Search results for: thermal conductivity
3822 The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile
Authors: V. Lukášová, P. Peukert, V. Votrubec
Abstract:Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.
Keywords: pultrusion profile, volume fraction, thermal conductivity, numerical simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 275
3821 Comparing the Experimental Thermal Conductivity Results Using Transient Methods
Authors: Sofia Mylona, Dale Hume
Abstract:The main scope of this work is to compare the experimental thermal conductivity results of fluids between devices using transient techniques. A range of different liquids within a range of viscosities was measured with two or more devices, and the results were compared between the different methods and the reference equations wherever it was available. The liquids selected are the most commonly used in academic or industrial laboratories to calibrate their thermal conductivity instruments having a variety of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density. Three transient methods (Transient Hot Wire, Transient Plane Source, and Transient Line Source) were compared for the thermal conductivity measurements taken by using them. These methods have been chosen as the most accurate and because they all follow the same idea; as a function of the logarithm of time, the thermal conductivity is calculated from the slope of a plot of sensor temperature rise. For all measurements, the selected temperature range was at the atmospheric level from 10 to 40 ° C. Our results are coming with an agreement with the objections of several scientists over the reliability of the results of a few popular devices. The observation was surprising that the device used in many laboratories for fast measurements of liquid thermal conductivity display deviations of 500 percent which can be very poorly reproduced.
Keywords: accurate data, liquids, thermal conductivity, transient methods.Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3820 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate
Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song
Abstract:Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.
Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panelProcedia PDF Downloads 342
3819 Thermal, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of Soil Building Blocks Reinforced with Cement
Authors: Abdelmalek Ammari
Abstract:This paper represents an experimental study to determine the effect between thermal conductivity of Compressed Earth Block Stabilized (CEBs) by cement and the mineralogical and chemical analyses of soil, all the samples of CEB in the dry state and with different content of cement, the samples made by soil stabilized by Portland Cement. The soil used collected from fez city in Morocco. That determination of the thermal conductivity of CEBs plays an important role when considering its suitability for energy saving insulation. The measurement technique used to determine thermal conductivity is called hot ring method, the thermal conductivity of the tested samples is strongly affected by the quantity of the cement added. The soil of Fez, mainly composed of calcite, quartz, and dolomite, improved the behaviour of the material by the addition of cement. The findings suggest that to manufacture lightweight samples with high thermal insulation properties, it is advisable to use clays that contain quartz. . In addition, quartz has high thermal conductivity.
Keywords: compressed earth blocks, thermal conductivity, mineralogical, chemical, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 87
3818 Three-Dimensional Generalized Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity
Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Mowffaq Oreijah, Hunaydi S. Alsharif
Abstract:In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time and variable thermal conductivity has been constructed. The resulting non-dimensional governing equations together with the Laplace and double Fourier transforms techniques have been applied to a three-dimensional half-space subjected to thermal loading with rectangular pulse and traction free in the directions of the principle co-ordinates. The inverses of double Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms have been obtained numerically. Numerical results for the temperature increment, the invariant stress, the invariant strain, and the displacement are represented graphically. The variability of the thermal conductivity has significant effects on the thermal and the mechanical waves.
Keywords: thermoelasticity, thermal conductivity, Laplace transforms, Fourier transformsProcedia PDF Downloads 123
3817 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time
Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi
Abstract:GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 80
3816 Effect of Particles Size and Volume Fraction Concentration on the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Al2O3 Nanofluids Measured Using Transient Hot–Wire Laser Beam Deflection Technique
Authors: W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, Faris Mohammed Ali, Zainal Abidin Talib
Abstract:In this study we present new data for the thermal conductivity enhancement in four nanofluids containing 11, 25, 50, 63 nm diameter aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles in distilled water. The nanofluids were prepared using single step method (i.e. by dispersing nanoparticle directly in base fluid) which was gathered in ultrasonic device for approximately 7 hours. The transient hot-wire laser beam displacement technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the prepared nanofluids. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the numerical data simulated for aluminum oxide in distilled water. The results show that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids increases in non-linear behavior as the particle size increases. While, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids was observed increasing linearly with concentration as the volume fraction concentration increases. We believe that the interfacial layer between solid/fluid is the main factor for the enhancement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids in the present work.
Keywords: transient hot wire-laser beam technique, Al2O3 nanofluid, particle size, volume fraction concentrationProcedia PDF Downloads 471
3815 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers
Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou
Abstract:Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.
Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 314
3814 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach
Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid
Abstract:The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.
Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference materialProcedia PDF Downloads 73
3813 Annular Hyperbolic Profile Fins with Variable Thermal Conductivity Using Laplace Adomian Transform and Double Decomposition Methods
Authors: Yinwei Lin, Cha'o-Kuang Chen
Abstract:In this article, the Laplace Adomian transform method (LADM) and double decomposition method (DDM) are used to solve the annular hyperbolic profile fins with variable thermal conductivity. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, the numerical solution using DDM become incorrect. Moreover, when the terms of DDM are more than seven, the numerical solution using DDM is very complicated. However, the present method can be easily calculated as terms are over seven and has more precisely numerical solutions. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, LADM also has better accuracy than DDM.
Keywords: fins, thermal conductivity, Laplace transform, Adomian, nonlinearProcedia PDF Downloads 271
3812 Stagnation Point Flow Over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Slip Conditions
Authors: M. Y. Malik, Farzana Khan
Abstract:In this article, we discuss the behavior of viscous fluid near stagnation point over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. The effects of slip conditions are also encountered. Thermal conductivity is considered as a linear function of temperature. By using homotopy analysis method and Fehlberg method we compare the graphical results for both momentum and energy equations. The effect of different parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically.
Keywords: slip conditions, stretching cylinder, heat generation/absorption, stagnation point flow, variable thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 362
3811 An Attempt to Improve Student´s Understanding on Thermal Conductivity Using Thermal Cameras
Authors: Mariana Faria Brito Francisquini
Abstract:Many thermal phenomena are present and play a substantial role in our daily lives. This presence makes the study of this area at both High School and University levels a very widely explored topic in the literature. However, a lot of important concepts to a meaningful understanding of the world are neglected at the expense of a traditional approach with senseless algebraic problems. In this work, we intend to show how the introduction of new technologies in the classroom, namely thermal cameras, can work in our favor to make a clearer understanding of many of these concepts, such as thermal conductivity. The use of thermal cameras in the classroom tends to diminish the everlasting abstractness in thermal phenomena as they enable us to visualize something that happens right before our eyes, yet we cannot see it. In our study, we will provide the same amount of heat to metallic cylindrical rods of the same length, but different materials in order to study the thermal conductivity of each one. In this sense, the thermal camera allows us to visualize the increase in temperature along each rod in real time enabling us to infer how heat is being transferred from one part of the rod to another. Therefore, we intend to show how this approach can contribute to the exposure of students to more enriching, intellectually prolific, scenarios than those provided by traditional approaches.
Keywords: teaching physics, thermal cameras, thermal conductivity, thermal physicsProcedia PDF Downloads 215
3810 Study on the Thermal Conductivity about Porous Materials in Wet State
Authors: Han Yan, Jieren Luo, Qiuhui Yan, Xiaoqing Li
Abstract:The thermal conductivity of porous materials is closely related to the thermal and moisture environment and the overall energy consumption of the building. The study of thermal conductivity of porous materials has great significance for the realization of low energy consumption building and economic construction building. Based on the study of effective thermal conductivity of porous materials at home and abroad, the thermal conductivity under a variety of different density of polystyrene board (EPS), plastic extruded board (XPS) and polyurethane (PU) and phenolic resin (PF) in wet state through theoretical analysis and experimental research has been studied. Initially, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of specimens had been discussed under different density, which led a result indicates the moisture absorption of four porous materials all have three stages, fast, stable and gentle. For the moisture desorption, there are two types. One is the existence of the rapid phase of the stage, such as XPS board, PU board. The other one does not have the fast desorption, instead, it is more stabilized, such as XPS board, PF board. Furthermore, the relationship between water content and thermal conductivity of porous materials had been studied and fitted, which figured out that in the wake of the increasing water content, the thermal conductivity of porous material is continually improving. At the same time, this result also shows, in different density, when the same kind of materials decreases, the saturated moisture content increases. Finally, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of the four kinds of materials are compared comprehensively, and it turned out that the heat preservation performance of PU board is the best, followed by EPS board, XPS board, PF board.
Keywords: porous materials, thermal conductivity, moisture content, transient hot-wire methodProcedia PDF Downloads 116
3809 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids
Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim
Abstract:In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.
Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-waterProcedia PDF Downloads 193
3808 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics
Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič
Abstract:Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.
Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firingProcedia PDF Downloads 379
3807 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up
Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia
Abstract:The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.
Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 239
3806 Mapping Thermal Properties Using Resistivity, Lithology and Thermal Conductivity Measurements
Authors: Riccardo Pasquali, Keith Harlin, Mark Muller
Abstract:The ShallowTherm project is focussed on developing and applying a methodology for extrapolating relatively sparsely sampled thermal conductivity measurements across Ireland using mapped Litho-Electrical (LE) units. The primary data used consist of electrical resistivities derived from the Geological Survey Ireland Tellus airborne electromagnetic dataset, GIS-based maps of Irish geology, and rock thermal conductivities derived from both the current Irish Ground Thermal Properties (IGTP) database and a new programme of sampling and laboratory measurement. The workflow has been developed across three case-study areas that sample a range of different calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, and volcanic lithologies. Statistical analysis of resistivity data from individual geological formations has been assessed and integrated with detailed lithological descriptions to define distinct LE units. Thermal conductivity measurements from core and hand samples have been acquired for every geological formation within each study area. The variability and consistency of thermal conductivity measurements within each LE unit is examined with the aim of defining a characteristic thermal conductivity (or range of thermal conductivities) for each LE unit. Mapping of LE units, coupled with characteristic thermal conductivities, provides a method of defining thermal conductivity properties at a regional scale and facilitating the design of ground source heat pump closed-loop collectors.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, ground source heat pumps, resistivity, heat exchange, shallow geothermal, IrelandProcedia PDF Downloads 87
3805 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect
Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi
Abstract:An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.
Keywords: building insulation material, moisture content, operating temperature, thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 254
3804 Effect of Surfactant on Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Glycol/Silver Nanofluid
Authors: E. C. Muhammed Irshad
Abstract:Nanofluids are a new class of solid-liquid colloidal mixture consisting of nanometer sized (< 100nm) solid particles suspended in heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene/propylene glycol etc. Nanofluids offer excellent scope of enhancing thermal conductivity of common heat transfer fluids and it leads to enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study, silver nanoparticles are dispersed in ethylene glycol water mixture. Low volume concentrations (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%) of silver nanofluids were synthesized. The thermal conductivity of these nanofluids was determined with thermal property analyzer (KD2 pro apparatus) and heat transfer coefficient was found experimentally. Initially, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids were calculated with various correlations at different concentrations and were compared. Thermal conductivity of silver nanofluid at 0.02% and 0.1% concentration of silver nanoparticle increased to 23.3% and 27.7% for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and to 33.6% and 36.7% for Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. The nanofluid maintains the stability for two days and it starts to settle down due to high density of silver. But it shows good improvement in the thermal conductivity for low volume concentration and it also shows better improvement with Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant than Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS).
Keywords: k-thermal conductivity, sodium dodecyl sulfate, vinyl pyrrolidone, mechatronics engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 238
3803 Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of a Hybrid Nanofluid
Authors: Aminreza Noghrehabadi, Mohammad Behbahani, Ali Pourabbasi
Abstract:In this experimental work, unlike conventional methods that mix two nanoparticles together, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized on the surface of graphene. In this research, the effect of adding modified graphene nanocomposite-silver nanoparticles to the base fluid (distilled water) was studied. Different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) techniques have been used to examine the surfaces and atomic structure of nanoparticles. An ultrasonic device has been used to disperse the nanocomposite in distilled water. Also, the thermal conductivity coefficient was measured by the transient hot wire method using the KD2-pro device. In addition, the thermal conductivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range of 30°C to 50°C, concentration of 10 ppm to 1000 ppm, and ultrasonic time of 2 minutes to 15 minutes. The results showed that with the increase of all three parameters of temperature, concentration and ultrasonic time, the percentage of increase in thermal conductivity will go up until reaching the optimal point, and after passing the optimal point, the percentage of increase in thermal conductivity will have a downward trend. To calculate the thermal conductivity of this nanofluid, a very accurate experimental equation has been obtained using Design Expert software.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, nanofluids, enhancement, silver nano particle, optimal pointProcedia PDF Downloads 11
3802 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability
Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk
Abstract:In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.
Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 238
3801 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant
Authors: Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Sébastien Poncet, Saïd Elkoun
Abstract:The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.
Keywords: nanofluid, thermal conductivity, pH, transient hot wire, surfactant, Al2O3, stability, dispersion, preparationProcedia PDF Downloads 283
3800 The Influence of Water and Salt Crystals Content on Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Red Clay Brick
Authors: Dalia Bednarska, Marcin Koniorczyk
Abstract:This paper presents results of experiments aimed at studying hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick. The main objective of research was to investigate the relation between thermal conductivity coefficient of brick and its water or Na2SO4 solution content. The research was conducted using stationary technique for the totally dried specimens, as well as the ones 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% imbued with water or sodium sulfate solution. Additionally, a sorption isotherm test was conducted for seven relative humidity levels. Furthermore the change of red clay brick pore structure before and after imbuing with water and salt solution was investigated by multi-cycle mercury intrusion test. The experimental results confirm negative influence of water or sodium sulphate on thermal properties of material. The value of thermal conductivity coefficient increases along with growth of water or Na₂SO₄ solution content. The study shows that the presence of Na₂SO₄ solution has less negative influence on brick’s thermal conductivity coefficient than water.
