Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 567

Search results for: non volatile resistive memories

567 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans


In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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566 Enhanced Test Scheme based on Programmable Write Time for Future Computer Memories

Authors: Nor Zaidi Haron, Fauziyah Salehuddin, Norsuhaidah Arshad, Sani Irwan Salim


Resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are one of the main candidates for future computer memories. However, due to their tiny size and immature device technology, the quality of the outgoing RRAM chips is seen as a serious issue. Defective RRAM cells might behave differently than existing semiconductor memories (Dynamic RAM, Static RAM, and Flash), meaning that they are difficult to be detected using existing test schemes. This paper presents an enhanced test scheme, referred to as Programmable Short Write Time (PSWT) that is able to improve the detection of faulty RRAM cells. It is developed by applying multiple weak write operations, each with different time durations. The test circuit embedded in the RRAM chip is made programmable in order to supply different weak write times during testing. The RRAM electrical model is described using Verilog-AMS language and is simulated using HSPICE simulation tools. Simulation results show that the proposed test scheme offers better open-resistive fault detection compared to existing test schemes.

Keywords: memory fault, memory test, design-for-testability, resistive random access memory

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565 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li


Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: metal oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

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564 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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563 Arousal, Encoding, And Intrusive Memories

Authors: Hannah Gutmann, Rick Richardson, Richard Bryant


Intrusive memories following a traumatic event are not uncommon. However, in some individuals, these memories become maladaptive and lead to prolonged stress reactions. A seminal model of PTSD explains that aberrant processing during trauma may lead to prolonged stress reactions and intrusive memories. This model explains that elevated arousal at the time of the trauma promotes data driven processing, leading to fragmented and intrusive memories. This study investigated the role of elevated arousal on the development of intrusive memories. We measured salivary markers of arousal and investigated what impact this had on data driven processing, memory fragmentation, and subsequently, the development of intrusive memories. We assessed 100 healthy participants to understand their processing style, arousal, and experience of intrusive memories. Participants were randomised to a control or experimental condition, the latter of which was designed to increase their arousal. Based on current theory, participants in the experimental condition were expected to engage in more data driven processing and experience more intrusive memories than participants in the control condition. This research aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of intrusive memories to illustrate ways in which therapeutic approaches for PTSD may be augmented for greater efficacy.

Keywords: stress, cortisol, SAA, PTSD, intrusive memories

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562 Investigating Role of Traumatic Events in a Pakistani Sample

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque


The claim that traumatic events influence the recalled memories and mental health has received mixed empirical support. This study examines the memories of a sample drawn from Pakistan, a country that has witnessed many life-changing socio-political events, wars, and natural disasters in 72 years of its history. A sample of 210 senior citizens (Mage = 64.35, SD = 6.33) was recruited from Pakistan. The aim was to investigate if participants retrieved more memories related to past traumatic events using a word-cueing technique. Each participant reported ten memories to ten neutral cue words. The results revealed that past traumatic events were not adversely affecting the memories and mental health of participants. When memories were plotted with respect to the ages at which the events happened, a pronounced bump at 11-20 years of age was seen. Memories within as well as outside of the bump were mostly positive. The multilevel logistic regression modelling showed that the memories recalled were personally important and played a role in enhancing resilience. The findings revealed that despite facing an array of ethnic, religious, political, economic, and social conflicts, the participants were resilient, recalled predominantly positive memories, and had intact mental health. The findings have clinical implications in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The patients can be made aware of their negative emotions, troublesome/traumatic memories, and the distorted thinking patterns and their memories can be restructured. The findings can also be used to teach Memory Specificity Training (MEST) by psycho-educating the patients around changes in memory functioning and enhancing the recall of memories, which are more specific, vivid, and filled with sensory details.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, memories, mental health, resilience, trauma

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561 Reminiscence Bump in Autobiographical Memory of Freedom Fighters in Bangladesh

