Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: N. Javed

73 Islam and Democracy: A Paradoxical Study of Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi

Authors: Waseem Makai

Abstract:

The term ‘political Islam’ now seem to have gained the centre stage in every discourse pertaining to Islamic legitimacy and compatibility in modern civilisations. A never ceasing tradition of the philosophy of caliphate that has kept overriding the options of any alternate political institution in the Muslim world still permeates a huge faction of believers. Fully accustomed with the proliferation of changes and developments in individual, social and natural dispositions of the world, Islamic theologians retaliated to this flux through both conventional and modernist approaches. The so-called conventional approach was quintessential of the interpretations put forth by Syed Maududi, with new comprehensive, academic and powerful vigour, as never seen before. He generated the avant-garde scholarship which would bear testimony to his statements, made to uphold the political institution of Islam as supreme and noble. However, it was not his trait to challenge the established views but to codify them in such a bracket which a man of the 20th century would find captivating to his heart and satisfactory to his rationale. The delicate microcosms like selection of a caliph, implementation of Islamic commandments (Sharia), interest free banking sectors, imposing tax (Jazyah) on non-believers, waging the holy crusade (Jihad) for the expansion of Islamic boundaries, stoning for committing adulteration and capital punishment for apostates were all there in his scholarship which he spent whole of his life defending in the best possible manner. What and where did he went wrong with all this, was supposedly to be notified later, by his once been disciple, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Ghamidi is being accused of struggling between Scylla and Charybdis as he tries to remain steadfast to his basic Islamic tenets while modernising their interpretations to bring them in harmony with the Western ideals of democracy and liberty. His blatant acknowledgement of putting democracy at a high pedestal, calling the implementation of Sharia a non-mandatory task and denial to bracket people in the categories of Zimmi and Kaafir fully vindicates his stance against conventional narratives like that of Syed Maududi. Ghamidi goes to the extent of attributing current forms of radicalism and extremism, as exemplified in the operations of organisations like ISIS in Iraq and Syria and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan, to such a version of political Islam as upheld not only by Syed Maududi but by other prominent theologians like Ibn-Timyah, Syed Qutub and Dr. Israr Ahmad also. Ghamidi is wretched, in a way that his allegedly insubstantial claims gained him enough hostilities to leave his homeland when two of his close allies were brutally murdered. Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi, both stand poles apart in their understanding of Islam and its political domain. Who has the appropriate methodology, scholarship and execution in his mode of comprehension, is an intriguing task, worth carrying out in detail.

Keywords: Democracy, Caliphate, ghamidi, maududi

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72 Tax Expenditures: A Review and Analysis

Authors: Khalid Javed

Abstract:

This study examines a feature of the budget process called the tax expenditure budget. The tax expenditure concept relies heavily on a normative notion that shielding certain. Taxpayer income from taxation deprives government of its rightful revenues. This view is inconsistent with the proposition that income belongs to the taxpayers and that tax liability is determined through the democratic process, not through arbitrary, bureaucratic Assumptions. Furthermore, the methodology of the tax expenditure budget is problematic as its expansive tax base treats the multiple taxation of saving as the norm. By using an expansive view of income as the underlying assumption of the tax expenditure concept, this viewpoint institutionalizes a particular bias into the decision-making process.

Keywords: revenue, expenditure, tax budget, propostion

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
71 Effect of Green Manuring Jantar (Sesbania acculata. L.) on the Growth and Yield of Crops Grown in Wheat-Based Cropping Systems

Authors: Javed Kamal

Abstract:

A proposed field study of wheat-based cropping systems was conducted at Faisalabad (Post-Graduate Research Station). We used 7 treatments and Jantar as a green manuring crop to increase the fertility status of soil; after the vegetative phases of wheat, rice, sorghum, and mungbean, the agronomic parameters of these crops were recorded. Hopefully, all increased with jantar treatment when compared with controls. The benefit: cost ratio and physicochemical characteristics of the soil before and after the crop harvest were also calculated.

Keywords: Wheat, Rice, Sunflower, benifit cost ratio, jantar

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70 Some Generalized Multivariate Estimators for Population Mean under Multi Phase Stratified Systematic Sampling

Authors: Muhammad Hanif, Muqaddas Javed

Abstract:

The generalized multivariate ratio and regression type estimators for population mean are suggested under multi-phase stratified systematic sampling (MPSSS) using multi auxiliary information. Estimators are developed under the two different situations of availability of auxiliary information. The expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) are developed. Special cases of suggested estimators are also discussed and simulation study is conducted to observe the performance of estimators.

