Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5144

Search results for: constructivist learning

5144 The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom and the Relationship between Them

Authors: Ibraheem Alzahrani

Abstract:

This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified through given an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, wiki can be used to understand the relationship between constructivist learning theory and collaborative learning environment. However, several evidences will come in this paper to support the idea of why wiki is the suitable method to explore the relationship between social constructivist theory and the collaborative learning and their role in learning. Moreover, learning activities in wiki classroom will be discussed in this paper to find out the result of the learners' interaction in the classroom groups, which will be through two types of communication; synchronous and asynchronous.

Keywords: social constructivist, collaborative, environment, wiki, activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
5143 Extent of Constructivist Learning in Science Classes of the College Department of Southville International School and Colleges: Implication to Effective College Teaching

Authors: Mark Edward S. Paulo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the extent of constructivist learning in science classes of the college department of Southville International School and Colleges. This explores the students’ assessment of their learning when professors would give lecture and various activities in the classroom and at the same time their perception on how their professors maintain a constructivist learning environment. In this study, a total of 185 students participated. These students were enrolled in Science courses offered in the first semester of AY 2014 to 2015. Descriptive correlational method was used in this study while simple random sampling technique was utilized in getting the number of target population. The results revealed that student often observed that their professors apply constructivist approach when teaching sciences. A positive correlation was found between students’ level of learning and extent of constructivism.

Keywords: college teaching, constructivism, pedagogy, student-centered approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
5142 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon, Salima Hassas

Abstract:

During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: cognitive development, constructivist learning, hierarchical sequential learning, self-adaptation

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5141 Proposing Problem-Based Learning as an Effective Pedagogical Technique for Social Work Education

Authors: Christine K. Fulmer

Abstract:

Social work education is competency based in nature. There is an expectation that graduates of social work programs throughout the world are to be prepared to practice at a level of competence, which is beneficial to both the well-being of individuals and community. Experiential learning is one way to prepare students for competent practice. The use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a form experiential education that has been successful in a number of disciplines to bridge the gap between the theoretical concepts in the classroom to the real world. PBL aligns with the constructivist theoretical approach to learning, which emphasizes the integration of new knowledge with the beliefs students already hold. In addition, the basic tenants of PBL correspond well with the practice behaviors associated with social work practice including multi-disciplinary collaboration and critical thinking. This paper makes an argument for utilizing PBL in social work education.

Keywords: social work education, problem-based learning, pedagogy, experiential learning, constructivist theoretical approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
5140 Engaging Students in Multimedia Constructivist Learning: Analysis of Students' Science Achievement

Authors: Maria Georgiou

Abstract:

This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement scores for students who received multimedia-based instructions in science. The paired samples t-test was used to address the research question and to establish whether there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores that may have occurred based on the students’ learning experience with multimedia technology. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement scores before and after a multimedia-based instruction. Students’ achievement scores were increased by approximately two points, after students received multimedia-based instruction. On a paired samples t-test, a high level of significance was found, p = 0.000. Opportunities to learn with multimedia are more likely to result in sustained improvements in student achievement and a deeper understanding of science content. Multimedia can make learning more active and student-centered and activate student motivation.

Keywords: constructivist learning, hyperstudio, multimedia, multimedia-based instruction

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5139 Student Learning and Motivation in an Interculturally Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Jonathan H. Westover, Jacque P. Westover, Maureen S. Andrade

Abstract:

Though learning theories vary in complexity and usefulness, a thorough understanding of foundational learning theories is a necessity in today’s educational environment. Additionally, learning theories lead to approaches in instruction that can affect student motivation and learning. The combination of a learning theory and elements to enhance student motivation can create a learning context where the student can thrive in their educational pursuits. This paper will provide an overview of three main learning theories: (1) Behavioral Theory, (2) Cognitive Theory, and (3) Constructivist Theory and explore their connection to elements of student learning motivation. Finally, we apply these learning theories and elements of student motivation to the following two context: (1) The FastStart Program at the Community College of Denver, and (2) An Online Academic English Language Course. We discussed potential of the program and course to have success in increasing student success outcomes.

Keywords: learning theory, student motivation, inclusive pedagogy, developmental education

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
5138 Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Sandeep N. Kundu, Farha Sattar

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Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.

