Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 408

Search results for: resistive switching

408 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li

Abstract:

Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: metal oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

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407 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films

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406 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

Abstract:

In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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405 Solution-Processed Threshold Switching Selectors Based on Highly Flexible, Transparent and Scratchable Silver Nanowires Conductive Films

Authors: Peiyuan Guan, Tao Wan, Dewei Chu

Abstract:

With the flash memory approaching its physical limit, the emerging resistive random-access memory (RRAM) has been considered as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. One selector-one resistor configuration has shown the most promising way to resolve the crosstalk issue without affecting the scalability and high-density integration of the RRAM array. By comparison with other candidates of selectors (such as diodes and nonlinear devices), threshold switching selectors dominated by formation/spontaneous rupture of fragile conductive filaments have been proved to possess low voltages, high selectivity, and ultra-low current leakage. However, the flexibility and transparency of selectors are barely mentioned. Therefore, it is a matter of urgency to develop a selector with highly flexible and transparent properties to assist the application of RRAM for a diversity of memory devices. In this work, threshold switching selectors were designed using a facilely solution-processed fabrication on [email protected] composite films, which show high flexibility, transparency and scratch resistance. As-fabricated threshold switching selectors also have revealed relatively high selectivity (~107), low operating voltages (Vth < 1 V) and good switching performance.

Keywords: flexible and transparent, resistive random-access memory, silver nanowires, threshold switching selector

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404 Incorporation of Copper for Performance Enhancement in Metal-Oxides Resistive Switching Device and Its Potential Electronic Application

Authors: B. Pavan Kumar Reddy, P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee, Souvik Kundu

Abstract:

In this work, the fabrication and characterization of copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) based memristor devices with aluminum (Al) and indium tin oxide (ITO) metal electrodes are reported. The thin films of Cu:ZnO was synthesized using low-cost and low-temperature chemical process. The Cu:ZnO was then deposited onto ITO bottom electrodes using spin-coater technique, whereas the top electrode Al was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. Ellipsometer was employed in order to measure the Cu:ZnO thickness and it was found to be 50 nm. Several surface and materials characterization techniques were used to study the thin-film properties of Cu:ZnO. To ascertain the efficacy of Cu:ZnO for memristor applications, electrical characterizations such as current-voltage (I-V), data retention and endurance were obtained, all being the critical parameters for next-generation memory. The I-V characteristic exhibits switching behavior with asymmetrical hysteresis loops. This work imputes the resistance switching to the positional drift of oxygen vacancies associated with respect to the Al/Cu:ZnO junction. Further, a non-linear curve fitting regression techniques were utilized to determine the equivalent circuit for the fabricated Cu:ZnO memristors. Efforts were also devoted in order to establish its potentiality for different electronic applications.

Keywords: copper doped, metal-oxides, oxygen vacancies, resistive switching

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403 Forming-Free Resistive Switching Effect in ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ Nanocomposite Thin Films for Neuromorphic Systems Manufacturing

Authors: Vladimir Smirnov, Roman Tominov, Vadim Avilov, Oleg Ageev

Abstract:

The creation of a new generation micro- and nanoelectronics elements opens up unlimited possibilities for electronic devices parameters improving, as well as developing neuromorphic computing systems. Interest in the latter is growing up every year, which is explained by the need to solve problems related to the unstructured classification of data, the construction of self-adaptive systems, and pattern recognition. However, for its technical implementation, it is necessary to fulfill a number of conditions for the basic parameters of electronic memory, such as the presence of non-volatility, the presence of multi-bitness, high integration density, and low power consumption. Several types of memory are presented in the electronics industry (MRAM, FeRAM, PRAM, ReRAM), among which non-volatile resistive memory (ReRAM) is especially distinguished due to the presence of multi-bit property, which is necessary for neuromorphic systems manufacturing. ReRAM is based on the effect of resistive switching – a change in the resistance of the oxide film between low-resistance state (LRS) and high-resistance state (HRS) under an applied electric field. One of the methods for the technical implementation of neuromorphic systems is cross-bar structures, which are ReRAM cells, interconnected by cross data buses. Such a structure imitates the architecture of the biological brain, which contains a low power computing elements - neurons, connected by special channels - synapses. The choice of the ReRAM oxide film material is an important task that determines the characteristics of the future neuromorphic system. An analysis of literature showed that many metal oxides (TiO2, ZnO, NiO, ZrO2, HfO2) have a resistive switching effect. It is worth noting that the manufacture of nanocomposites based on these materials allows highlighting the advantages and hiding the disadvantages of each material. Therefore, as a basis for the neuromorphic structures manufacturing, it was decided to use ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite. It is also worth noting that the ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite does not need an electroforming, which degrades the parameters of the formed ReRAM elements. Currently, this material is not well studied, therefore, the study of the effect of resistive switching in forming-free ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite is an important task and the goal of this work. Forming-free nanocomposite ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ thin film was grown by pulsed laser deposition (Pioneer 180, Neocera Co., USA) on the SiO2/TiN (40 nm) substrate. Electrical measurements were carried out using a semiconductor characterization system (Keithley 4200-SCS, USA) with W probes. During measurements, TiN film was grounded. The analysis of the obtained current-voltage characteristics showed a resistive switching from HRS to LRS resistance states at +1.87±0.12 V, and from LRS to HRS at -2.71±0.28 V. Endurance test shown that HRS was 283.21±32.12 kΩ, LRS was 1.32±0.21 kΩ during 100 measurements. It was shown that HRS/LRS ratio was about 214.55 at reading voltage of 0.6 V. The results can be useful for forming-free nanocomposite ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ films in neuromorphic systems manufacturing. This work was supported by RFBR, according to the research project № 19-29-03041 mk. The results were obtained using the equipment of the Research and Education Center «Nanotechnologies» of Southern Federal University.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocomposites, neuromorphic systems, RRAM, pulsed laser deposition, resistive switching effect

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402 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng

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In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing (FA), forming, set and reset voltages, XPS

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401 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

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400 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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399 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

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A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

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398 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh

Abstract:

According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: memristor, quantum dot, resistive switching, thin film

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397 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

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This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching

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396 Code Switching: A Case Study Of Lebanon

Authors: Wassim Bekai

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Code switching, as its name states, is altering between two or more languages in one sentence. The speaker tends to use code switching in his/her speech for better clarification of his/her message to the receiver. It is commonly used in sociocultural countries such as Lebanon because of the various cultures that have come across its lands through history, considering Lebanon is geographically located in the heart of the world, and hence between many cultures and languages. In addition, Lebanon was occupied by Turkish authorities for about 400 years, and later on by the French mandate, where both of these countries forced their languages in official papers and in the Lebanese educational system. In this paper, the importance of code switching in the Lebanese workplace will be examined, stressing the efficiency and amount of the production resulting from code switching in the workplace (factories, universities among other places) in addition to exploring the social, education, religious and cultural factors behind this phenomenon in Lebanon.

Keywords: code switching, Lebanon, cultural, factors

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395 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: H. C. Woo, F. Bouanis, C. S. Cojocaur

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Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: graphene, resistive sensor, optoelectronics, photoresponse

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394 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira

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The power converter that feeds high-frequency, high-voltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively low-frequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid over voltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: high-voltage transformer, resonant converter, soft-commutation, external inductance

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393 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

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This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers

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392 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche

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Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics. The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device). Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt

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391 Oxide Based Memristor and Its Potential Application in Analog-Digital Electronics

Authors: P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee, Souvik Kundu

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Oxide based memristors were fabricated in order to establish its potential applications in analog/digital electronics. BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ (BT-BFO) was employed as an active material, whereas platinum (Pt) and Nb-doped SrTiO₃ (Nb:STO) were served as a top and bottom electrodes, respectively. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) was utilized to present the ferroelectricity and repeatable polarization inversion in the BT-BFO, demonstrating its effectiveness for resistive switching. The fabricated memristors exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, such as hysteresis current-voltage (I-V), high on/off ratio, high retention time, cyclic endurance, and low operating voltages. The band-alignment between the active material BT-BFO and the substrate Nb:STO was experimentally investigated using X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and it attributed to staggered heterojunction alignment. An energy band diagram was proposed in order to understand the electrical transport in BT-BFO/Nb:STO heterojunction. It was identified that the I-V curves of these memristors have several discontinuities. Curve fitting technique was utilized to analyse the I-V characteristic, and the obtained I-V equations were found to be parabolic. Utilizing this analysis, a non-linear BT-BFO memristors equivalent circuit model was developed. Interestingly, the obtained equivalent circuit of the BT-BFO memristors mimics the identical electrical performance, those obtained in the fabricated devices. Based on the developed equivalent circuit, a finite state machine (FSM) design was proposed. Efforts were devoted to fabricate the same FSM, and the results were well matched with those in the simulated FSM devices. Its multilevel noise filtering and immunity to external noise characteristics were also studied. Further, the feature of variable negative resistance was established by controlling the current through the memristor.