Keywords: generalized estimators, multi-phase sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling

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69 A Software Product Engineering Process for Commercial Success in Start-Up and Cases

Authors: Javed Ahsan

Abstract:

Software engineers strive for technical sophistication with a dream of finding commercial success in their start-up business. But they may find their much technically sophisticated software products failing in industry in competition with lesser sophisticated products. This is because of not maintaining a clear focus on complimenting and leading commercial success through technical sophistication. This can be achieved through a software engineering specific product development process suggested in this paper. This process is about evolving a software product through specific phases and iterations until commercial triumph falls on software engineer’s feet.

Keywords: software, Product, Engineering, Industry, Competitiveness, Commercialization, start-up

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68 The Transformation of the Workplace through Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Automation

Authors: Javed Mohammed

Abstract:

Robotics is the fastest growing industry in the world, poised to become the largest in the next decade. The use of robots requires design, application and implementation of the appropriate safety controls in order to avoid creating hazards to production personnel, programmers, maintenance specialists and systems engineers. The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) and related technologies in the workplace are dramatically changing the employment landscape. The impact of robotics technology on workplace policy is dramatic and complex. The robotics revolution calls for a comprehensive approach to job training, and retraining, to mitigate worker displacement and enable workers to benefit from the new jobs that the technology will generate. It calls for a thoughtful, forward-thinking approach by lawmakers, regulators and employers to prepare for the oncoming transformation of the workplace and workforce.

Keywords: Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Design, Transformation, programmers, system engineers

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67 Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis

Authors: Syed Javed Arif, Anis A. Ansari

Abstract:

From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.

Keywords: Petroleum, Electronic Waste, Thermoplastics, polymer recovery

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66 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Sadia Arshad, Sana Javed, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Numerical Simulations, Fractional differential equation, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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65 Reviewing and Enhancing Effectiveness of Performance Metrics of Military Aviation Maintenance Setup

Authors: Ali Sarosh, Asim Rehman, Areeb Javed

Abstract:

The importance of aviation maintenance indicators or metrics needs no explanation. They are one of the most critical tools used by maintenance managers all over the world to gauge the organization’s efficiency and effectiveness. Within budgetary and technological constraints, the maintenance supervisors provide safe, reliable and correctly configured missions to pilots. The success of these maintenance activities can be gauged through well-defined and self-elaborative key maintenance performance indicators or metrics. However, key performance indicators also evolve with time and resources and hence require continual review. In this research paper already established performance indicators of a military aviation maintenance group are reviewed through balanced scorecard model approach with the perspective of questioning their efficacy. Resultantly, additional parameters are proposed so as to align the key performance indicators with the strategic goals and objectives of the military aviation maintenance group.

Keywords: Military Aviation, key performance indicators, maintenance operations, indicators or metrics

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64 Inferring Cognitive Skill in Concept Space

Authors: Rania A. Aboalela, Javed I. Khan

Abstract:

This research presents a learning assessment theory of Cognitive Skill in Concept Space (CS2) to measure the assessed knowledge in terms of cognitive skill levels of the concepts. The cognitive skill levels refer to levels such as if a student has acquired the state at the level of understanding, or applying, or analyzing, etc. The theory is comprised of three constructions: Graph paradigm of a semantic/ ontological scheme, the concept states of the theory and the assessment analytics which is the process to estimate the sets of concept state at a certain skill level. Concept state means if a student has already learned, or is ready to learn, or is not ready to learn a certain skill level. The experiment is conducted to prove the validation of the theory CS2.

Keywords: cognitive skill levels, concept states, concept space, knowledge assessment theory

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63 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Maqsood, Muhammad Umair, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Usman Javed

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: Weaving, seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam

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62 Value Analysis of Islamic Banking and Conventional Banking to Measure Value Co-Creation

Authors: Amna Javed, Youji Kohda, Hisashi Masuda

Abstract:

This study examines the value analysis in Islamic and conventional banking services in Pakistan. Many scholars have focused on co-creation of values in services but mainly economic values not non-economic. As Islamic banking is based on Islamic principles that are more concerned with non-economic values (well-being, partnership, fairness, trust worthy, and justice) than economic values as money in terms of interest. This study is important to know the providers point of view about the co-created values, because, it may be more sustainable and appropriate for today’s unpredictable socioeconomic environment. Data were collected from 4 banks (2 Islamic and 2 conventional banks). Text mining technique is applied for data analysis, and values with 100% occurrences in Islamic banking are chosen. The results reflect that Islamic banking is more centric towards non-economic values than economic values and it promotes team work and partnership concept by applying Islamic spirit and trust worthiness concept.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, economic values, non-economic values, value system