Keywords: augmented reality sandbox, constructivism, deep learning, geoscience

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5137 The Development of Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation with Addie Based on Constructive for Improving Students’ Mastery Concept in Rotational Dynamics

Authors: Silka Abyadati, Dadi Rusdiana, Enjang Akhmad Juanda

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the students’ mastery concepts enhancement between students who are studying by using Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation (IRVA) and students who are studying without using IRVA. The development of IRVA is conducted by five stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) based on constructivist for Rotational Dynamics material in Physics learning. A constructivist model-based learning used is Interpretation Construction (ICON), which has the following phases: 1) Observation, 2) Construction interpretation, 3) Contextualization prior knowledge, 4) Conflict cognitive, 5) Learning cognitive, 6) Collaboration, 7) Multiple interpretation, 8) Multiple manifestation. The IRVA is developed for the stages of observation, cognitive conflict and cognitive learning. The sample of this study consisted of 32 students experimental group and a control group of 32 students in class XI of the school year 2015/2016 in one of Senior High Schools Bandung. The study was conducted by giving the pretest and posttest in the form of 20 items of multiple choice questions to determine the enhancement of mastery concept of Rotational Dynamics. Hypothesis testing is done by using T-test on the value of N-gain average of mastery concepts. The results showed that there is a significant difference in an enhancement of students’ mastery concepts between students who are studying by using IRVA and students who are studying without IRVA. Students in the experimental group increased by 0.468 while students in the control group increased by 0.207.

Keywords: ADDIE, constructivist learning, Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation, mastery concepts, rotational dynamics

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5136 Inductive Grammar, Student-Centered Reading, and Interactive Poetry: The Effects of Teaching English with Fun in Schools of Two Villages in Lebanon

Authors: Talar Agopian

Abstract:

Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) is a common practice in many Lebanese schools. However, ESL teaching is done in traditional ways. Methods such as constructivism are seldom used, especially in villages. Here lies the significance of this research which joins constructivism and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in ESL classes in Lebanese villages. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of applying constructivist student-centered strategies in teaching grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry on students in elementary ESL classes in two villages in Lebanon, Zefta in South Lebanon and Boqaata in Mount Lebanon. 20 English teachers participated in a training titled “Teaching English with Fun”, which focused on strategies that create a student-centered class where active learning takes place and there is increased learner engagement and autonomy. The training covered three main areas in teaching English: grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry. After participating in the training, the teachers applied the new strategies and methods in their ESL classes. The methodology comprised two phases: in phase one, practice-based research was conducted as the teachers attended the training and applied the constructivist strategies in their respective ESL classes. Phase two included the reflections of the teachers on the effects of the application of constructivist strategies. The results revealed the educational benefits of constructivist student-centered strategies; the students of teachers who applied these strategies showed improved engagement, positive attitudes towards poetry, increased motivation, and a better sense of autonomy. Future research is required in applying constructivist methods in the areas of writing, spelling, and vocabulary in ESL classrooms of Lebanese villages.

Keywords: active learning, constructivism, learner engagement, student-centered strategies

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5135 Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Funded Project: Assessing Constructivist Learning Features in Higher Education Settings

Authors: Dorit Alt, Nirit Raichel

Abstract:

Educational practice is continually subjected to renewal needs, due mainly to the growing proportion of information communication technology, globalization of education, and the pursuit of quality. These types of renewal needs require developing updated instructional and assessment practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. However, university instruction is criticized for not coping with these new challenges while continuing to exemplify the traditional instruction. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium (including 16 members from 8 countries) is collaborating to create a curricular reform for lifelong learning (LLL) in teachers' education, health care and other applied fields. This project aims to achieve its objectives by developing, and piloting models for training students in LLL and promoting meaningful learning activities that could integrate knowledge with the personal transferable skills. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies and assessment tools based on the constructivist approach for learning. This presentation will be limited to teachers' education only and to the contribution of a pre-pilot research aimed at providing a scale designed to measure constructivist activities in higher education learning environments. A mix-method approach was implemented in two phases to construct the scale: The first phase included a qualitative content analysis involving both deductive and inductive category applications of students' observations. The results foregrounded eight categories: knowledge construction, authenticity, multiple perspectives, prior knowledge, in-depth learning, teacher- student interaction, social interaction and cooperative dialogue. The students' descriptions of their classes were formulated as 36 items. The second phase employed structural equation modeling (SEM). The scale was submitted to 597 undergraduate students. The goodness of fit of the data to the structural model yielded sufficient fit results. This research elaborates the body of literature by adding a category of in-depth learning which emerged from the content analysis. Moreover, the theoretical category of social activity has been extended to include two distinctive factors: cooperative dialogue and social interaction. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project are discussed.