Authors: Eamin Zahan Heanoy, Asheek Mohammad Shimul


The purpose of the present study was to address theoretical issues of reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory using the freedom fighters of Bangladesh as participants. It was assumed that they had a lot of negative memories during the liberation war in 1971 and those events would reflect the construction of reminiscence bump. Three hundred and twenty (320) freedom fighters were selected using mixed method (purposive and random) sampling technique. The freedom fighters were taken from 10 randomly chosen districts of 64. The participants recalled and dated autobiographical memories from across the lifespan. The age of the participants was between 50 to 80+ years. Memories were encoded at the time of the age when the events occurred. As expected the reminiscence bump, preferential recall of memories from second and third decade was observed. Results indicate that the bump for the participants was found 16 to 26 years. And most remarkably, they recalled most of the memories from 1971, the liberation war. Different retrieval curve has been found for male and female participants. The results have been discussed in the light of recent developments in reminiscence bump research.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, freedom fighters, liberation war, reminiscence bump

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560 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: H. C. Woo, F. Bouanis, C. S. Cojocaur


Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: graphene, resistive sensor, optoelectronics, photoresponse

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559 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou


Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films

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558 Crossover Memories and Code-Switching in the Narratives of Arabic-Hebrew and Hebrew-English Bilingual Adults in Israel

Authors: Amani Jaber-Awida


This study examines two bilingual phenomena in the narratives of Arabic Hebrew and Hebrew-English bilingual adults in Israel: CO memories and code-switching (CS). The study examined these phenomena in the context of autobiographical memory, using a cue word technique. Student experimenters held two sessions in the homes of the participants. In separate language sessions, the participant was asked to look first at each of 16 cue words and then to state a concrete memory. After stating the memory, participants reported whether their memories were in the same language of the experiment session or different. Memories were classified as ‘Crossovers’ (CO) or ‘Same Language’ (SL) according to participants' self-reports. Participants were also required to elaborate about the setting, interlocutors and other languages involved in the specific memory. Beyond replicating the procedure of cuing technique, one memory from a specific lifespan period was chosen per participant, and the participant was required to provide further details about it. For the more detailed memories, CS count was conducted. Both bilingual groups confirmed the Reminiscence Bump phenomenon, retrieving more memories in the 10-30 age period. CO memories prevailed in second language sessions (L2). Same language memories were more abundant in first language sessions (L1). Higher CS frequency was found in L2 sessions. Finally, as predicted, 'individual' CS was prevalent in L2 sessions, but 'community-based' CS was not higher in L1 sessions. The two bilingual measures in this study, crossovers, and CS came from different research traditions, the former from an experimental paradigm in the psychology of autobiographical memory based on self-reported judgments, the latter a behavioral measure from linguistics. This merger of approaches offers new insight into the field of bilingual autobiographical memory. In addition, the study attempted to shed light on the investigation of motivations for CS, beginning with Walters’ SPPL Model and concluding with a distinction between ‘community-based’ and individual motivations.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-switching, crossover memories, narratives

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557 Use Multiphysics Simulations and Resistive Pulse Sensing to Study the Effect of Metal and Non-Metal Nanoparticles in Different Salt Concentration

Authors: Chun-Lin Chiang, Che-Yen Lee, Yu-Shan Yeh, Jiunn-Haur Shaw


Wafer fabrication is a critical part of the semiconductor process, when the finest linewidth with the improvement of technology continues to decline and the structure development from 2D towards to 3D. The nanoparticles contained in the slurry or in the ultrapure water which used for cleaning have a large influence on the manufacturing process. Therefore, semiconductor industry is hoping to find a viable method for on-line detection the nanoparticles size and concentration. The resistive pulse sensing technology is one of the methods that may cover this question. As we know that nanoparticles properties of material differ significantly from their properties at larger length scales. So, we want to clear that the metal and non-metal nanoparticles translocation dynamic when we use the resistive pulse sensing technology. In this study we try to use the finite element method that contains three governing equations to do multiphysics coupling simulations. The Navier-Stokes equation describes the laminar motion, the Nernst-Planck equation describes the ion transport, and the Poisson equation describes the potential distribution in the flow channel. To explore that the metal nanoparticles and the non-metal nanoparticles in different concentration electrolytes, through the nanochannel caused by ion current changes. Then the reliability of the simulation results was verified by resistive pulse sensing test. The existing results show that the lower ion concentration, the greater effect of nanoparticles on the ion concentration in the nanochannel. The conductive spikes are correlated with nanoparticles surface charge. Then we can be concluded that in the resistive pulse sensing technique, the ion concentration in the nanochannel and nanoparticle properties are important for the translocation dynamic, and they have the interactions.

