Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: bilingualism

67 Determining a Bilingualism Index: Evidence From Lebanese Control Bilinguals

Authors: Rania Kassir, Christophe Dos Santos, Halim Abboud, Olivier Godefroy


The ability to communicate in at least two different languages is shared by a growing number of humans. Recently, many researchers have been studying the elderly bilingual population around the world in neuroscience, and yet, until today there’s no accurate nor universal measure or methodology used to examine bilingualism across these studies which constitute a real challenge for results generalization. This study contributes to the quest of a multidimensional bilingualism index and language proficiency literature by investigating a new bilingualism index from a reliable subjective questionnaire the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q), multi-linguistic tests, and a diverse bilingual population all featured in one analysis and one index. One hundred Lebanese subjects aged between 55 and 92 years old divided into three different bilingualism subgroups (Arabic prominent, balanced, and French prominent) were recruited and underwent the LEAP-Q with a set of linguistic and cognitive tests. The analysis of the collected data led to the creation of a robust bilingualism index from speaking and oral understanding scores that underline specifically bilingualism subtype according to cutoffs scored. The practice implications of this index, particularly its use within bilingual populations, are addressed in the conclusion of this work.

Keywords: bilingualism, language dominance, bilingualism index, balanced bilingualism, Arabic first language, Lebanese, Arabic-French bilingualism

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66 Attitudes towards Bilingualism: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Patricia W. Ngassa


Language attitude is an area arousing the interest of linguists who are continuously discovering new methods of detecting attitudes. This paper problematizes Cameroonians’ alleged tendency of neglecting home languages and considering Bilingualism in borrowed languages as more important. 30 questionnaires were used to know attitudes of parents towards bilingualism and our home languages. Results revealed that our borrowed official languages are considered more important than home languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, mother tongue, Cameroon, official language

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65 Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Authors: S. Tarighat, F. Shateri


This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.

Keywords: bilingualism, foreign language learning, l2 acquisition, willingness to communicate

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64 The Diglossia and the Bilingualism: Concept, Problems, and Solutions

Authors: Abdou Mahmoud Abdou Hussein


We attempt, in this paper, to spot the light on the difference between the two concepts (diglossia and bilingualism). Thus, we will show the definition of these two concepts among various perspectives. On the other hand, we will emphasize and highlight 'diglossa' in The Arabic language historically. Furthermore, we will illustrate the factors of the diglossia, the impact of diglossia on the learners of Arabic (native and non native speakers) and finally the suggested solutions for this issue.

Keywords: Arabic linguistics, diglossia, bilingualism, native and non-native speakers

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63 The Phenomenon: Harmonious Bilingualism in America

Authors: Irdawati Bay Nalls


This study looked at Bilingual First Language Acquisition (BFLA) Spanish-English Mexican Americans across an elementary public school in the United States and the possibility of maintaining harmonious bilingualism. Adopting a phenomenological approach, with a focus on the status of bilingualism in education within a marginalized community, classroom observations, and small group and one-on-one interviews were conducted. This study explored the struggles of these bilinguals as they acculturated in America through their attempt to blend heritage and societal languages and cultural practices. Results revealed that bilinguals as young as 5 years old expressed their need to retain Spanish as a heritage language while learning English. 12 years old foresee that Spanish will not be taught to them in schools and highlighted the need to learn Spanish outside the school environments. Their voices revealed counter-narratives on identity and the need to maintain harmonious bilingualism as these students strived to give equal importance to the learning of English and Spanish as first languages despite the setbacks faced.

Keywords: BFLA, Mexican-American, bilingual, harmonious bilingualism

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62 (Re)Calibrating Language Capital among Malay Youths in Singapore

Authors: Mukhlis Abu Bakar


Certain languages are held in higher regard than others given their respective socio-economic and political value, perceived or real. The different positioning of languages manifests in a state’s language-in-education policy, such as Singapore’s which places a premium on English in relation to the mother tongue (MT) languages (Mandarin Chinese, Malay, and Tamil). Among the latter, Mandarin Chinese, as the language of the majority ethnic group, has a more privileged status. The relative positioning of the four official languages shapes Singaporeans’ attitude towards their bilingualism. This paper offers an overview of the attitudes towards English-Malay (EM) bilingualism among Malay youths in Singapore, those who are in school and those already working. It examines how 200 respondents perceive the benefits of their EM bilingualism and their EM bilingual identity. The sample is stratified along gender, socio-economic status, dominant home language and self-rated language proficiency. The online survey comprises questions on the cognitive, communicative, pragmatic and religious benefits of bilingualism, and on language identity. The paper highlight significant trends relating to respondents' positive attitudes towards their EM bilingualism and their bilingual identity. Positive ratings are lowest among young working adults. EM bilinguals also perceive their bilingualism as less useful than English-Chinese bilingualism. These findings are framed within Bourdieu’s metaphor of field and habitus in order to understand why Malay youths make their language choices and why they recalibrate their linguistic capital upon entering the workforce, and in so doing understand the impact a state’s language-in-education policy has on its citizens’ attitude towards their respective English-MT bilingualism.