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61 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi

Abstract:

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Energy storage and conversion, electrode materials, electrochemical performance, Mn2O3

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60 Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Adnan Ahmed Khan, Sadaf Nawaz, Asad Mahmood, Chaudhary Farrukh Javed

Abstract:

Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, energy detector, periodogram

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59 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid

Abstract:

The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Graphene Oxide, degradation, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

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58 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: TARIQ ALI, Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Muazz Ali

Abstract:

Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, workability, deflection, induction furnace slag

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57 Leverage Effect for Volatility with Generalized Laplace Error

Authors: Farrukh Javed, Krzysztof Podgórski

Abstract:

We propose a new model that accounts for the asymmetric response of volatility to positive ('good news') and negative ('bad news') shocks in economic time series the so-called leverage effect. In the past, asymmetric powers of errors in the conditionally heteroskedastic models have been used to capture this effect. Our model is using the gamma difference representation of the generalized Laplace distributions that efficiently models the asymmetry. It has one additional natural parameter, the shape, that is used instead of power in the asymmetric power models to capture the strength of a long-lasting effect of shocks. Some fundamental properties of the model are provided including the formula for covariances and an explicit form for the conditional distribution of 'bad' and 'good' news processes given the past the property that is important for the statistical fitting of the model. Relevant features of volatility models are illustrated using S&P 500 historical data.

Keywords: heavy tails, volatility clustering, generalized asymmetric laplace distribution, leverage effect, conditional heteroskedasticity, asymmetric power volatility, GARCH models

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56 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan

Abstract:

The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

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55 Finding Related Scientific Documents Using Formal Concept Analysis

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Hira Javed

Abstract:

An important aspect of research is literature survey. Availability of a large amount of literature across different domains triggers the need for optimized systems which provide relevant literature to researchers. We propose a search system based on keywords for text documents. This experimental approach provides a hierarchical structure to the document corpus. The documents are labelled with keywords using KEA (Keyword Extraction Algorithm) and are automatically organized in a lattice structure using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This groups the semantically related documents together. The hierarchical structure, based on keywords gives out only those documents which precisely contain them. This approach open doors for multi-domain research. The documents across multiple domains which are indexed by similar keywords are grouped together. A hierarchical relationship between keywords is obtained. To signify the effectiveness of the approach, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation on Semeval-2010 Dataset. Results depict that the presented method is considerably successful in indexing of scientific papers.

Keywords: Formal Concept Analysis, keyword extraction algorithm, scientific documents, lattice

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54 A Diagnostic Challenge of Drug Resistant Childhood Tuberculosis in Developing World

Authors: Warda Fatima, Hasnain Javed

Abstract:

The emerging trend of Drug resistance in childhood Tuberculosis is increasing worldwide and now becoming a priority challenge for National TB Control Programs of the world. Childhood TB accounts for 10-15% of total TB burden across the globe and same proportion is quantified in case of drug resistant TB. One third population suffering from MDR TB dies annually because of non-diagnosis and unavailability of appropriate treatment. However, true Childhood MDR TB cannot be estimated due to non-confirmation. Diagnosis of Pediatric TB by sputum Smear Microscopy and Culture inoculation are limited due to paucibacillary nature and difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum specimens. Diagnosis becomes more difficult when it comes to HIV infected child. New molecular advancements for early case detection of TB and MDR TB in adults have not been endorsed in children. Multi centered trials are needed to design better diagnostic approaches and efficient and safer treatments for DR TB in high burden countries. The aim of the present study is to sketch out the current situation of the childhood Drug resistant TB especially in the developing world and to highlight the classic and novel methods that are to be implemented in high-burden resource-limited locations.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Childhood, drug resistant TB, novel methods

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53 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan

Abstract:

Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, thin film, XRD, EDX, DLC

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52 Effect of Follicular Fluid on in vitro Maturation and Gene Expression in Ovine Oocytes