Keywords: multiphysics simulations, resistive pulse sensing, nanoparticles, nanochannel

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556 The Biofumigation Activity of Volatile Compounds Produced from Trichoderma afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and Trichoderma afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 against Fusarium Infections in Fresh Chilies

Authors: Sarunpron Khruengsai, Patcharee Pripdeevech


This study aimed to investigate the fumigation activities of the volatile compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum fungi that cause significant rot in fresh chilies. Two Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the leaves of Schefflera leucantha grown in Thailand and later identified as T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091. Both in vitro and in vivo dual culture volatile assays were used to study the effects of the produced volatile compounds on mycelial growth. In vitro results showed that the volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 significantly inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum, while the volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 significantly inhibited the growth of F. proliferatum. The effectiveness of Trichoderma-derived volatile compounds in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the selected pathogens in the inoculated, fresh chili samples was further demonstrated in vivo. The volatile profiles of both Trichoderma spp. were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-three volatile compounds were detected from both strains. Among the major volatile compounds detected, phenyl ethyl alcohol was found to possess the strongest antifungal activity against both pathogens. The results support the possibility of using volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 as alternative fumigants for preventing Fusarium rot of fresh chilies during the post-harvest period.

Keywords: antifungal activity, biocontrol, endophytic fungi, post-harvest

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555 Solution-Processed Threshold Switching Selectors Based on Highly Flexible, Transparent and Scratchable Silver Nanowires Conductive Films

Authors: Peiyuan Guan, Tao Wan, Dewei Chu


With the flash memory approaching its physical limit, the emerging resistive random-access memory (RRAM) has been considered as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. One selector-one resistor configuration has shown the most promising way to resolve the crosstalk issue without affecting the scalability and high-density integration of the RRAM array. By comparison with other candidates of selectors (such as diodes and nonlinear devices), threshold switching selectors dominated by formation/spontaneous rupture of fragile conductive filaments have been proved to possess low voltages, high selectivity, and ultra-low current leakage. However, the flexibility and transparency of selectors are barely mentioned. Therefore, it is a matter of urgency to develop a selector with highly flexible and transparent properties to assist the application of RRAM for a diversity of memory devices. In this work, threshold switching selectors were designed using a facilely solution-processed fabrication on [email protected] composite films, which show high flexibility, transparency and scratch resistance. As-fabricated threshold switching selectors also have revealed relatively high selectivity (~107), low operating voltages (Vth < 1 V) and good switching performance.

Keywords: flexible and transparent, resistive random-access memory, silver nanowires, threshold switching selector

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554 Fundamentals of Islamic Resistive Economy and Practical Solutions: A Study from Perspective of Infallible Imams

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi


Economic independence and security of Islamic world is the top priority. Economic dependence of Muslim countries on economies of non-Muslim imperialist countries results in political and cultural dependencies, and such dependencies will jeopardize the noble Islamic culture; because the will of a dependent country to implements the noble teachings of Islam would be faced with challenges. Solidarity of Muslim countries to achieve a uniformed and resistive economy-based Islamic economic system can improve ability of Islamic world to resist and counteract economic shocks produced by imperialists. Islam is the most complete religion in every aspect, from ideological and epistemological, to legislative and ethical, and economic aspect is no exception. Islam provides solutions to develop a flourishing economy for the whole Islamic nation. Knowledge of such solutions and identification of mechanisms to operationalise them in Islamic communities can highly contributed to establishment of the superior Islamic economy. Encourage of hard working, achievement and knowledge production, correction of consumption patterns, optimized management of import and export, avoiding Islamically prohibited income, economic discipline and equity, and promotion of interest free loan and the like are among the most important solutions to realize such resistive economy.