Keywords: band alignment, finite state machine, polarization inversion, resistive switching

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390 Effect of Personality on Consumer Switching: Moderating Role of Involvement and Value of Services

Authors: Anjali Sharma, R. R. K. Sharma

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The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between personality factors and customer switching for services. Earlier research was directed towards establishing relationship between individual personality traits and customer switching variables considering five-factors model comprised of five personality dimensions (OCEAN), in which personality was not the only influencing factor. Moreover, these works were found to be focused on products and not services. In contrast, the current study is aimed at investigating role of personality using Myer Briggs Type indicator (MBTI) as well as Five-Big Factors, on customer switching and building the conceptual framework on services rather than products. MBTI also known as four opposite pairs or dichotomies of personality dimensions are studied using different levels Involvement (High, Low) of consumer and Value of service-offering (Value for money and Premium) as moderators associated with Consumer Switching. The study is unique in sense that consequences of these indicators of personality on switching behavior has never been studied using considering moderating effect of involvement and value of services. According to our prepositions for a more Extrovert, Intuitive Personality the switching is going to be high whereas the switching is going to be less for an Introvert, Judgmental kind of personality. Similarly, for a consumer with high Neuroticism and Agreeableness the switching would be less as compared to an Open and Conscious Personality type. These level differs with level of a consumer’s involvement and type of a service being offered based on its value.

Keywords: consumer switching, involvement, Myer Briggs personality type indicators, personality, value of service

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389 Use Multiphysics Simulations and Resistive Pulse Sensing to Study the Effect of Metal and Non-Metal Nanoparticles in Different Salt Concentration

Authors: Chun-Lin Chiang, Che-Yen Lee, Yu-Shan Yeh, Jiunn-Haur Shaw

Abstract:

Wafer fabrication is a critical part of the semiconductor process, when the finest linewidth with the improvement of technology continues to decline and the structure development from 2D towards to 3D. The nanoparticles contained in the slurry or in the ultrapure water which used for cleaning have a large influence on the manufacturing process. Therefore, semiconductor industry is hoping to find a viable method for on-line detection the nanoparticles size and concentration. The resistive pulse sensing technology is one of the methods that may cover this question. As we know that nanoparticles properties of material differ significantly from their properties at larger length scales. So, we want to clear that the metal and non-metal nanoparticles translocation dynamic when we use the resistive pulse sensing technology. In this study we try to use the finite element method that contains three governing equations to do multiphysics coupling simulations. The Navier-Stokes equation describes the laminar motion, the Nernst-Planck equation describes the ion transport, and the Poisson equation describes the potential distribution in the flow channel. To explore that the metal nanoparticles and the non-metal nanoparticles in different concentration electrolytes, through the nanochannel caused by ion current changes. Then the reliability of the simulation results was verified by resistive pulse sensing test. The existing results show that the lower ion concentration, the greater effect of nanoparticles on the ion concentration in the nanochannel. The conductive spikes are correlated with nanoparticles surface charge. Then we can be concluded that in the resistive pulse sensing technique, the ion concentration in the nanochannel and nanoparticle properties are important for the translocation dynamic, and they have the interactions.

Keywords: multiphysics simulations, resistive pulse sensing, nanoparticles, nanochannel

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388 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

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The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier

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387 Investigating Effective Factors on the Customer Switching Behaviour in the Saipa Emdad Khodro Company of Iran

Authors: Rohollah Asadian Kohestani, Mustafa Hashemzadeh

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The present paper is the outcome of a field research that was conducted with the study objective of influencing factor's effect on the behavior of customers switching in the Saipa Emdad Khodro Company. To achieve this goal, six factors of service quality, service cost, waiting time to receive services, reputation of organization, costs of switching and the way to respond the needs of customers as the independent variables of research and their effect on the customer switching was studied as the variable related to the research. The statistical society of this research included all customers of the Saipa Emdad Khodro company that possess the vehicles of automobile manufacturing group of Saipa throughout the country and the statistical sample included 150 persons of such customers. The results of this research indicated that all under study factors excluding the reputation factor effect on the behavior of customer switching.