Authors: Al-Mutary M., Alhimaidi A., Al-Ghadi M. Iwamoto D., Javed Ahmad. Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ovine follicular fluid supplementation during IVM of sheep oocytes on the resumption of meiosis, glutathione (GSH) content and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and HSPB1 genes. Sheep ovaries were collected from Riyadh slaughterhouse, KSA. Oocytes were aspirated from 3-6 mm follicles. Ovine oocytes were cultured in maturation medium with 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 40% of ovine follicular fluid for 24 h. Results indicated that the rate of oocyte maturation was significantly (P≤0.05) decreased in 40% OFF (36.87%) versus the control (61.3%), 10% OFF (63.95%) and 20% OFF (64.08%). Supplementation of 10% OFF to IVM medium induced an intra-oocyte GSH concentration significantly higher than that found in ovine oocytes cultured with 20% OFF and 40% OFF and similar to the GSH content in oocytes cultured without FF. Real time polymerase chain reaction analysis for gene expression revealed no differences in Bax, Bcl-2, HSPB1 genes between control and 10% OFF group, whereas they were strongly expressed in 20% OFF and 40% OFF (P < 0.05) when compared to the control and 10% OFF. In conclusion the addition of 10% OFF to the IVM culture of sheep oocytes is recommended to support cytoplasmic maturation and increase oocytes competence.

Keywords: Gene expression, Oocyte Maturation, follicular fluid, IVM

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51 Frequent Itemset Mining Using Rough-Sets

Authors: Usman Qamar, Younus Javed

Abstract:

Frequent pattern mining is the process of finding a pattern (a set of items, subsequences, substructures, etc.) that occurs frequently in a data set. It was proposed in the context of frequent itemsets and association rule mining. Frequent pattern mining is used to find inherent regularities in data. What products were often purchased together? Its applications include basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog design, sale campaign analysis, Web log (click stream) analysis, and DNA sequence analysis. However, one of the bottlenecks of frequent itemset mining is that as the data increase the amount of time and resources required to mining the data increases at an exponential rate. In this investigation a new algorithm is proposed which can be uses as a pre-processor for frequent itemset mining. FASTER (FeAture SelecTion using Entropy and Rough sets) is a hybrid pre-processor algorithm which utilizes entropy and rough-sets to carry out record reduction and feature (attribute) selection respectively. FASTER for frequent itemset mining can produce a speed up of 3.1 times when compared to original algorithm while maintaining an accuracy of 71%.

Keywords: classification, Entropy, Feature selection, outliers, rough-sets, frequent itemset mining

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50 Case for Simulating Consumer Response to Feed in Tariff Based on Socio-Economic Parameters

Authors: Fahad Javed, Tasneem Akhter, Maria Zafar, Adnan Shafique

Abstract:

Evaluation and quantification of techniques is critical element of research and development of technology. Simulations and models play an important role in providing the tools for such assessments. When we look at technologies which impact or is dependent on an average Joe consumer then modeling the socio-economic and psychological aspects of the consumer also gain an importance. For feed in tariff for home consumers which is being deployed for average consumer may force many consumers to be adapters of the technology. Understanding how consumers will adapt this technologies thus hold as much significance as evaluating how the techniques would work in consumer agnostic scenarios. In this paper we first build the case for simulators which accommodate socio-economic realities of the consumers to evaluate smart grid technologies, provide a glossary of data that can aid in this effort and present an abstract model to capture and simulate consumers' adaptation and behavioral response to smart grid technologies. We provide a case study to express the power of such simulators.

Keywords: Simulation, Forecasting, Smart Grids, socio-economic parameters, feed in tariff (FiT)

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49 Static Priority Approach to Under-Frequency Based Load Shedding Scheme in Islanded Industrial Networks: Using the Case Study of Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd - FFL

Authors: T. Ahmed, S. H. Kazmi, K. Javed, A. Ghani

Abstract:

In this paper static scheme of under-frequency based load shedding is considered for chemical and petrochemical industries with islanded distribution networks relying heavily on the primary commodity to ensure minimum production loss, plant downtime or critical equipment shutdown. A simplistic methodology is proposed for in-house implementation of this scheme using underfrequency relays and a step by step guide is provided including the techniques to calculate maximum percentage overloads, frequency decay rates, time based frequency response and frequency based time response of the system. Case study of FFL electrical system is utilized, presenting the actual system parameters and employed load shedding settings following the similar series of steps. The arbitrary settings are then verified for worst overload conditions (loss of a generation source in this case) and comprehensive system response is then investigated.