Keywords: resistive economy, cultural independence, Islam, solidarity

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553 Forming-Free Resistive Switching Effect in ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ Nanocomposite Thin Films for Neuromorphic Systems Manufacturing

Authors: Vladimir Smirnov, Roman Tominov, Vadim Avilov, Oleg Ageev


The creation of a new generation micro- and nanoelectronics elements opens up unlimited possibilities for electronic devices parameters improving, as well as developing neuromorphic computing systems. Interest in the latter is growing up every year, which is explained by the need to solve problems related to the unstructured classification of data, the construction of self-adaptive systems, and pattern recognition. However, for its technical implementation, it is necessary to fulfill a number of conditions for the basic parameters of electronic memory, such as the presence of non-volatility, the presence of multi-bitness, high integration density, and low power consumption. Several types of memory are presented in the electronics industry (MRAM, FeRAM, PRAM, ReRAM), among which non-volatile resistive memory (ReRAM) is especially distinguished due to the presence of multi-bit property, which is necessary for neuromorphic systems manufacturing. ReRAM is based on the effect of resistive switching – a change in the resistance of the oxide film between low-resistance state (LRS) and high-resistance state (HRS) under an applied electric field. One of the methods for the technical implementation of neuromorphic systems is cross-bar structures, which are ReRAM cells, interconnected by cross data buses. Such a structure imitates the architecture of the biological brain, which contains a low power computing elements - neurons, connected by special channels - synapses. The choice of the ReRAM oxide film material is an important task that determines the characteristics of the future neuromorphic system. An analysis of literature showed that many metal oxides (TiO2, ZnO, NiO, ZrO2, HfO2) have a resistive switching effect. It is worth noting that the manufacture of nanocomposites based on these materials allows highlighting the advantages and hiding the disadvantages of each material. Therefore, as a basis for the neuromorphic structures manufacturing, it was decided to use ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite. It is also worth noting that the ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite does not need an electroforming, which degrades the parameters of the formed ReRAM elements. Currently, this material is not well studied, therefore, the study of the effect of resistive switching in forming-free ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ nanocomposite is an important task and the goal of this work. Forming-free nanocomposite ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ thin film was grown by pulsed laser deposition (Pioneer 180, Neocera Co., USA) on the SiO2/TiN (40 nm) substrate. Electrical measurements were carried out using a semiconductor characterization system (Keithley 4200-SCS, USA) with W probes. During measurements, TiN film was grounded. The analysis of the obtained current-voltage characteristics showed a resistive switching from HRS to LRS resistance states at +1.87±0.12 V, and from LRS to HRS at -2.71±0.28 V. Endurance test shown that HRS was 283.21±32.12 kΩ, LRS was 1.32±0.21 kΩ during 100 measurements. It was shown that HRS/LRS ratio was about 214.55 at reading voltage of 0.6 V. The results can be useful for forming-free nanocomposite ZnₓTiᵧHfzOᵢ films in neuromorphic systems manufacturing. This work was supported by RFBR, according to the research project № 19-29-03041 mk. The results were obtained using the equipment of the Research and Education Center «Nanotechnologies» of Southern Federal University.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocomposites, neuromorphic systems, RRAM, pulsed laser deposition, resistive switching effect

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552 Design and Implementation of A 10-bit SAR ADC with A Programmable Reference

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Yuzman Yusoff, Noor Shelida Salleh


This paper presents the development of a single-ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and a SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits ADC. A programmable reference circuitry allows the ADC to operate with different input range from 0.6 V to 2.1 V. A single ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC was proposed and implemented in a 0.35 µm CMOS technology and consumed less than 7.5 mW power with a 3 V supply.

Keywords: successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, SAR ADC, resistive DAC, programmable reference

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551 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean


The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA

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550 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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549 In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: Mariane G. Tadros, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Farag


In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Ocimum baselicum, Ocimum africanum, GC/MS analysis, anticholinesterase

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548 WormHex: Evidence Retrieval Tool of Social Media from Volatile Memory

Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni


Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms, which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files of Windows and Mac-based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results verify that social media applications write their data into the memory regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.