Keywords: English-Malay bilingualism, language attitude, language identity, recalibrating capital

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61 Grammatical Interference in Russian-Spanish Bilingualism

Authors: Olga A. Gnatyuk


The article is devoted to the phenomenon of interference that occurs in the case of the Russian-Spanish language contact. The questions of the definition of the term and levels, as well as prerequisites of interference occurrence, are considered. Interference, which is an essential part of bilingualism, may become apparent at different linguistic levels. Interference is especially evident in oral speech. The article reviews some examples of grammatical interference in Russian-Spanish bilingualism of Russian immigrants living in Spain. According to the results of the research, some cases of mother-tongue interference in Russian-Speaking Spanish language learners’ speech were revealed. Special attention is paid to such key spheres of grammatical interference as articles, personal pronouns, gender, and number of nouns. In the research, the drop of a link-verb, as well as its usage in some incorrect form, are observed in Russian immigrants’ speech. Conclusions are drawn that in the Spanish language, interference errors appear because of a consequence of both the absence in the Russian language of certain phenomena and categories of the Spanish language and the discrepancy of the linguistic systems of the two languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, interference, grammatical interference, Russian language, Spanish language

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60 Beliefs, Practices and Identity about Bilingualism: Korean-australian Immigrant Parents and Family Language Policies

Authors: Eun Kyong Park


This study explores the relationships between immigrant parents’ beliefs about bilingualism, family literacy practices, and their children’s identity development in Sydney, Australia. This project examines how these parents’ ideological beliefs and knowledge are related to their provision of family literacy practices and management of the environment for their bilingual children based on family language policy (FLP). This is a follow-up study of the author’s prior thesis that presented Korean immigrant mothers’ beliefs and decision-making in support of their children’s bilingualism. It includes fathers’ perspectives within the participating families as a whole by foregrounding their perceptions of bilingual and identity development. It adopts a qualitative approach with twelve immigrant mothers and fathers living in a Korean-Australian community whose child attends one of the communities Korean language programs. This time, it includes introspective and self-evocative auto-ethnographic data. The initial data set collected from the first part of this study demonstrated the mothers provided rich, diverse, and specific family literacy activities for their children. These mothers selected specific practices to facilitate their child’s bilingual development at home. The second part of data has been collected over a three month period: 1) a focus group interview with mothers; 2) a brief self-report of fathers; 3) the researcher’s reflective diary. To analyze these multiple data, thematic analysis and coding were used to reveal the parents’ ideologies surrounding bilingualism and bilingual identities. It will highlight the complexity of language and literacy practices in the family domain interrelated with sociocultural factors. This project makes an original contribution to the field of bilingualism and FLP and a methodological contribution by introducing auto-ethnographic input of this community’s lived practices. This project will empower Korean-Australian immigrant families and other multilingual communities to reflect their beliefs and practices for their emerging bilingual children. It will also enable educators and policymakers to access authentic information about how bilingualism is practiced within these immigrant families in multiple ways and to help build the culturally appropriate partnership between home and school community.

Keywords: bilingualism, beliefs, identity, family language policy, Korean immigrant parents in Australia

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59 2L1, a Bridge between L1 and L2

Authors: Elena Ginghina


There are two major categories of language acquisition: first and second language acquisition, which distinguish themselves in their learning process and in their ultimate attainment. However, in the case of a bilingual child, one of the languages he grows up with receives gradually the features of a second language. This phenomenon characterizes the successive first language acquisition, when the initial state of the child is already marked by another language. Nevertheless, the dominance of the languages can change throughout the life, if the exposure to language and the quality of the input are better in 2L1. Related to the exposure to language and the quality of the input, there are cases even at the simultaneous bilingualism, where the two languages although learned from birth one, differ from one another at some point. This paper aims to see, what makes a 2L1 to become a second language and under what circumstances can a L2 learner reach a native or a near native speaker level.

Keywords: bilingualism, first language acquisition, native speakers of German, second language acquisition

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58 Case Study: The Impact of Creative Play on Children's Bilingualism

Authors: Mingxi Xiao


This case study focused on a bilingual child named Emma and her play. Emma was a four-year-old girl born in Australia while her parents were both Chinese. Emma could speak fluent English, while her Mandarin was not as good as her spoken English. With the research question to figure out whether creative play had an impact on children’s bilingualism, this case study mainly used the anecdotes method to observe Emma’s play and this report presented five observations of Emma, describing detailed information about her play and recording her language use. Based on Emma’s interests and daily activities, this case study chose her creative play for observation, which incorporates a whole range of activities from dancing to drawing, as well as playing instruments. From the five observations, it could be seen that Emma often mixed languages to help her express her meaning. It could be seen that Emma made an effort to use her bilingualism in her creative play. In other words, play encouraged Emma to use the two languages. In conclusion, the observations with Emma showed that although her Mandarin was not good enough, she displayed confidence in speaking both languages and had gradually shifted from mixing languages to code-switching. Recommendations were provided to support Emma’s bilingual abilities for further development in the end.

Keywords: bilingual, case study, code-switching, creative play, early childhood

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57 Cameroon’s State Bilingualism: Mending Fences between Linguistic Communities

Authors: Charles Esambe Alobwede


From the time of the biblical story of the Tower of Babel, languages as well as people have learnt to co-exist. It is obvious that when languages co-exist, there is the inevitable tendency of linguistic influence. This is because a language can either be a unifying factor or a factor of division within a given community, especially in a multicultural and multi-linguistic community where such a situation has led to socio-political and economic tension. Thus, leaders of such communities have a duty to plan and implement a language policy that will meet the needs of all members of the community in order to enhance its corporateness. The present article will focus on some of the major reasons that prompted the government of Cameroon to embark on an official bilingual policy after independence in 1961 and then evaluate the evolution of the linguistic situation. The article will equally look at the consequences, especially on a socio-political platform and what today has been termed 'the Anglophone problem' in Cameroon which has caused a fuse between the country’s minority Anglophone population and the majority Francophone administration. Data for the present article is collected from literature on the state of official bilingualism in Cameroon, newspapers articles on the prevailing situation in the country and interviews with actors on the field.