Keywords: constructivist learning, higher education, mix-methodology, lifelong learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
5134 Constructivist Design Approaches to Video Production for Distance Education in Business and Economics

Authors: C. von Essen

Abstract:

This study outlines and evaluates a constructivist design approach to the creation of educational video on postgraduate business degree programmes. Many online courses are tapping into the educational affordances of video, as this form of online learning has the potential to create rich, multimodal experiences. And yet, in many learning contexts video is still being used to transmit instruction to passive learners, rather than promote learner engagement and knowledge creation. Constructivism posits the notion that learning is shaped as students make connections between their experiences and ideas. This paper pivots on the following research question: how can we design educational video in ways which promote constructivist learning and stimulate analytic viewing? By exploring and categorizing over two thousand educational videos created since 2014 for over thirty postgraduate courses in business, economics, mathematics and statistics, this paper presents and critically reflects on a taxonomy of video styles and features. It links the pedagogical intent of video – be it concept explanation, skill demonstration, feedback, real-world application of ideas, community creation, or the cultivation of course narrative – to specific presentational characteristics such as visual effects including diagrammatic and real-life graphics and aminations, commentary and sound options, chronological sequencing, interactive elements, and presenter set-up. The findings of this study inform a framework which captures the pedagogical, technological and production considerations instructional designers and educational media specialists should be conscious of when planning and preparing the video. More broadly, the paper demonstrates how learning theory and technology can coalesce to produce informed and pedagogical grounded instructional design choices. This paper reveals how crafting video in a more conscious and critical manner can produce powerful, new educational design.

Keywords: educational video, constructivism, instructional design, business education

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
5133 A New Measurement for Assessing Constructivist Learning Features in Higher Education: Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Project

Authors: Dorit Alt, Nirit Raichel

Abstract:

Although university teaching is claimed to have a special task to support students in adopting ways of thinking and producing new knowledge anchored in scientific inquiry practices, it is argued that students' habits of learning are still overwhelmingly skewed toward passive acquisition of knowledge from authority sources rather than from collaborative inquiry activities.This form of instruction is criticized for encouraging students to acquire inert knowledge that can be used in instructional settings at best, however cannot be transferred into real-life complex problem settings. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium (including 16 members from 8 countries) is aimed at developing updated instructional practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies and assessment tools, based on the constructivist approach for learning that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. This presentation will be limited to teachers' education only and to the contribution of the project in providing a scale designed to measure the extent to which the constructivist activities are efficiently applied in the learning environment. A mix-method approach was implemented in two phases to construct the scale: The first phase included a qualitative content analysis involving both deductive and inductive category applications of students' observations. The results foregrounded eight categories: knowledge construction, authenticity, multiple perspectives, prior knowledge, in-depth learning, teacher- student interaction, social interaction and cooperative dialogue. The students' descriptions of their classes were formulated as 36 items. The second phase employed structural equation modeling (SEM). The scale was submitted to 597 undergraduate students. The goodness of fit of the data to the structural model yielded sufficient fit results. This research elaborates the body of literature by adding a category of in-depth learning which emerged from the content analysis. Moreover, the theoretical category of social activity has been extended to include two distinctive factors: cooperative dialogue and social interaction. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project are discussed.

Keywords: constructivist learning, higher education, mix-methodology, structural equation modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5132 Assumption of Cognitive Goals in Science Learning