Keywords: building materials, red clay brick, sodium sulfate, thermal conductivity coefficientProcedia PDF Downloads 345
3799 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee
Abstract:The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.
Keywords: copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular dynamics simulation, molecular interfacial layer, thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 273
3798 Experimental Study of the Electrical Conductivity and Thermal Conductivity Property of Micro-based Al-Cu-Nb-Mo Alloy
Abstract:Aluminum based alloys with a certain compositional blend and manufacturing method have been reported to have excellent electrical conductors. In the current investigation, metal powders of Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Niobium (Nb), and Molybdenum (Mo) were weighed in accordance with certain ratios and spread equally by combining the powder particles. The metal particles were mixed using a tube mixer for 12 hours. Before pouring into a 30mm-diameter graphite mold, pre-pressed, and placed into an SPS furnace, the thermal conductivity of the mixed metal powders was evaluated using a portable Thermtest device. Axial pressure of 50 MPa was used at a heating rate of 50 oC/min, and a multi-stage heating procedure with a holding period of 10 min. was used to sinter at temperatures between 300 oC and 480 oC. After being cooled to room temperature, the specimens were unmolded to produce the aluminum, copper, niobium, and molybdenum alloy material. The HPS 2662 Precision Four-point Probe Meter was used to determine the electrical resistivity and the values used to calculate the electrical conductivity of the sintered alloy samples. Finally, the alloy with the highest electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity qualities was the one with the following composition: Al 93.5Cu4Nb1.5Mo1. It also had a density of 3.23 g/cm3. It could be advisable for usage in automobile radiator and electric transmission line components.
Keywords: Al-Cu-Nb-Mo, electrical conductivity, alloy, sintering, thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 9
3797 Effects of Aging on Thermal Properties of Some Improved Varieties of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Roots
Authors: K. O. Oriola, A. O. Raji, O. E. Akintola, O. T. Ismail
Abstract:Thermal properties of roots of three improved cassava varieties (TME419, TMS 30572, and TMS 0326) were determined on samples harvested at 12, 15 and 18 Months After Planting (MAP) conditioned to moisture contents of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70% (wb). Thermal conductivity at 12, 15 and 18 MAP ranged 0.4770 W/m.K to 0.6052W/m.K; 0.4804 W/m.K to 0.5530 W/m.K and 0.3764 to 0.6102 W/m.K respectively, thermal diffusivity from 1.588 to 2.426 x 10-7m2/s; 1.290 to 2.010 x 10-7m2/s and 0.1692 to 4.464 x 10-7m2/s and specific heat capacity from 2.3626 to 3.8991 kJ/kg.K; 1.8110 to 3.9703 kJ/kgK and 1.7311 to 3.8830 kJ/kg.K respectively within the range of moisture content studied across the varieties. None of the samples over the ages studied showed similar or definite trend in variation with others across the moisture content. However, second order polynomial models fitted all the data. Age on the other hand had a significant effect on the three thermal properties studied for TME 419 but not on thermal conductivity of TMS30572 and specific heat capacity of TMS 0326. Information obtained will provide better insight into thermal processing of cassava roots into stable products.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, moisture content, tuber ageProcedia PDF Downloads 446
3796 Effect of Temperature and CuO Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of a Phase Change Material
Authors: V. Bastian Aguila, C. Diego Vasco, P. Paula Galvez, R. Paula Zapata
Abstract:The main results of an experimental study of the effect of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on thermal conductivity and viscosity of a nanofluid are shown. The nanofluid was made by using octadecane as a base fluid and CuO spherical nanoparticles of 75 nm (MkNano). Since the base fluid is a phase change material (PCM) to be used in thermal storage applications, the engineered nanofluid is referred as nanoPCM. Three nanoPCM were prepared through the two-step method (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%wv). In order to increase the stability of the nanoPCM, the surface of the CuO nanoparticles was modified with sodium oleate, and it was verified by IR analysis. The modified CuO nanoparticles were dispersed by using an ultrasonic horn (Hielscher UP50H) during one hour (amplitude of 180 μm at 50 W). The thermal conductivity was measured by using a thermal properties analyzer (KD2-Pro) in the temperature range of 30ºC to 40ºC. The viscosity was measured by using a Brookfield DV2T-LV viscosimeter to 30 RPM in the temperature range of 30ºC to 55ºC. The obtained results for the nanoPCM showed that thermal conductivity is almost constant in the analyzed temperature range, and the viscosity decreases non-linearly with temperature. Respect to the effect of the nanoparticle concentration, both thermal conductivity and viscosity increased with nanoparticle concentration. The thermal conductivity raised up to 9% respect to the base fluid, and the viscosity increases up to 60%, in both cases for the higher concentration. Finally, the viscosity measurements for different rotation speeds (30 RPM - 80 RPM) exhibited that the addition of nanoparticles modifies the rheological behavior of the base fluid, from a Newtonian to a viscoplastic (Bingham) or shear thinning (power-law) non-Newtonian behavior.