Keywords: language policy, linguistic influence, multicultural, official bilingualism, socio-political tension

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56 Bilingualism: A Case Study of Assamese and Bodo Classifiers

Authors: Samhita Bharadwaj


This is an empirical study of classifiers in Assamese and Bodo, two genetically unrelated languages of India. The objective of the paper is to address the language contact between Assamese and Bodo as reflected in classifiers. The data has been collected through fieldwork in Bodo recording narratives and folk tales and eliciting specific data from the speakers. The data for Assamese is self-produced as native speaker of the language. Assamese is the easternmost New-Indo-Aryan (henceforth NIA) language mainly spoken in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam and some other north-eastern states of India. It is the lingua franca of Assam and is creolised in the neighbouring state of Nagaland. Bodo, on the other hand, is a Tibeto-Burman (henceforth TB) language of the Bodo-Garo group. It has the highest number of speakers among the TB languages of Assam. However, compared to Assamese, it is still a lesser documented language and due to the prestige of Assamese, all the Bodo speakers are fluent bi-lingual in Assamese, though the opposite isn’t the case. With this context, classifiers, a characteristic phenomenon of TB languages, but not so much of NIA languages, presents an interesting case study on language contact caused by bilingualism. Assamese, as a result of its language contact with the TB languages which are rich in classifiers; has developed the richest classifier system among the IA languages in India. Yet, as a part of rampant borrowing of Assamese words and patterns into Bodo; Bodo is seen to borrow even Assamese classifiers into its system. This paper analyses the borrowed classifiers of Bodo and finds the route of this borrowing phenomenon in the number system of the languages. As the Bodo speakers start replacing the higher numbers from five with Assamese ones, they also choose the Assamese classifiers to attach to these numbers. Thus, the partial loss of number in Bodo as a result of language contact and bilingualism in Assamese is found to be the reason behind the borrowing of classifiers in Bodo. The significance of the study lies in exploring an interesting aspect of language contact in Assam. It is hoped that this will attract further research on bilingualism and classifiers in Assam.

Keywords: Assamese, bi-lingual, Bodo, borrowing, classifier, language contact

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55 Reciprocal Interferences in Bilingual English-Igbo Speaking Society: The Implications in Language Pedagogy

Authors: Ugwu Elias Ikechukwu


Discussions on bilingualism have always dwelt on how the mother tongue interferes with the target language. This interference is considered a serious problem in second language learning. Usually, the interference has been phonological. But the objective of this research is to explore how the target language interferes with the mother tongue. In the case of the Igbo language, it interferes with English mostly at the phonological level while English interferes with Igbo at the realm of vocabulary. The result is a new language \"Engligbo\" which is a hybrid of English and Igbo. The Igbo language spoken by about 25 million people is one of the three most prominent languages in Nigeria. This paper discusses the phenomenal Engligbo, and other implications for Igbo learners of English. The method of analysis is descriptive. A number of recommendations were made that would help teachers handle problems arising from such mutual interferences.

Keywords: reciprocal interferences, bilingualism, implications, language pedagogy

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54 Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual: The Effect of Language Learning on the Working Memory in Emerging Miao-Mandarin Juveniles in Rural Regions of China

Authors: Peien Ma


Bilingual effect/advantage theorized the positive effect of being bilingual on general cognitive abilities, but it was unknown which factors tend to modulate these bilingualism effects on working memory capacity. This study imposed empirical field research on a group of low-SES emerging bilinguals, Miao people, in the hill tribes of rural China to investigate whether bilingualism affected their verbal working memory performance. 20 Miao-Chinese bilinguals (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.45, SD=1.67) and 20 Chinese monolingual peers (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.6, SD=0.68) were recruited. These bilingual and monolingual juveniles, matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational status, completed a language background questionnaire and a standard forward and backward digit span test adapted from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The results showed that bilinguals earned a significantly higher overall mean score of the task, suggesting the superiority of working memory ability over the monolinguals. And bilingual cognitive benefits were independent of proficiency levels in learners’ two languages. The results suggested that bilingualism enhances working memory in sequential bilinguals from low SES backgrounds and shed light on our understanding of the bilingual advantage from a psychological and social perspective.

Keywords: bilingual effects, heritage language, Miao/Hmong language Mandarin, working memory

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53 The Assessment of Bilingual Students: How Bilingual Can It Really Be?

Authors: Serge Lacroix


The proposed study looks at the psychoeducational assessment of bilingual students, in English and French in this case. It will be the opportunity to look at language of assessment and specifically how certain tests can be administered in one language and others in another language. It is also a look into the questioning of the validity of the test scores that are obtained as well as the quality and generalizability of the conclusions that can be drawn. Bilingualism and multiculturalism, although in constant expansion, is not considered in norms development and remains a poorly understood factor when it is at play in the context of a psychoeducational assessment. Student placement, diagnoses, accurate measures of intelligence and achievement are all impacted by the quality of the assessment procedure. The same is true for questionnaires administered to parents and self-reports completed by bilingual students who, more often than not, are assessed in a language that is not their primary one or are compared to monolinguals not dealing with the same challenges or the same skills. Results show that students, when offered to work in a bilingual fashion, chooses to do so in a significant proportion. Recommendations will be offered to support educators aiming at expanding their skills when confronted with multilingual students in an assessment context.