Authors: Mihail Calalb

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to identify ways for achieving sustainable conceptual understanding within science lessons. For this purpose, a set of teaching and learning strategies, parts of the theory of visible teaching and learning (VTL), is studied. As a result, a new didactic approach named "learning by being" is proposed and its correlation with educational paradigms existing nowadays in science teaching domain is analysed. In the context of VTL the author describes the main strategies of "learning by being" such as guided self-scaffolding, structuring of information, and recurrent use of previous knowledge or help seeking. Due to the synergy effect of these learning strategies applied simultaneously in class, the impact factor of learning by being on cognitive achievement of students is up to 93 % (the benchmark level is equal to 40% when an experienced teacher applies permanently the same conventional strategy during two academic years). The key idea in "learning by being" is the assumption by the student of cognitive goals. From this perspective, the article discusses the role of student’s personal learning effort within several teaching strategies employed in VTL. The research results emphasize that three mandatory student – related moments are present in each constructivist teaching approach: a) students’ personal learning effort, b) student – teacher mutual feedback and c) metacognition. Thus, a successful educational strategy will target to achieve an involvement degree of students into the class process as high as possible in order to make them not only know the learning objectives but also to assume them. In this way, we come to the ownership of cognitive goals or students’ deep intrinsic motivation. A series of approaches are inherent to the students’ ownership of cognitive goals: independent research (with an impact factor on cognitive achievement equal to 83% according to the results of VTL); knowledge of success criteria (impact factor – 113%); ability to reveal similarities and patterns (impact factor – 132%). Although it is generally accepted that the school is a public service, nonetheless it does not belong to entertainment industry and in most of cases the education declared as student – centered actually hides the central role of the teacher. Even if there is a proliferation of constructivist concepts, mainly at the level of science education research, we have to underline that conventional or frontal teaching, would never disappear. Research results show that no modern method can replace an experienced teacher with strong pedagogical content knowledge. Such a teacher will inspire and motivate his/her students to love and learn physics. The teacher is precisely the condensation point for an efficient didactic strategy – be it constructivist or conventional. In this way, we could speak about "hybridized teaching" where both the student and the teacher have their share of responsibility. In conclusion, the core of "learning by being" approach is guided learning effort that corresponds to the notion of teacher–student harmonic oscillator, when both things – guidance from teacher and student’s effort – are equally important.

Keywords: conceptual understanding, learning by being, ownership of cognitive goals, science learning

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5131 The Increasing Importance of the Role of AI in Higher Education

Authors: Joshefina Bengoechea Fernandez, Alex Bell

Abstract:

In its 2021 guidance for policy makers, the UNESCO has proposed 4 areas where AI can be applied in educational settings: These are: 1) Education management and delivery; 2) Learning and assessment; 3) Empowering teachers and facilitating teaching, and 4) Providing lifelong learning possibilities (UNESCO, 2021). Like with wblockchain technologies, AI will automate the management of educational institutions. These include, but are not limited to admissions, timetables, attendance, and homework monitoring. Furthermore, AI will be used to select relevant learning content across learning platforms for each student, based on his or her personalized needs. A problem educators face is the “one-size-fits-all” approach that does not work with a diverse student population. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate if the implementation of Technology is the solution to the Problems faced in Higher Education. The paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review and research on key publications and academic reports.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, learning platforms, students personalised needs, life- long learning, privacy, ethics

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5130 Addressing Differentiation Using Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

Authors: Ajda Osifo, Fatma Elshafie

Abstract:

Mobile-assisted language learning favors social-constructivist and connectivist theories to learning and adaptive approaches to teaching. It offers many opportunities to differentiated instruction in meaningful ways as it enables learners to become more collaborative, engaged and independent through additional dimensions such as web-based media, virtual learning environments, online publishing to an imagined audience and digitally mediated communication. MALL applications can be a tool for the teacher to personalize and adjust instruction according to the learners’ needs and give continuous feedback to improve learning and performance in the process, which support differentiated instruction practices. This paper explores the utilization of Mobile Assisted Language Learning applications as a supporting tool for effective differentiation in the language classroom. It reports overall experience in terms of implementing MALL to shape and apply differentiated instruction and expand learning options. This session is structured in three main parts: first, a review of literature and effective practice of academically responsive instruction will be discussed. Second, samples of differentiated tasks, activities, projects and learner work will be demonstrated with relevant learning outcomes and learners’ survey results. Finally, project findings and conclusions will be given.

Keywords: academically responsive instruction, differentiation, mobile learning, mobile-assisted language learning

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5129 How Teachers Comprehend and Support Children's Needs to Be Scientists

Authors: Anita Yus

Abstract:

Several Elementary Schools (SD) ‘favored’ by parents, especially those live in big cities in Indonesia, implicitly demand each child enrolled in the first grade of SD to be able to read, write and calculate. This condition urges the parents to push the teachers in PAUD (Kindergarten) to train their children to read, write, and calculate so they have a set of knowledge. According to Piaget, each child is capable of acquiring knowledge when he is given the opportunity to interact with his environment (things, people, and atmosphere). Teachers can make the interaction occur. There are several learning approaches suitable for the characteristics and needs of child’s growth. This paper talks about a research result conducted to investigate how twelve teachers of early childhood program comprehend the constructivist theory of Piaget, and how they inquire, how the children acquire and construct a number of knowledge through occurred interactions. This is a qualitative research with an observation method followed up by a focus group discussion (FGD). The research result shows that there is a reciprocal interaction between the behaviors of teachers and children affected by the size of the classroom and learning source, teaching experiences, education background, teachers’ attitude and motivation, as well as the way the teachers interpret and support the children’s needs. The teachers involved in this research came up with varied perspective on how knowledge acquired by children at first and how they construct it. This research brings a new perspective in understanding children as scientists.

