Conditions of Ground Surface Relief

Authors: Balgaisha Mukanova, Tolkyn Mirgalikyzy


Theory of interpretation of electromagnetic fields studied in the electrical prospecting with direct current is mainly developed for the case of a horizontal surface observation. However in practice we often have to work in difficult terrain surface. Conducting interpretation without the influence of topography can cause non-existent anomalies on sections. This raises the problem of studying the impact of different shapes of ground surface relief on the results of electrical prospecting's research. This research examines the numerical solutions of the direct problem of electrical prospecting for two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, taking into account the terrain. The problem is solved using the method of integral equations. The density of secondary currents on the relief surface is obtained.

Keywords: ground surface relief, method of integral equations, numerical method, electromagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
8703 The Observable Method for the Regularization of Shock-Interface Interactions

Authors: Teng Li, Kamran Mohseni


This paper presents an inviscid regularization technique that is capable of regularizing the shocks and sharp interfaces simultaneously in the shock-interface interaction simulations. The direct numerical simulation of flows involving shocks has been investigated for many years and a lot of numerical methods were developed to capture the shocks. However, most of these methods rely on the numerical dissipation to regularize the shocks. Moreover, in high Reynolds number flows, the nonlinear terms in hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDE) dominates, constantly generating small scale features. This makes direct numerical simulation of shocks even harder. The same difficulty happens in two-phase flow with sharp interfaces where the nonlinear terms in the governing equations keep sharpening the interfaces to discontinuities. The main idea of the proposed technique is to average out the small scales that is below the resolution (observable scale) of the computational grid by filtering the convective velocity in the nonlinear terms in the governing PDE. This technique is named “observable method” and it results in a set of hyperbolic equations called observable equations, namely, observable Navier-Stokes or Euler equations. The observable method has been applied to the flow simulations involving shocks, turbulence, and two-phase flows, and the results are promising. In the current paper, the observable method is examined on the performance of regularizing shocks and interfaces at the same time in shock-interface interaction problems. Bubble-shock interactions and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are particularly chosen to be studied. Observable Euler equations will be numerically solved with pseudo-spectral discretization in space and third order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Runge Kutta method in time. Results are presented and compared with existing publications. The interface acceleration and deformation and shock reflection are particularly examined.

Keywords: compressible flow simulation, inviscid regularization, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, shock-bubble interactions.

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8702 Coupling Heat Transfer by Natural Convection and Thermal Radiation in a Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: R. Hariti, M. Saighi, H. Saidani-Scott


A numerical simulation of natural convection double diffusion, coupled with thermal radiation in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank is carried out. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the discrete coordinate method. This numerical simulation is used to determine the temperature profiles, stream function, velocity vectors and variation of the heat flux density for unsteady laminar natural convection. Furthermore, the influence of thermal radiation on the heat transfer has been investigated and the results obtained were compared to those found in the literature. Good agreement between the results obtained by the numerical method and those taken on site for the temperature values.

Keywords: tank, storage, liquefied natural gas, natural convection, thermal radiation, numerical simulation

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8701 Simulation Model of Induction Heating in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


The induction heating phenomenon depends on various factors, making the problem highly nonlinear. The mathematical analysis of this problem in most cases is very difficult and it is reduced to simple cases. Another knowledge of induction heating systems is generated in production environments, but these trial-error procedures are long and expensive. The numerical models of induction heating problem are another approach to reduce abovementioned drawbacks. This paper deals with the simulation model of induction heating problem. The simulation model of induction heating system in COMSOL Multiphysics is created. In this work we present results of numerical simulations of induction heating process in pieces of cylindrical shapes, in an inductor with four coils. The modeling of the inducting heating process was made with the software COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a, for the study we present the temperature charts.

Keywords: induction heating, electromagnetic field, inductor, numerical simulation, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
8700 Numerical Simulation Using Lattice Boltzmann Technique for Mass Transfer Characteristics in Liquid Jet Ejector

Authors: K. S. Agrawal


The performance of jet ejector was studied in detail by different authors. Several authors have studied mass transfer characteristics like interfacial area, mass transfer coefficients etc. In this paper, we have made an attempt to develop PDE model by considering bubble properties and apply Lattice-Boltzmann technique for PDE model. We may present the results for the interfacial area which we have obtained from our numerical simulation. Later the results are compared with previous work.

Keywords: jet ejector, mass transfer characteristics, numerical simulation, Lattice-Boltzmann technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8699 Obtaining Constants of Johnson-Cook Material Model Using a Combined Experimental, Numerical Simulation and Optimization Method

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, M. Behzadi, J. Fathi Sola


In this article, the Johnson-Cook material model’s constants for structural steel ST.37 have been determined by a method which integrates experimental tests, numerical simulation, and optimization. In the first step, a quasi-static test was carried out on a plain specimen. Next, the constants were calculated for it by minimizing the difference between the results acquired from the experiment and numerical simulation. Then, a quasi-static tension test was performed on three notched specimens with different notch radii. At last, in order to verify the results, they were used in numerical simulation of notched specimens and it was observed that experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Changing the diameter size of the plain specimen in the necking area was set as the objective function in the optimization step. For final validation of the proposed method, diameter variation was considered as a parameter and its sensitivity to a change in any of the model constants was examined and the results were completely corroborating.

Keywords: constants, Johnson-Cook material model, notched specimens, quasi-static test, sensitivity

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8698 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network

Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan


We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.

Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulation

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8697 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100 nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry


As CMOS technology scaling down, Silicon oxide thickness (SiO2) become very thin (few Nano meters). When SiO2 is less than 3nm, gate direct tunneling (DT) leakage current becomes a dormant problem that impacts the transistor performance. Floating gate MOSFET (FGMOSFET) has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications. Most of the available simulation models of FGMOSFET for analog circuit design does not account for gate DT current and there is no accurate analysis for the gate DT. It is a crucial to use an accurate mode in order to get a realistic simulation result that account for that DT impact on FGMOSFET performance effectively.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floating-gate, gate-leakage current, simulation model

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8696 Comparison of Direct and Indirect Tensile Strength of Brittle Materials and Accurate Estimate of Tensile Strength

Authors: M. Etezadi, A. Fahimifar


In many geotechnical designs in rocks and rock masses, tensile strength of rock and rock mass is needed. The difficulties associated with performing a direct uniaxial tensile test on a rock specimen have led to a number of indirect methods for assessing the tensile strength that in the meantime the Brazilian test is more popular. Brazilian test is widely applied in rock engineering because specimens are easy to prepare, the test is easy to conduct and uniaxial compression test machines are quite common. This study compares experimental results of direct and Brazilian tensile tests carried out on two rock types and three concrete types using 39 cylindrical and 28 disc specimens. The tests are performed using Servo-Control device. The relationship between direct and indirect tensile strength of specimens is extracted using linear regression. In the following, tensile strength of direct and indirect test is evaluated using finite element analysis. The results are analyzed and effective factors on results are studied. According to the experimental results Brazilian test is shown higher tensile strength than direct test. Because of decreasing the contact surface of grains and increasing the uniformity in concrete specimens with fine aggregate (largest grain size= 6mm), higher tensile strength in direct test is shown. The experimental and numerical results of tensile strength are compared and empirical relationship witch is obtained from experimental tests is validated.

Keywords: tensile strength, brittle materials, direct and indirect tensile test, numerical modeling

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8695 Regularized Euler Equations for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow Simulations

Authors: Teng Li, Kamran Mohseni


This paper presents an inviscid regularization technique for the incompressible two-phase flow simulations. This technique is known as observable method due to the understanding of observability that any feature smaller than the actual resolution (physical or numerical), i.e., the size of wire in hotwire anemometry or the grid size in numerical simulations, is not able to be captured or observed. Differ from most regularization techniques that applies on the numerical discretization, the observable method is employed at PDE level during the derivation of equations. Difficulties in the simulation and analysis of realistic fluid flow often result from discontinuities (or near-discontinuities) in the calculated fluid properties or state. Accurately capturing these discontinuities is especially crucial when simulating flows involving shocks, turbulence or sharp interfaces. Over the past several years, the properties of this new regularization technique have been investigated that show the capability of simultaneously regularizing shocks and turbulence. The observable method has been performed on the direct numerical simulations of shocks and turbulence where the discontinuities are successfully regularized and flow features are well captured. In the current paper, the observable method will be extended to two-phase interfacial flows. Multiphase flows share the similar features with shocks and turbulence that is the nonlinear irregularity caused by the nonlinear terms in the governing equations, namely, Euler equations. In the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows, the interfaces are usually treated as the smooth transition of the properties from one fluid phase to the other. However, in high Reynolds number or low viscosity flows, the nonlinear terms will generate smaller scales which will sharpen the interface, causing discontinuities. Many numerical methods for two-phase flows fail at high Reynolds number case while some others depend on the numerical diffusion from spatial discretization. The observable method regularizes this nonlinear mechanism by filtering the convective terms and this process is inviscid. The filtering effect is controlled by an observable scale which is usually about a grid length. Single rising bubble and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied, in particular, to examine the performance of the observable method. A pseudo-spectral method is used for spatial discretization which will not introduce numerical diffusion, and a Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Runge Kutta method is applied for time integration. The observable incompressible Euler equations are solved for these two problems. In rising bubble problem, the terminal velocity and shape of the bubble are particularly examined and compared with experiments and other numerical results. In the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the shape of the interface are studied for different observable scale and the spike and bubble velocities, as well as positions (under a proper observable scale), are compared with other simulation results. The results indicate that this regularization technique can potentially regularize the sharp interface in the two-phase flow simulations

Keywords: Euler equations, incompressible flow simulation, inviscid regularization technique, two-phase flow

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8694 Numerical Simulation for a Shallow Braced Excavation of Campus Building

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Wen-Cheng Chen, Wei-Humg Lu


In order to prevent encountering unpredictable factors, geotechnical engineers always conduct numerical analysis for braced excavation design. Simulation work in advance can predict the response of subsequent excavation and thus will be designed to increase the security coefficient of construction. The parameters that are considered include geological conditions, soil properties, soil distributions, loading types, and the analysis and design methods. National Ilan University is located on the LanYang plain, mainly deposited by clayey soil and loose sand, and thus is vulnerable to external influence displacement. National Ilan University experienced a construction of braced excavation with a complete program of monitoring excavation. This study takes advantage of a one-dimensional finite element method RIDO to simulate the excavation process. The predicted results from numerical simulation analysis are compared with the monitored results of construction to explore the differences between them. Numerical simulation analysis of the excavation process can be used to analyze retaining structures for the purpose of understanding the relationship between the displacement and supporting system. The resulting deformation and stress distribution from the braced excavation cab then be understand in advance. The problems can be prevented prior to the construction process, and thus acquire all the affected important factors during design and construction.

Keywords: excavation, numerical simulation, RIDO, retaining structure

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