Keywords: psychoeducational assessment, bilingualism, multiculturalism, intelligence, achievement

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52 Intercultural Initiatives and Canadian Bilingualism

Authors: Muna Shafiq


Growth in international immigration is a reflection of increased migration patterns in Canada and in other parts of the world. Canada continues to promote itself as a bilingual country, yet the bilingual French and English population numbers do not reflect this platform. Each province’s integration policies focus only on second language learning of either English or French. Moreover, since English Canadians outnumber French Canadians, maintaining, much less increasing, English-French bilingualism appears unrealistic. One solution to increasing Canadian bilingualism requires creating intercultural communication initiatives between youth in Quebec and the rest of Canada. Specifically, the focus is on active, experiential learning, where intercultural competencies develop outside traditional classroom settings. The target groups are Generation Y Millennials and Generation Z Linksters, the next generations in the career and parenthood lines. Today, Canada’s education system, like many others, must continually renegotiate lines between programs it offers its immigrant and native communities. While some purists or right-wing nationalists would disagree, the survival of bilingualism in Canada has little to do with reducing immigration. Children and youth immigrants play a valuable role in increasing Canada’s French and English speaking communities. For instance, a focus on more immersion, over core French education programs for immigrant children and youth would not only increase bilingual rates; it would develop meaningful intercultural attachments between Canadians. Moreover, a vigilant increase of funding in French immersion programs is critical, as are new initiatives that focus on experiential language learning for students in French and English language programs. A favorable argument supports the premise that other than French-speaking students in Québec and elsewhere in Canada, second and third generation immigrant students are excellent ambassadors to promote bilingualism in Canada. Most already speak another language at home and understand the value of speaking more than one language in their adopted communities. Their dialogue and participation in experiential language exchange workshops are necessary. If the proposed exchanges take place inter-provincially, the momentum to increase collective regional voices increases. This regional collectivity can unite Canadians differently than nation-targeted initiatives. The results from an experiential youth exchange organized in 2017 between students at the crossroads of Generation Y and Generation Z in Vancouver and Quebec City respectively offer a promising starting point in assessing the strength of bringing together different regional voices to promote bilingualism. Code-switching between standard, international French Vancouver students, learn in the classroom versus more regional forms of Quebec French spoken locally created regional connectivity between students. The exchange was equally rewarding for both groups. Increasing their appreciation for each other’s regional differences allowed them to contribute actively to their social and emotional development. Within a sociolinguistic frame, this proposed model of experiential learning does not focus on hands-on work experience. However, the benefits of such exchanges are as valuable as work experience initiatives developed in experiential education. Students who actively code switch between French and English in real, not simulated contexts appreciate bilingualism more meaningfully and experience its value in concrete terms.

Keywords: experiential learning, intercultural communication, social and emotional learning, sociolinguistic code-switching

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51 Early Childhood Education for Bilingual Children: A Cross-Cultural Examination

Authors: Dina C. Castro, Rossana Boyd, Eugenia Papadaki


Immigration within and across continents is currently a global reality. The number of people leaving their communities in search for a better life for them and their families has increased dramatically during the last twenty years. Therefore, young children of the 21st century around the World are growing up in diverse communities, exposed to many languages and cultures. One consequence of these migration movements is the increased linguistic diversity in school settings. Depending on the linguistic history and the status of languages in the communities (i.e., minority-majority; majority-majority) the instructional approaches will differ. This session will discuss how bilingualism is addressed in early education programs in both minority-majority and majority-majority language communities, analyzing experiences in three countries with very distinct societal and demographic characteristics: Peru (South America), the United States (North America), and Italy (European Union). The ultimate goal is to identify commonalities and differences across the three experiences that could lead to a discussion of bilingualism in early education from a global perspective. From Peru, we will discuss current national language and educational policies that have lead to the design and implementation of bilingual and intercultural education for children in indigenous communities. We will also discuss how those practices are being implemented in preschool programs, the progress made and challenges encountered. From the United States, we will discuss the early education of Spanish-English bilingual preschoolers, including the national policy environment, as well as variations in language of instruction approaches currently being used with these children. From Italy, we will describe early education practices in the Bilingual School of Monza, in northern Italy, a school that has 20 years promoting bilingualism and multilingualism in education. While the presentations from Peru and the United States will discuss bilingualism in a majority-minority language environment, this presentation will lead to a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of promoting bilingualism in a majority-majority language environment. It is evident that innovative models and policies are necessary to prevent inequality of opportunities for bilingual children beginning in their earliest years. The cross-cultural examination of bilingual education experiences for young children in three part of the World will allow us to learn from our success and challenges. The session will end with a discussion of the following question: To what extent are early care and education programs being effective in promoting positive development and learning among all children, including those from diverse language, ethnic and cultural backgrounds? We expect to identify, with participants to our session, a set of recommendations for policy and program development that could ensure access to high quality early education for all bilingual children.