Keywords: constructivist approach, young children as a scientist, teacher practice, teacher education

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5128 The Holistic Nursing WebQuest: An Interactive Teaching/Learning Strategy

Authors: Laura M. Schwarz

Abstract:

WebQuests are an internet-based interactive teaching/learning tool and utilize a scaffolded methodology. WebQuests employ critical thinking, afford inquiry-based constructivist learning, and readily employ Bloom’s Taxonomy. WebQuests have generally been used as instructional technology tools in primary and secondary education and have more recently grown in popularity in higher education. The study of the efficacy of WebQuests as an instructional approach to learning, however, has been limited, particularly in the nursing education arena. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine nursing students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the Nursing WebQuest as a teaching/learning strategy for holistic nursing-related content. Quantitative findings (N=42) suggested that learners were active participants, used reflection, thought of new ideas, used analysis skills, discovered something new, and assessed the worth of something while taking part in the WebQuests. Qualitative findings indicated that participants found WebQuest positives as easy to understand and navigate; clear and organized; interactive; good alternative learning format, and used a variety of quality resources. Participants saw drawbacks as requiring additional time and work; and occasional failed link or link causing them to lose their location in the WebQuest. Recommendations include using larger sample size and more diverse populations from various programs and universities. In conclusion, WebQuests were found to be an effective teaching/learning tool as positively assessed by study participants.

Keywords: holistic nursing, nursing education, teaching/learning strategy, WebQuests

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
5127 Leading, Teaching and Learning “in the Middle”: Experiences, Beliefs, and Values of Instructional Leaders, Teachers, and Students in Finland, Germany, and Canada

Authors: Brandy Yee, Dianne Yee

Abstract:

Through the exploration of the lived experiences, beliefs and values of instructional leaders, teachers and students in Finland, Germany and Canada, we investigated the factors which contribute to developmentally responsive, intellectually engaging middle-level learning environments for early adolescents. Student-centred leadership dimensions, effective instructional practices and student agency were examined through the lens of current policy and research on middle-level learning environments emerging from the Canadian province of Manitoba. Consideration of these three research perspectives in the context of early adolescent learning, placed against an international backdrop, provided a previously undocumented perspective on leading, teaching and learning in the middle years. Aligning with a social constructivist, qualitative research paradigm, the study incorporated collective case study methodology, along with constructivist grounded theory methods of data analysis. Data were collected through semi-structured individual and focus group interviews and document review, as well as direct and participant observation. Three case study narratives were developed to share the rich stories of study participants, who had been selected using maximum variation and intensity sampling techniques. Interview transcript data were coded using processes from constructivist grounded theory. A cross-case analysis yielded a conceptual framework highlighting key factors that were found to be significant in the establishment of developmentally responsive, intellectually engaging middle-level learning environments. Seven core categories emerged from the cross-case analysis as common to all three countries. Within the visual conceptual framework (which depicts the interconnected nature of leading, teaching and learning in middle-level learning environments), these seven core categories were grouped into Essential Factors (student agency, voice and choice), Contextual Factors (instructional practices; school culture; engaging families and the community), Synergistic Factors (instructional leadership) and Cornerstone Factors (education as a fundamental cultural value; preservice, in-service and ongoing teacher development). In addition, sub-factors emerged from recurring codes in the data and identified specific characteristics and actions found in developmentally responsive, intellectually engaging middle-level learning environments. Although this study focused on 12 schools in Finland, Germany and Canada, it informs the practice of educators working with early adolescent learners in middle-level learning environments internationally. The authentic voices of early adolescent learners are the most important resource educators have to gauge if they are creating effective learning environments for their students. Ongoing professional dialogue and learning is essential to ensure teachers are supported in their work and develop the pedagogical practices needed to meet the needs of early adolescent learners. It is critical to balance consistency, coherence and dependability in the school environment with the necessary flexibility in order to support the unique learning needs of early adolescents. Educators must intentionally create a school culture that unites teachers, students and their families in support of a common purpose, as well as nurture positive relationships between the school and its community. A large, urban school district in Canada has implemented a school cohort-based model to begin to bring developmentally responsive, intellectually engaging middle-level learning environments to scale.