Keywords: NanoPCM, thermal conductivity, viscosity, non-Newtonian fluidProcedia PDF Downloads 358
3795 The Analysis of Thermal Conductivity in Porcine Meat Due to Electricity by Finite Element Method
Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak
Abstract:This research studied the analysis of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer in porcine meat due to the electric current flowing between the electrode plates in parallel. Hot-boned pork sample was prepared in 2*1*1 cubic centimeter. The finite element method with ANSYS workbench program was applied to simulate this heat transfer problem. In the thermal simulation, the input thermoelectric energy was calculated from measured current that flowing through the pork and the input voltage from the dc voltage source. The comparison of heat transfer in pork according to two voltage sources: DC voltage 30 volts and dc pulsed voltage 60 volts (pulse width 50 milliseconds and 50 % duty cycle) were demonstrated. From the result, it shown that the thermal conductivity trends to be steady at temperature 40C and 60C around 1.39 W/mC and 2.65 W/mC for dc voltage source 30 volts and dc pulsed voltage 60 volts, respectively. For temperature increased to 50C at 5 minutes, the appearance color of porcine meat at the exposer point has become to fade. This technique could be used for predicting of thermal conductivity caused by some meat’s characteristics.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, porcine meat, electricity, finite element methodProcedia PDF Downloads 77
3794 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Silica Aerogel
Authors: Amal Maazoun, Abderrazak Mezghani, Ali Ben Moussa
Abstract:Aerogel consists of a ramified and inter-connected solid skeleton enclosing a very important number of nano-sized pores filled with air that occupies most of the volume and makes very low density. The thermal conductivity of this material can reach lower values than those of any other material, and it changes with the type of the aerogel and its composition. So, in order to explain the causes of the super-insulation of our material and to determine the factors in which depends on its conductivity we used a numerical simulation. We have developed a numerical code that generates random fractal structure of silica aerogel with pre-defined concentration, properties of the backbone and the gas in the pores as well as the size of the particles. The calculation of the conductivity at any point of domain shows that it is not constant and that it depends on the pore size and the location in the pore. A numerical method based on resolution by inversion of block tridiagonal matrices is used to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity of the whole fractal structure. The average conductivity calculated for each concentration is in good agreement with those of typical aerogels. And we found that the equivalent thermal conductivity of a silica aerogel depends strongly not only on the porosity but also on the tortuosity of the solid backbone.
Keywords: aerogel, fractal structure, numerical study, porous media, thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 221
3793 Thermoelectrical Properties of Cs Doped BiCuSeO as Promising Oxide Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Converter
Authors: Abdenour Achour, Kan Chen, Mike Reece, Zhaorong Huang
Abstract:Here we report the synthesis of pure and cost effective of BiCuSeO by a flux method in air, and the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance by Cs doping. The comparison between our synthesis and the usual vacuum furnace method has been studied for the pristine oxyselenides BiCuSeO. We report for very high Seebeck coefficients up to 516 μV K⁻¹ at room temperature with the electrical conductivity of 5.20 S cm⁻¹ which lead to a high power factor of 140 µWm⁻¹K⁻². We also report at the high temperatures the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.42 µWm⁻¹K⁻¹. Upon doping with Cs, enhanced electrical conductivity coupled with a moderate Seebeck coefficient lead to a power factor of 338 µWm⁻¹K⁻² at 682 K. Moreover, it shows a very low thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300 to 682 K (0.75 to 0.35 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹). By optimizing the power factor and reducing the thermal conductivity, this results in a high ZT of ~ 0.66 at 682 K for Bi0.995Cs0.005CuSeO.
Keywords: BiCuSeO, Cs doping, thermoelectric, oxyselenideProcedia PDF Downloads 231