Keywords: early education for bilingual children, global perspectives in early education, cross-cultural, language policies

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50 Multilingualism without a Dominant Language in the Preschool Age: A Case of Natural Italian-Russian-German-English Multilingualism

Authors: Legkikh Victoria


The purpose of keeping bi/multilingualism is usually a way to let the child speak two/three languages at the same level. The main problem which normally appears is a mixed language or a domination of one language. The same level of two or more languages would be ideal but practically not easily reachable. So it was made an experiment with a girl with a natural multilingualism as an attempt to avoid a dominant language in the preschool age. The girl lives in Germany and the main languages for her are Italian, Russian and German but she also hears every day English. ‘One parent – one language’ strategy was used since the beginning so Italian and Russian were spoken to her since her birth, English was spoken between the parents and when she was 1,5 it was added German as a language of a nursery. In order to avoid a dominant language, she was always put in international groups with activity in different languages. Even if it was not possible to avoid an interference of languages in this case we can talk not only about natural multilingualism but also about balanced bilingualism in preschool time. The languages have been developing in parallel with different accents in a different period. Now at the age of 6 we can see natural horizontal multilingualism Russian/Italian/German/English. At the moment, her Russian/Italian bilingualism is balanced. German vocabulary is less but the language is active and English is receptive. We can also see a reciprocal interference of all the three languages (English is receptive so the simple phrases are normally said correctly but they are not enough to judge the level of language interference and it is not noticed any ‘English’ mistakes in other languages). After analysis of the state of every language, we can see as a positive and negative result of the experiment. As a positive result we can see that in the age of 6 the girl does not refuse any language, three languages are active, she differentiate languages and even if she says a word from another language she notifies that it is not a correct word, and the most important are the fact, that she does not have a preferred language. As a prove of the last statement it is to be noticed not only her self-identification as ‘half Russian and half Italian’ but also an answer to the question about her ‘mother tongue’: ‘I do not know, probably, when I have my own children I will speak one day Russian and one day Italian and sometimes German’. As a negative result, we can notice that not only a development of all the three languages are a little bit slower than it is supposed for her age but since she does not have a dominating language she also does not have a ‘perfect’ language and the interference is reciprocal. In any case, the experiment shows that it is possible to keep at least two languages without a preference in a pre-school multilingual space.

Keywords: balanced bilingualism, language interference, natural multilingualism, preschool multilingual education

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49 Functions of Bilingualism in Hong Kong: Comparing the Linguistic Landscape of Tsim Sha Tsui and Tai Wai

Authors: Xinyi Huang


As a former British colony and one of the most famous world financial centers today, Hong Kong attracts countless businessmen and tourists to visit or settle down every year. Hong Kong is a land that leads western culture to blossom in Asia, and in the meantime, it inherits the unique charm of Chinese traditional culture. The Chinese-English bilingual phenomenon can be seen everywhere in Hong Kong. The public presentation, code choice, and practical use of these two languages can also reflect the economic and social status, population distribution, and individual identity construction of a specific area. This paper mainly compares the linguistic landscape of two areas with different social functions in Hong Kong: Tsim Sha Tsui, a large commercial center in Kowloon, and Tai Wai, a residential area in New Territories. By adopting the methodology of the Walking Tour, the bilingual data of 75 photos are collected unintentionally during the field trip in the two areas. Through the methods of quantitative analysis and linguistic landscape studies, this paper deeply analyzes the similarities and differences in language distribution and the respective social functions of two languages in the two places.

Keywords: bilingualism, linguistic landscape, identity construction, commodification

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48 The Effect of Bilingualism on Prospective Memory

Authors: Aslı Yörük, Mevla Yahya, Banu Tavat


It is well established that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks. However, the effects of bilingualism on prospective memory (PM), which also requires executive functions, have not been investigated vastly. This study aimed to compare bi and monolingual participants' PM performance in focal and non-focal PM tasks. Considering that bilinguals have greater executive function abilities than monolinguals, we predict that bilinguals’ PM performance would be higher than monolinguals on the non-focal PM task, which requires controlled monitoring processes. To investigate these predictions, we administered the focal and non-focal PM task and measured the PM and ongoing task performance. Forty-eight Turkish-English bilinguals residing in North Macedonia and forty-eight Turkish monolinguals living in Turkey between the ages of 18-30 participated in the study. They were instructed to remember responding to rarely appearing PM cues while engaged in an ongoing task, i.e., spatial working memory task. The focality of the task was manipulated by giving different instructions for PM cues. In the focal PM task, participants were asked to remember to press an enter key whenever a particular target stimulus appeared in the working memory task; in the non-focal PM task, instead of responding to a specific target shape, participants were asked to remember to press the enter key whenever the background color of the working memory trials changes to a specific color (yellow). To analyze data, we performed a 2 × 2 mixed factorial ANOVA with the task (focal versus non-focal) as a within-subject variable and language group (bilinguals versus monolinguals) as a between-subject variable. The results showed no direct evidence for a bilingual advantage in PM. That is, the group’s performance did not differ in PM accuracy and ongoing task accuracy. However, bilinguals were overall faster in the ongoing task, yet this was not specific to PM cue’s focality. Moreover, the results showed a reversed effect of PM cue's focality on the ongoing task performance. That is, both bi and monolinguals showed enhanced performance in the non-focal PM cue task. These findings raise skepticism about the literature's prevalent findings and theoretical explanations. Future studies should investigate possible alternative explanations.