Keywords: developmentally responsive learning environments, early adolescents, middle level learning, middle years, instructional leadership, instructional practices, intellectually engaging learning environments, leadership dimensions, student agency

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5126 A Review of Machine Learning for Big Data

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, Aravindraj D., Sadathulla A.

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Big data are now rapidly expanding in all engineering and science and many other domains. The potential of large or massive data is undoubtedly significant, make sense to require new ways of thinking and learning techniques to address the various big data challenges. Machine learning is continuously unleashing its power in a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest advances and advancements in the researches on machine learning for big data processing. First, the machine learning techniques methods in recent studies, such as deep learning, representation learning, transfer learning, active learning and distributed and parallel learning. Then focus on the challenges and possible solutions of machine learning for big data.

Keywords: active learning, big data, deep learning, machine learning

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5125 Collaborative Team Work in Higher Education: A Case Study

Authors: Swapna Bhargavi Gantasala

Abstract:

If teamwork is the key to organizational learning, productivity, and growth, then, why do some teams succeed in achieving these, while others falter at different stages? Building teams in higher education institutions has been a challenge and an open-ended constructivist approach was considered on an experimental basis for this study to address this challenge. For this research, teams of students from the MBA program were chosen to study the effect of teamwork in learning, the motivation levels among student team members, and the effect of collaboration in achieving team goals. The teams were built on shared vision and goals, cohesion was ensured, positive induction in the form of faculty mentoring was provided for each participating team and the results have been presented with conclusions and suggestions.

Keywords: teamwork, leadership, motivation and reinforcement, collaboration

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5124 A Collaborative, Arts-Informed Action Research Investigation of Child-Led Assessment

Authors: Dragana Gnjatovic

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Assessment is a burning topic in education policy and practice due to measurement-driven neoliberal agendas of quality and standardisation of assessment practice through high stakes standardised testing systems that are now influencing early childhood education. This paper presents a collaborative, arts-informed action research project which places children at the centre of their learning, with assessment as an integral part of play-based learning processes. It aims to challenge traditional approaches to assessment that are often teacher-led and decontextualised from the processes of learning through exploring approaches where children's voices are central, and their creative arts expressions are used to assess learning and development. The theoretical framework draws on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Freire's critical pedagogy, which indicate the importance of socially constructed reality where knowledge is the result of collaboration between children and adults. This reality perceives children as competent agents of their own learning processes. An interpretive-constructivist and critical-transformative paradigm underpin collaborative action research in a three to five-year-old setting, where creative methods like storytelling, play, drama, drawing are used to assess children's learning. As data collection and analysis are still in process, this paper will present the methodology and some data vignettes, with the aim of stimulating discussion about innovation in assessment and contribution of the collaborative enquiry in the field of Early Childhood Education and Care.

Keywords: assessment for learning, creative methodologies, collaborative action research, early childhood education and care

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5123 Strategies for Improving Teaching and Learning in Higher Institutions: Case Study of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

Authors: Gertrude Nkechi Okenwa

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Higher institutions, especially the universities that are saddled with the responsibilities of teaching, learning, research, publications and social services for the production of graduates that are worthy in learning and character, and the creation of up-to-date knowledge and innovations for the total socio-economic and even political development of a given nation. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify the teaching, learning techniques used in the Enugu State University of Science and Technology to ensure or ascertain students’ perception on these techniques. To guide the study, survey research method was used. The population for the study was made up of second and final year students which summed up to one hundred and twenty-six students in the faculty of education. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted. A sample size of sixty (60) students was drawn for the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. To analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were used to answers the research questions. The findings revealed that direct instruction and construction techniques are used in the university. On the whole, it was observed that the students perceived constructivist techniques to be more useful and effective than direct instruction technique. Based on the findings recommendations were made to include diversification of teaching techniques among others.