Keywords: volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisition

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547 Examining Historically Defined Periods in Autobiographical Memories for Transitional Events

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque


We examined the plausibility of transition theory suggesting that memories of transitional events, which give rise to a significant and persistent change in the fabric of daily life, are organized around the historically defined autobiographical periods (H-DAPs). 141 Pakistani older adults retrieved 10 autobiographical memories (AMs) each to 10 cue words. As the history of Pakistan is dominated by various political and nationwide transitional events, it was expected that the participants would recall memories with H-DAPs references. The content analysis revealed that 0.7% of memories had H-DAP references and 0.4% memories mentioned major transitional events such as War/Natural Disaster. There was a vivid reminiscence bump between 10 - 20 years of age in lifespan distribution of AMs. There were 67.9% social-focused AMs. Significantly more self-focused memories were reported by individuals who endorsed themselves as conservatives. Only a few H-DAPs were reported, although the history of Pakistan was dominated by numerous political, historical and nationwide transitional events. Memories within and outside of the bump period were mostly positive. The participants rarely used historical/political or nationwide significant events or periods to date the memories elicited. The intense and nationwide (as well as region-wise) significant historical/political events spawned across decades in the lives of participants of the present study but these events did not produce H-DAPs. The findings contradicted the previous studies on H-DAPs and transition theory. The dominance of social-focused AMs in the present study is in line with the past studies comparing the memories of collectivist and individualist cultures (i.e., European Americans vs. Asian, African and Latin-American cultures). The past empirical evidence shows that conservative values and beliefs are adopted as a coping strategy to feel secure in the face of danger when future is dominated with uncertainty and to connect to likeminded others. In the present study, conservative political ideology is somehow assisting the participants in living a stable life midst of their complex social worlds. The reminiscence bump, as well as dominance of positive memories within and outside the bump period, are in line with the narrative/identity account which states that the events and experiences during adolescence and early adulthood assimilate into a person’s lifelong narratives. Hence these events are used as identity markers and are more easily recalled later in life. Also, according to socioemotional theory and the positivity effect, the participants evaluated past events more positively as they grow up and the intensity of negative emotions decreased with time.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, historically defined autobiographical periods, narrative/identity account, Pakistan, reminiscence bump, SMS framework, transition theory

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546 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei


Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic, physical therapy

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545 TiO₂ Nanotube Array Based Selective Vapor Sensors for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arnab Hazra


Breath analysis is a quick, noninvasive and inexpensive technique for disease diagnosis can be used on people of all ages without any risk. Only a limited number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be associated with the occurrence of specific diseases. These VOCs can be considered as disease markers or breath markers. Selective detection with specific concentration of breath marker in exhaled human breath is required to detect a particular disease. For example, acetone (C₃H₆O), ethanol (C₂H₅OH), ethane (C₂H₆) etc. are the breath markers and abnormal concentrations of these VOCs in exhaled human breath indicates the diseases like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, breast cancer respectively. Nanomaterial-based vapor sensors are inexpensive, small and potential candidate for the detection of breath markers. In practical measurement, selectivity is the most crucial issue where trace detection of breath marker is needed to identify accurately in the presence of several interfering vapors and gases. Current article concerns a novel technique for selective and lower ppb level detection of breath markers at very low temperature based on TiO₂ nanotube array based vapor sensor devices. Highly ordered and oriented TiO₂ nanotube array was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of high purity tatinium (Ti) foil. 0.5 wt% NH₄F, ethylene glycol and 10 vol% H₂O was used as the electrolyte and anodization was carried out for 90 min with 40 V DC potential. Au/TiO₂ Nanotube/Ti, sandwich type sensor device was fabricated for the selective detection of VOCs in low concentration range. Initially, sensor was characterized where resistive and capacitive change of the sensor was recorded within the valid concentration range for individual breath markers (or organic vapors). Sensor resistance was decreased and sensor capacitance was increased with the increase of vapor concentration. Now, the ratio of resistive slope (mR) and capacitive slope (mC) provided a concentration independent constant term (M) for a particular vapor. For the detection of unknown vapor, ratio of resistive change and capacitive change at any concentration was same to the previously calculated constant term (M). After successful identification of the target vapor, concentration was calculated from the straight line behavior of resistance as a function of concentration. Current technique is suitable for the detection of particular vapor from a mixture of other interfering vapors.