Keywords: bilingualism, executive functions, focality, prospective memory

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47 Bilingual Identities of Kuwaiti Students at Universities with EMI

Authors: Marta Tryzna, Shahd Al Shammari


Though Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the only official language in GCC states, including Kuwait, and traditionally the preferred vehicle for literacy in the Arab countries, recent studies in Qatar and the UAE observe a growing role of English, particularly in literacy and knowledge transmission contexts. The present study examines the attitudes to Arabic and English and the use of both languages in literacy-related domains based on a sample of bilingual Arabic-English undergraduates (N=522) at a private university with EMI in Kuwait. The results indicate that Arabic (Kuwaiti dialect) is associated with familial interactions, Arabic-English bilingualism predominates in interactions with classmates, friends, on social media and at work, while English is prevalent in literacy-related contexts such as reading books, magazines, or online material, domains traditionally associated with MSA. Attitudes towards Arabic and English are equally positive according to the majority of the respondents, who report being comfortable expressing themselves and projecting their identity in both languages. No statistically significant differences were found comparing the importance of Arabic and English in the sample. Future trends were identified based on high agreement on the importance of speaking English with children and low agreement on speaking only Arabic at home. The study corroborates recently observed trends in the GCC favoring bilingualism across personal, academic and professional domains, with English becoming the preferred language of literacy among young bilingual Kuwaitis.

Keywords: bilingual, English, Arabic, EMI, identity

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46 Multilingualism and Unification of Teaching

Authors: Mehdi Damaliamiri, Firouzeh Akbari


Teaching literature to children at an early age is of great importance, and there have been different methods to facilitate learning literature. Based on the law, all children going to school in Iran should learn the Persian language and literature. This has been concomitant with two different levels of learning related to urban or rural bilingualism. For bilingual children living in the villages, learning literature and a new language (Persian) turns into a big challenge as it is done based on the translation the teacher does while in the city, it is easier as the confrontation of children with the Persian language is more. Over recent years, to change the trend of learning Persian by children speaking another language, the TV and radio programs have been considered to be effective, but the scores of the students in Persian language national exams show that these programs have not been so effective for the bilingual students living in the villages. To identify the determinants of weak learning of Persian by bilingual children, two different regions were chosen, Turkish-speaking and Kurdish-speaking communities, to compare their learning of Persian at the first and second levels of elementary school. The criteria of learning was based on the syllabification of Persian words, word order in the sentence, and compound sentences. Students were taught in Persian how to recognize syllabification without letting them translate the words in their own languages and were asked to produce simple sentences in Persian in response to situational questions. Teaching methods, language relatedness with Persian, and exposure to social media programs, especially TV and radio, were the factors that were considered to affect the potential of children in learning Persian.

Keywords: bilingualism, persian, education, Literature

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45 Comparing Phonological Processes in Persian-Arabic Bilingual Children and Monolingual Children

Authors: Vafa Delphi, Maryam Delphi, Talieh Zarifian, Enayatolah Bakhshi


Background and Aim: Bilingualism is a common phenomenon in many countries of the world and May be consistent consonant errors in the speech of bilingual children. The aim of this study was to evaluate Phonological skills include occurrence proportion, frequency and type of phonological processes in Persian-Arabic speaking children in Ahvaz city, the center of Khuzestan. Method: This study is descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional. Twenty-eight children aged 36-48 months were divided into two groups Persian monolingual and Persian-Arabic bilingual: (14 participants in each group). Sampling was recruited randomly based on inclusion criteria from kindergartens of the Ahvaz city in Iran. The tool of this study was the Persian Phonological Test (PPT), a subtest of Persian Diagnostic Evaluation Articulation and Phonological test. In this test, Phonological processes were investigated in two groups: structure and substitution processes. Data was investigated using SPSS software and the U Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the proportion occurrence of substitution process was significantly different between two groups of monolingual and bilingual (P=0/001), But the type of phonological processes didn’t show a significant difference in both monolingual and bilingual children of the Persian-Arabic.The frequency of phonological processes is greater in bilingual children than monolingual children. Conclusion: The study showed that bilingualism has no effect on type of phonological processes, but this can be effective on the frequency of processes. Since the type of phonological processes in bilingual children is similar to monolingual children So we can conclude the Persian_arabic bilingual children's phonological system is similar to monolingual children.

Keywords: Persian-Arabic bilingual child, phonological processes, the proportion occurrence of syllable structure, the proportion occurrence of substitution

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44 Investigating the Use of English Arabic Codeswitching in EFL classroom Oral Discourse Case study: Middle school pupils of Ain Fekroun, Wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi Algeria

Authors: Fadila Hadjeris


The study aims at investigating the functions of English-Arabic code switching in English as a foreign language classroom oral discourse and the extent to which they can contribute to the flow of classroom interaction. It also seeks to understand the views, beliefs, and perceptions of teachers and learners towards this practice. We hypothesized that code switching is a communicative strategy which facilitates classroom interaction. Due to this fact, both teachers and learners support its use. The study draws on a key body of literature in bilingualism, second language acquisition, and classroom discourse in an attempt to provide a framework for considering the research questions. It employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods which include classroom observations and questionnaires. The analysis of the recordings shows that teachers’ code switching to Arabic is not only used for academic and classroom management reasons. Rather, the data display instances in which code switching is used for social reasons. The analysis of the questionnaires indicates that teachers and pupils have different attitudes towards this phenomenon. Teachers reported their deliberate switching during EFL teaching, yet the majority was against this practice. According to them, the use of the mother has detrimental effects on the acquisition and the practice of the target language. In contrast, pupils showed their preference to their teachers’ code switching because it enhances and facilitates their understanding. These findings support the fact that the shift to pupils’ mother tongue is a strategy which aids and facilitates the teaching and the learning of the target language. This, in turn, necessitates recommendations which are suggested to teachers and course designers.