Keywords: islanding, under-frequency load shedding, frequency rate of change, static UFLS

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48 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Aamir Saeed Malik, Azura Mohd Affandi, Nidal Kamel, Javed Khan, Sarat Chandra Dass

Abstract:

Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance

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47 Pakistan’s Taxation System: A Critical Appraisal

Authors: Khalid Javed, Rashid Mahmood

Abstract:

The constitution empowers the Federal Government to collect taxes on income other than agricultural income, taxes on capital value, customs, excise duties and sales taxes. The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) and its subordinate departments administer the tax system. Each of the three principal taxes has a different history and different set of issues. For a large number of income tax payers the core of the business process is pre-audit and assessment by a tax official. This process gives considerable discretion to tax officials, with potential for abuse. Moreover, this process is also not tenable as the number of taxpayers increase. The report is focused on a total overhaul of the process and organization of income tax. Sales tax is recent and its process and organization is adjusted to the needs of an expanding tax base. These are based on self-assessment and selective audit. Similarly, in customs the accent is on accelerating and broadening the changes begun in recent years. Before long, central excise will be subsumed in sales tax. During the nineties, despite many changes in the tax regime and introduction of withholding and presumptive taxes, Federal Government tax to GDP ratio has varied narrowly around eleven percent. The tax base has grown but still remains narrow and skewed. The number of income tax filers is around one million.

Keywords: GDP, central board of revenue, sale tax, income tax

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46 Fabrication of LiNbO₃ Based Conspicuous Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy Devices

Authors: Riffat Kalsoom, Qurat-Ul-Ain Javed

Abstract:

Optical and dielectric properties of lithium niobates have made them the fascinating materials to be used in optical industry for device formation such as Q and optical switching. Synthesis of lithium niobates was carried out by solvothermal process with and without temperature fluctuation at 200°C for 4 hrs, and behavior of properties for different durations was also examined. Prepared samples of LiNbO₃ were examined in a way as crystallographic phases by using XRD diffractometer, morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM), absorption by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and dielectric measurement by impedance analyzer. A structural change from trigonal to spherical shape was observed by changing the time of reaction. Crystallite size decreases by the temperature fluctuation and increasing reaction time. Band gap decreases whereas dielectric constant and dielectric loss was increased with increasing time of reaction. Trend of AC conductivity is explained by Joschner’s power law. Due to these significant properties, it finds its applications in devices, such as cells, Q switching and optical switching for laser and gigahertz frequencies, respectively and these applications depend on the industrial demands.

Keywords: lithium niobates, renewable energy devices, controlled structure, temperature fluctuations

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45 Examining the Impact of Training on Turnover Intention in Project-Based Organizations

Authors: Tooba Qasim, Uzma Javed, Muhammad Safder Shafi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to find out the relationship between training and turnover intention in the presence of mediating variables promotion opportunities and job satisfaction among IT professionals in project based industry. It investigates the relationship directly between 1 independent variable training and dependent variable turnover intention. It also investigates the relationship between independent variable to the mediating variables and mediating variables to the turnover intention. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction act as a mediator. The study sample comprised of 186 IT professionals from Pakistan, who work on different IT projects. Linear regression and Baron and Kenny approach were used to test the direct and mediated relationship between variables. The survey results demonstrated that job satisfaction fully mediate the relationship between promotion opportunities and turnover intention. Promotion opportunities fully mediate the relationship between employee training and job satisfaction. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and turnover intention. The findings from the collected data may help top management to improve organizational strategies to cope up with improving different HR practices like training, pay structure and promotions in order to retain their workforce.

Keywords: training, Job Satisfaction, turnover intention, HCT, SET, career growth opportunities

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44 Impact of Solar Energy Based Power Grid for Future Prospective of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammd Usman Sardar, Mazhar Hussain Baloch, Muhammad Shahbaz Ahmad, Zahir Javed Paracha

Abstract:

Likewise other developing countries in the world, Pakistan is furthermore suffering from electrical energy deficiency as adverse well-being nominated. Its generation of electricity has become reliant onto a great range of conventional sources since the last ten of years. The foreseeable exhaustion of petroleum and conventional resources will be alarming in continued growth and development for future in Pakistan so renewable energy interchange have to be employed by interesting the majority of power grid network. Energy adding-up through solar photovoltaic based systems and projects can offset the shortfall to such an extent with this sustainable natural resources and most promising technologies. An assessment of solar energy potential for electricity generation is being presented for fulfilling the energy demands with higher level of reliability. This research study estimates the present and future approaching renewable energy resource for power generation to off-grid independent setup or energizing the existed conventional power grids of Pakistan to becoming self-sustained for its entire outfit.

Keywords: Solar Energy Technology, powergrid network, solar photovoltaic setups, solar power generation

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