Keywords: Strategies, Teaching and Learning, Constructive Technique, Direct Instructional Technique

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5122 Focusing on Effective Translation Teaching in the Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Zhi Huang

Abstract:

This study follows on from previous survey and focus group research exploring the effective teaching process in a translation classroom in Australian universities through case study method. The data analysis draws on social constructivist theory in translation teaching and focuses on teaching process aiming to discover how effective translation teachers conduct teaching in the classroom. The results suggest that effective teaching requires the teacher to have ability in four aspects: classroom management, classroom pedagogy, classroom communication, and teacher roles. Effective translation teachers are able to control the whole learning process, facilitate students in independent learning, guide students to be more critical about translation, giving both positive and negative feedback for students to reflect on their own, and being supportive, patient and encouraging to students for better classroom communication and learning outcomes. This study can be applied to other teachers in translation so that they can reflect on their own teaching in their education contexts and strive for being a more qualified translation teacher and achieving teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: case study, classroom observation, classroom teaching, effective translation teaching, teacher effectiveness

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5121 Leveraging Learning Analytics to Inform Learning Design in Higher Education

Authors: Mingming Jiang

Abstract:

This literature review aims to offer an overview of existing research on learning analytics and learning design, the alignment between the two, and how learning analytics has been leveraged to inform learning design in higher education. Current research suggests a need to create more alignment and integration between learning analytics and learning design in order to not only ground learning analytics on learning sciences but also enable data-driven decisions in learning design to improve learning outcomes. In addition, multiple conceptual frameworks have been proposed to enhance the synergy and alignment between learning analytics and learning design. Future research should explore this synergy further in the unique context of higher education, identifying learning analytics metrics in higher education that can offer insight into learning processes, evaluating the effect of learning analytics outcomes on learning design decision-making in higher education, and designing learning environments in higher education that make the capturing and deployment of learning analytics outcomes more efficient.

Keywords: learning analytics, learning design, big data in higher education, online learning environments

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5120 Model Canvas and Process for Educational Game Design in Outcome-Based Education

Authors: Ratima Damkham, Natasha Dejdumrong, Priyakorn Pusawiro

Abstract:

This paper explored the solution in game design to help game designers in the educational game designing using digital educational game model canvas (DEGMC) and digital educational game form (DEGF) based on Outcome-based Education program. DEGMC and DEGF can help designers develop an overview of the game while designing and planning their own game. The way to clearly assess players’ ability from learning outcomes and support their game learning design is by using the tools. Designers can balance educational content and entertainment in designing a game by using the strategies of the Business Model Canvas and design the gameplay and players’ ability assessment from learning outcomes they need by referring to the Constructive Alignment. Furthermore, they can use their design plan in this research to write their Game Design Document (GDD). The success of the research was evaluated by four experts’ perspectives in the education and computer field. From the experiments, the canvas and form helped the game designers model their game according to the learning outcomes and analysis of their own game elements. This method can be a path to research an educational game design in the future.

Keywords: constructive alignment, constructivist theory, educational game, outcome-based education

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5119 Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Funded Project: A Case Study of Problem-Based Learning

Authors: Nirit Raichel, Dorit Alt

Abstract:

Although university teaching is claimed to have a special task to support students in adopting ways of thinking and producing new knowledge anchored in scientific inquiry practices, it is argued that students' habits of learning are still overwhelmingly skewed toward passive acquisition of knowledge from authority sources rather than from collaborative inquiry activities. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium is aimed at developing updated instructional practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies based on the constructivist approach for learning, arranged along Delors’ four theoretical ‘pillars’ of education: Learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. This presentation will be limited to problem-based learning (PBL), as a strategy introduced in the second pillar. PBL leads not only to the acquisition of technical skills, but also allows the development of skills like problem analysis and solving, critical thinking, cooperation and teamwork, decision- making and self-regulation that can be transferred to other contexts. This educational strategy will be exemplified by a case study conducted in the pre-piloting stage of the project. The case describes a three-fold process implemented in a postgraduate course for in-service teachers, including: (1) learning about PBL (2) implementing PBL in the participants' classes, and (3) qualitatively assessing the contributions of PBL to students' outcomes. An example will be given regarding the ways by which PBL was applied and assessed in civic education for high-school students. Two 9th-grade classes have participated the study; both included several students with learning disability. PBL was applied only in one class whereas traditional instruction was used in the other. Results showed a robust contribution of PBL to students' affective and cognitive outcomes as reflected in their motivation to engage in learning activities, and to further explore the subject. However, students with learning disability were less favorable with this "active" and "annoying" environment. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project will be discussed.