Keywords: bilingualism, codeswitching, classroom interaction, classroom discourse, EFL learning/ teaching, SLA

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43 Code Switching and Language Attitudes of Two 10-11 Years Old Bilingual Child

Authors: Kristiina Teiss


Estonians and children having Estonian as a one of their languages have lately become the fastest growing minority or bilingual group in Finland which underlines the importance of studying this target group. The acquisition of bilingualism by an infant is affected by many different issues like the child’s personal traits, language differences, and different environmental factors such as people´s attitudes towards languages and bilingualism. In the early years the most important factor is the children’s interaction with their parents and siblings. This poster gives an overview to the material and some preliminary findings of ongoing PhD study concerning code-mixing, code-switching and language attitudes of two bilingual 10-11 year old children. Data was collected from two different bilingual families, one of them living in Tampere, Finland and one of them moved during the study to Tallinn, Estonia. The data includes audio recordings of the families’ interactions with their children when they were aged 2-3 years old and then when they were 10-11 years old. The data also includes recorded semi-structured queries of the parents, as well as recorded semi-structured queries of the children when they were in the age of 10-11 years. The features of code-mixing can vary depending on norms or models in the families, or even according to its use by two parents in same family. The practices studied in the ongoing longitudinal case study, based on a framework of ethnography, contain parental conversational strategies and family attitudes as well as CS (code-switching and code-mixing) cases occurring both in children and adult language. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a connection between children’s attitudes and their daily language use. It would be also interesting to find some evidence, as to whether living in different countries has different impacts on using two languages. The results of dissertation maid give some directional suggestions on how language maintenance of Estonian-Finnish bilinguals could be supported, although generalizations on the base of case study could not be done.

Keywords: code switching, Estonian, Finnish, language attitudes

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42 In Search for the 'Bilingual Advantage' in Immersion Education

Authors: M. E. Joret, F. Germeys, P. Van de Craen


Background: Previous studies have shown that ‘full’ bilingualism seems to enhance the executive functions in children, young adults and elderly people. Executive functions refer to a complex cognitive system responsible for self-controlled and planned behavior and seem to predict academic achievement. The present study aimed at investigating whether similar effects could be found in children learning their second language at school in immersion education programs. Methods: In this study, 44 children involved in immersion education for 4 to 5 years were compared to 48 children in traditional schools. All children were between 9 and 11 years old. To assess executive functions, the Simon task was used, a neuropsychological measure assessing executive functions with reaction times and accuracy on congruent and incongruent trials. To control for background measures, all children underwent the Raven’s coloured progressive matrices, to measure non-verbal intelligence and the Echelle de Vocabulaire en Images Peabody (EVIP), assessing verbal intelligence. In addition, a questionnaire was given to the parents to control for other confounding variables, such as socio-economic status (SES), home language, developmental disorders, etc. Results: There were no differences between groups concerning non-verbal intelligence and verbal intelligence. Furthermore, the immersion learners showed overall faster reaction times on both congruent and incongruent trials compared to the traditional learners, but only after 5 years of training, not before. Conclusion: These results show that the cognitive benefits found in ‘full’ bilinguals also appear in children involved in immersion education, but only after a sufficient exposure to the second language. Our results suggest that the amount of second language training needs to be sufficient before these cognitive effects may emerge.

Keywords: bilingualism, executive functions, immersion education, Simon task

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41 Verbal Working Memory in Sequential and Simultaneous Bilinguals: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Archana Rao R., Deepak P., Chayashree P. D., Darshan H. S.


Cognitive abilities in bilinguals have been widely studied over the last few decades. Bilingualism has been found to extensively facilitate the ability to store and manipulate information in Working Memory (WM). The mechanism of WM includes primary memory, attentional control, and secondary memory, each of which makes a contribution to WM. Many researches have been done in an attempt to measure WM capabilities through both verbal (phonological) and nonverbal tasks (visuospatial). Since there is a lot of speculations regarding the relationship between WM and bilingualism, further investigation is required to understand the nature of WM in bilinguals, i.e., with respect to sequential and simultaneous bilinguals. Hence the present study aimed to highlight the verbal working memory abilities in sequential and simultaneous bilinguals with respect to the processing and recall abilities of nouns and verbs. Two groups of bilinguals aged between 18-30 years were considered for the study. Group 1 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) sequential bilinguals who had acquired L1 (Kannada) before the age of 3 and had exposure to L2 (English) for a period of 8-10 years. Group 2 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) simultaneous bilinguals who have acquired both L1 and L2 before the age of 3. Working memory abilities were assessed using two tasks, and a set of stimuli which was presented in gradation of complexity and the stimuli was inclusive of frequent and infrequent nouns and verbs. The tasks involved the participants to judge the correctness of the sentence and simultaneously remember the last word of each sentence and the participants are instructed to recall the words at the end of each set. The results indicated no significant difference between sequential and simultaneous bilinguals in processing the nouns and verbs, and this could be attributed to the proficiency level of the participants in L1 and the alike cognitive abilities between the groups. And recall of nouns was better compared to verbs, maybe because of the complex argument structure involved in verbs. Similarly, authors found a frequency of occurrence of nouns and verbs also had an effect on WM abilities. The difference was also found across gradation due to the load imposed on the central executive function and phonological loop.