Keywords: customer services, switching cost, service price, customer switching behavior

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386 Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process

Authors: Numra Qayyum, Samina Sarwat, Noor ul Ain

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Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.

Keywords: bottom up priming, language error, language switching, top down cognitive control

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385 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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384 High-Frequency Full-Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are necessary to interface low-voltage fuel cell power generation systems to a higher voltage DC bus system. A system and method for generating a regulated output power from fuel cell power generation systems is proposed in this paper, this includes a soft-switching isolated DC-DC converter to reduce the idling and circulating currents. The system incorporates a high-frequency center tap transformer link DC-DC converter using secondary-side soft switching control. Snubber capacitors including the parasitic capacitance of the switching devices and the transformer leakage inductance are utilized to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) in the primary side of the high-frequency transformer. Therefore, no extra resonant components are required for ZVS. The inherent soft-switching capability allows high power density, efficient power conversion, and compact packaging. A prototype rated at 6.5 kW is proposed and simulated. Simulation results confirmed a wide range of soft-switching operation and consequently high conversion efficiency will be achieved.

Keywords: secondary-side, phase-shift, high-frequency transformer, zero voltage, zero current, soft switching operation, switching losses

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383 Playing Light Switching Games with Langton's Turmite

Authors: Crista Arangala

Abstract:

Light switching games are both popular and well studied. This paper introduces a cellular automata called Langton’s turmite to several different light switching scenarios and discusses when Langton’s turmite can solve these games.

Keywords: cellular automata, lights out, alien tiles, chaos, Langton's Turmite

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382 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

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381 Fundamentals of Islamic Resistive Economy and Practical Solutions: A Study from Perspective of Infallible Imams

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi

Abstract:

Economic independence and security of Islamic world is the top priority. Economic dependence of Muslim countries on economies of non-Muslim imperialist countries results in political and cultural dependencies, and such dependencies will jeopardize the noble Islamic culture; because the will of a dependent country to implements the noble teachings of Islam would be faced with challenges. Solidarity of Muslim countries to achieve a uniformed and resistive economy-based Islamic economic system can improve ability of Islamic world to resist and counteract economic shocks produced by imperialists. Islam is the most complete religion in every aspect, from ideological and epistemological, to legislative and ethical, and economic aspect is no exception. Islam provides solutions to develop a flourishing economy for the whole Islamic nation. Knowledge of such solutions and identification of mechanisms to operationalise them in Islamic communities can highly contributed to establishment of the superior Islamic economy. Encourage of hard working, achievement and knowledge production, correction of consumption patterns, optimized management of import and export, avoiding Islamically prohibited income, economic discipline and equity, and promotion of interest free loan and the like are among the most important solutions to realize such resistive economy.

Keywords: resistive economy, cultural independence, Islam, solidarity

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380 Design and Implementation of A 10-bit SAR ADC with A Programmable Reference

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Yuzman Yusoff, Noor Shelida Salleh

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a single-ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and a SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits ADC. A programmable reference circuitry allows the ADC to operate with different input range from 0.6 V to 2.1 V. A single ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC was proposed and implemented in a 0.35 µm CMOS technology and consumed less than 7.5 mW power with a 3 V supply.

Keywords: successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, SAR ADC, resistive DAC, programmable reference

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379 Artificial Neurons Based on Memristors for Spiking Neural Networks

Authors: Yan Yu, Wang Yu, Chen Xintong, Liu Yi, Zhang Yanzhong, Wang Yanji, Chen Xingyu, Zhang Miaocheng, Tong Yi

Abstract:

Neuromorphic computing based on spiking neural networks (SNNs) has emerged as a promising avenue for building the next generation of intelligent computing systems. Owing to its high-density integration, low power, and outstanding nonlinearity, memristors have attracted emerging attention on achieving SNNs. However, fabricating a low-power and robust memristor-based spiking neuron without extra electrical components is still a challenge for brain-inspired systems. In this work, we demonstrate a TiO₂-based threshold switching (TS) memristor to emulate a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neuron without auxiliary circuits, used to realize single layer fully connected (FC) SNNs. Moreover, our TiO₂-based resistive switching (RS) memristors realize spiking-time-dependent-plasticity (STDP), originating from the Ag diffusion-based filamentary mechanism. This work demonstrates that TiO2-based memristors may provide an efficient method to construct hardware neuromorphic computing systems.

Keywords: leaky integrate-and-fire, memristor, spiking neural networks, spiking-time-dependent-plasticity

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