Keywords: problem-based learning, higher education, pedagogical strategies

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5118 Transitioning Teacher Identity during COVID-19: An Australian Early Childhood Education Perspective

Authors: J. Jebunnesa, Y. Budd, T. Mason

Abstract:

COVID-19 changed the pedagogical expectations of early childhood education as many teachers across Australia had to quickly adapt to new teaching practices such as remote teaching. An important factor in the successful implementation of any new teaching and learning approach is teacher preparation, however, due to the pandemic, the transformation to remote teaching was immediate. A timely question to be asked is how early childhood teachers managed the transition from face-to-face teaching to remote teaching and what was learned through this time. This study explores the experiences of early childhood educators in Australia during COVID-19 lockdowns. Data were collected from an online survey conducted through the official Facebook forum of “Early Childhood Education and Care Australia,” and a constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the data. Initial research results suggest changing expectations of teachers’ roles and responsibilities during the lockdown, with a significant category related to transitioning teacher identities emerging. The concept of transitioning represents the shift from the role of early childhood educator to educational innovator, essential worker, social worker, and health officer. The findings illustrate the complexity of early childhood educators’ roles during the pandemic.

Keywords: changing role of teachers, constructivist grounded theory, lessons learned, teaching during COVID-19

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5117 Introducing the Digital Backpack: Looking at Ivory Coast

Authors: Eunice H. Li

Abstract:

This e-Poster presents how the ‘digital backpack’ was introduced to primary school children in Ivory Coast. The idea of a ‘digital backpack’ was initiated by Mr. Thierry N’Doufou in 2012, who later designed and presented to the rest of the world in September 2014. The motivation behind the backpack was to relieve children of the heavy-weight they carry in their school backpacks. Another motivation was to promote Ivory Coast as a country where all children are brought into the digital era. Thierry N’Doufou regards education as the means by which his nation and the entire African Continent can be developed as a prosperous territory. The ‘digital backpack’ contains the entire curriculum for each class and favours a constructivist approach to learning. The children’s notes and exercises are also included in the pack. Additionally, teachers and parents are able to monitor remotely children’s activities while they are working with the ‘backpack’. Teachers are also able to issue homework, assess student’s progress and manage the student’s coursework. This means that teachers should always think the most appropriate pedagogies that can be used to help children to learn. Furthermore, teachers, parents and fellow students are able to have conversations and discussions by using web portals. It is also possible to access more apps if children would like to have additional learning activities. From the presentation in the e-Poster, it seems reasonable to conclude that the ‘digital backpack’ has potential to reach other-level of education. In this way, all will be able to benefit from this new invention.

Keywords: pedagogy, curriculum, constructivism, social constructivism, distance learning environment, ubiquitous learning environment

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5116 Encouraging Teachers to be Reflective: Advantages, Obstacles and Limitations

Authors: Fazilet Alachaher

Abstract:

Within the constructivist perspective of teaching, which views skilled teaching as knowing what to do in uncertain and unpredictable situations, this research essay explores the topic of reflective teaching by investigating the following questions: (1) What is reflective teaching and why is it important? (2) Why should teachers be trained to be reflective and how can they be prepared to be reflective? (3) What is the role of the teaching context in teachers’ attempts to be reflective? This paper suggests that reflective teaching is important because of the various potential benefits to teaching. Through reflection, teachers can maintain their voices and creativeness thus have authority to affect students, curriculum and school policies. The discussions also highlight the need to prepare student teachers and their professional counterparts to be reflective, so they can develop the characteristics of reflective teaching and gain the potential benefits of reflection. This can be achieved by adopting models and techniques that are based on constructivist pedagogical approaches. The paper also suggests that maintaining teachers’ attempts to be reflective in a workplace context and aligning practice with pre-service teacher education programs require the administrators or the policy makers to provide the following: sufficient time for teachers to reflect and work collaboratively to discuss challenges encountered in teaching, fewer non-classroom duties, regular in-service opportunities, more facilities and freedom in choosing suitable ways of evaluating their students’ progress and needs.

Keywords: creative teaching, reflective teaching, constructivist pedagogical approaches, teaching context, teacher’s role, curriculum and school policies, teaching context effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
5115 How to Guide Students from Surface to Deep Learning: Applied Philosophy in Management Education

Authors: Lihong Wu, Raymond Young

Abstract:

The ability to learn is one of the most critical skills in the information age. However, many students do not have a clear understanding of what learning is, what they are learning, and why they are learning. Many students study simply to pass rather than to learn something useful for their career and their life. They have a misconception about learning and a wrong attitude towards learning. This research explores student attitudes to study in management education and explores how to intercede to lead students from shallow to deeper modes of learning.

Keywords: knowledge, surface learning, deep learning, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 91