Keywords: bilinguals, nouns, verbs, working memory

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40 Executive Function and Attention Control in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Systematic Review

Authors: Zihan Geng, L. Quentin Dixon


It has been proposed that early bilingual experience confers a number of advantages in the development of executive control mechanisms. Although the literature provides empirical evidence for bilingual benefits, some studies also reported null or mixed results. To make sense of these contradictory findings, the current review synthesize recent empirical studies investigating bilingual effects on children’s executive function and attention control. The publication time of the studies included in the review ranges from 2010 to 2017. The key searching terms are bilingual, bilingualism, children, executive control, executive function, and attention. The key terms were combined within each of the following databases: ERIC (EBSCO), Education Source, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. Studies involving both children and adults were also included but the analysis was based on the data generated only by the children group. The initial search yielded 137 distinct articles. Twenty-eight studies from 27 articles with a total of 3367 participants were finally included based on the selection criteria. The selective studies were then coded in terms of (a) the setting (i.e., the country where the data was collected), (b) the participants (i.e., age and languages), (c) sample size (i.e., the number of children in each group), (d) cognitive outcomes measured, (e) data collection instruments (i.e., cognitive tasks and tests), and (f) statistic analysis models (e.g., t-test, ANOVA). The results show that the majority of the studies were undertaken in western countries, mainly in the U.S., Canada, and the UK. A variety of languages such as Arabic, French, Dutch, Welsh, German, Spanish, Korean, and Cantonese were involved. In relation to cognitive outcomes, the studies examined children’s overall planning and problem-solving abilities, inhibition, cognitive complexity, working memory (WM), and sustained and selective attention. The results indicate that though bilingualism is associated with several cognitive benefits, the advantages seem to be weak, at least, for children. Additionally, the nature of the cognitive measures was found to greatly moderate the results. No significant differences are observed between bilinguals and monolinguals in overall planning and problem-solving ability, indicating that there is no bilingual benefit in the cooperation of executive function components at an early age. In terms of inhibition, the mixed results suggest that bilingual children, especially young children, may have better conceptual inhibition measured in conflict tasks, but not better response inhibition measured by delay tasks. Further, bilingual children showed better inhibitory control to bivalent displays, which resembles the process of maintaining two language systems. The null results were obtained for both cognitive complexity and WM, suggesting no bilingual advantage in these two cognitive components. Finally, findings on children’s attention system associate bilingualism with heightened attention control. Together, these findings support the hypothesis of cognitive benefits for bilingual children. Nevertheless, whether these advantages are observable appears to highly depend on the cognitive assessments. Therefore, future research should be more specific about the cognitive outcomes (e.g., the type of inhibition) and should report the validity of the cognitive measures consistently.

Keywords: attention, bilingual advantage, children, executive function

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39 Translanguaging In Preschools: New Evidence from Polish-English Bilingual Children

Authors: Judyta Pawliszko


The study draws on the theoretical framework of translanguaging. It investigates translanguaging patterns and how meaning-making processes among bilingual children in preschool are affected by using two different languages, 8 months of observation and 200 hours of vocal recordings of children (3-6 years old) provide data on bilingual children’s linguistic repertoire why children translanguage, and how they achieve understanding with the strategic use of the two languages. The data gathered point to translanguaging as a practice that maximizes meaning-making processes among preschool bilingual children.

Keywords: translanguaging, bilingualism, preschool, polish-english bilingual children

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38 Use of Pragmatic Cues for Word Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

Authors: Isabelle Lorge, Napoleon Katsos


BACKGROUND: Children growing up in a multilingual environment face challenges related to the need to monitor the speaker’s linguistic abilities, more frequent communication failures, and having to acquire a large number of words in a limited amount of time compared to monolinguals. As a result, bilingual learners may develop different word learning strategies, rely more on some strategies than others, and engage cognitive resources such as theory of mind and attention skills in different ways. HYPOTHESIS: The goal of our study is to investigate whether multilingual exposure leads to improvements in the ability to use pragmatic inference for word learning, i.e., to use speaker cues to derive their referring intentions, often by overcoming lower level salience effects. The speaker cues we identified as relevant are (a) use of a modifier with or without stress (‘the WET dax’ prompting the choice of the referent which has a dry counterpart), (b) referent extension (‘this is a kitten with a fep’ prompting the choice of the unique rather than shared object), (c) referent novelty (choosing novel action rather than novel object which has been manipulated already), (d) teacher versus random sampling (assuming the choice of specific examples for a novel word to be relevant to the extension of that new category), and finally (e) emotional affect (‘look at the figoo’ uttered in a sad or happy voice) . METHOD: To this end, we implemented on a touchscreen computer a task corresponding to each of the cues above, where the child had to pick the referent of a novel word. These word learning tasks (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) were adapted from previous word learning studies. 113 children have been tested (54 reception and 59 year 1, ranging from 4 to 6 years old) in a London primary school. Bilingual or monolingual status and other relevant information (age of onset, proficiency, literacy for bilinguals) is ascertained through language questionnaires from parents (34 out of 113 received to date). While we do not yet have the data that will allow us to test for effect of bilingualism, we can already see that performances are far from approaching ceiling in any of the tasks. In some cases the children’s performances radically differ from adults’ in a qualitative way, which means that there is scope for quantitative and qualitative effects to arise between language groups. The findings should contribute to explain the puzzling speed and efficiency that bilinguals demonstrate in acquiring competence in two languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, pragmatics, word learning, attention

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