Keywords: breath marker, vapor sensors, selective detection, TiO₂ nanotube array

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544 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri


The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: age, gender, short-term memory, working memory

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543 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan


Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

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542 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng


In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing (FA), forming, set and reset voltages, XPS

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541 The Plant Hormone Auxin Impacts the Profile of Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum)

Authors: Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Bruna Lima Gomes, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto


The plant hormone ethylene is closely related to the metabolic changes that occur during fruit ripening, including volatile biosynthesis. Although knowledge about the biochemistry pathways that produce flavor compounds and the importance of ethylene to these processes are extensively covered, little is known about the regulation mechanisms. In addition, growing body of evidences indicates that auxin is also involved in controlling ripening. However, there is scarce information about the involvement of auxin in fruit volatile production. This study aimed to assess auxin-ethylene interactions and its influence on tomato fruit volatile profile. Fruits from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom were treated with IAA and ethylene, separately and in combination. The hormonal treatment was performed by injection (IAA) or gas exposure (ethylene) and the volatiles were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC-MS. Ethylene levels and color were measured by gas chromatography and colorimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the treatment with IAA (even in the presence of high concentrations of exogenous ethylene), impacted the profile of volatile compounds derived from fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and isoprenoids. Ethylene is a well-known regulator of the transition from green to red color and also is implicated in the biosynthesis of characteristic volatile compounds of tomato fruit. The effects observed suggest the existence of a crosstalk between IAA and ethylene in the aroma volatile formation in the fruit. A possible interference of IAA in the ethylene sensitivity in the fruit flesh is discussed. The data suggest that auxin plays an important role in the volatile synthesis in the tomato fruit and introduce a new level of complexity in the regulation of the fruit aroma formation during ripening.

Keywords: aroma compounds, fruit ripening, fruit quality, phytohormones

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540 Managing and Sustaining Strategic Relationships with Distributors by Electronic Agencies in Jordan

Authors: Abdallah Q. Bataineh


The electronics market in Jordan is facing extraordinary expectations from consumers, whose opinions are progressively more essential and have effective power on the overall marketing strategy preparation and execution by electronics agents. This research aimed to explore the effect of price volatile, follow-up, maintenance and warranty policy on distributor’s retention. Focus group, in-depth interviews, and self-administered questionnaire were held with a total sample of 50 electronics distribution stores who have a direct contact and purchase frequently from electronic agencies. By using descriptive statistics and multiple regression tests, the main findings of this research is that there is an impact of price volatile, follow-up, maintenance and warranty policy on distributor’s retention, and the key predictor variable was price volatile. Thus, the researcher recommended flat rate pricing strategy to ensure that all distributors will sell the product on the same pricing base, regardless of the generated margin by each one of them. Moreover, conclusion and future research were also discussed.

Keywords: distributors retention, follow-up, maintenance, price volatile, warranty policy

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539 Superconducting Properties of Fe Doped in Cu-Site of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy

Authors: M. A. Suazlina, H. Azhan, S. A. Syamsyir, S. Y. S. Yusainee


Fe2O3 was doped to Bi-2223 superconductor prepared in bulk form using high purity oxide powders via solid state reaction technique with intermediate grinding. A stiochiometric of x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 Fe are systematically added to the well balanced Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy in order to trace the effect of Fe doping to the system. Microstructure, resistive transitions, phase volume, and cell parameters were hence investigated. Substitution of Fe is found to slowly decrease the Bi-2223 phase volume and the resistive transitions for x=0.00 – 0.10 samples whereas accelerated formation of the Bi-2212 phase is detected for further substitutions. Changes in superconducting properties of Fe-doping Bi-2223 system were discussed and the findings were further compared with available literature.

Keywords: BSCCO, critical temperature, critical current density, XRD, flux pinning

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538 Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels


'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.

Keywords: holocaust literature, memory, narrative, Yolen

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