Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Guillaume Agnus

38 Chemical Constituents and Biological Evaluation of Leaves Essential Oils of Vitex agnus-castus L. Growing in the Southern-West Algeria

Authors: Abdallah Habbab, Khaled Sekkoum, Nasser Belboukhari


Objective: This study is designed to examine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex agnus-castus. Methods: The essential oils of dry leaves of Vitex agnus-castus L. were obtained by hydro-distillation, afforded oil in the yield of 5.5% and their volatile constituents were identified by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity of the sample was determined by test system DPPH. Antifungal activity was tested against three fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium escpansum and Aspergillus ochraceus) by direct contact method. Results: Forty-three compounds were identified, representing 98.02% of the oil. Major components of the oil were 1,8-cineole (18.27 %), caryophyllene (8.60 %), N-(M-fluorophenyl)-maleimide (6.30 %), (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (6.00 %), terpinen-4-ol (5.57 %), pyrrolo (3,2,1-jk) carbazole (5.43 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.79 %), and phenol (4.09 %). Conclusion: The chemical constituents in the essential oil from the locally grown Vitex agnus-castus were identified. Therefore, the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus is an active candidate which would be used as antioxidant, or antifungal agent in new drugs preparation for therapy of diseases.

Keywords: Vitex agnus-castus, essential oil, GC/MS, DPPH, 1, 8-cineole

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37 Anatomical and Histochemical Investigation of the Leaf of Vitex agnus-castus L.

Authors: S. Mamoucha, J. Rahul, N. Christodoulakis


Introduction: Nature has been the source of medicinal agents since the dawn of the human existence on Earth. Currently, millions of people, in the developing world, rely on medicinal plants for primary health care, income generation and lifespan improvement. In Greece, more than 5500 plant taxa are reported while about 250 of them are considered to be of great pharmaceutical importance. Among the plants used for medical purposes, Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) is known since ancient times. It is a small tree or shrub, widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin up to the Central Asia. It is also known as chaste tree or monks pepper. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as ‘agnos’ in his ‘Enquiry into Plants’. Dioscorides mentioned the use of V. agnus-castus for the stimulation of lactation in nursing mothers and the treatment of several female disorders. The plant has important medicinal properties and a long tradition in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, diuretic, digestive and insecticidal agent. Materials and methods: Leaves were cleaned, detached, fixed, sectioned and investigated with light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Histochemical tests were executed as well. Specific histochemical reagents (osmium tetroxide, H2SO4, vanillin/HCl, antimony trichloride, Wagner’ s reagent, Dittmar’ s reagent, potassium bichromate, nitroso reaction, ferric chloride and di methoxy benzaldehyde) were used for the sub cellular localization of secondary metabolites. Results: Light microscopical investigations of the elongated leaves of V. agnus-castus revealed three layers of palisade parenchyma, just below the single layered adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma is rather loose. Adaxial epidermal cells are larger in magnitude, compared to those of the abaxial epidermis. Four different types of capitate, secreting trichomes, were localized among the abaxial epidermal cells. Stomata were observed at the abaxial epidermis as well. SEM revealed the interesting arrangement of trichomes. Histochemical treatment on fresh and plastic embedded tissue sections revealed the nature and the sites of secondary metabolites accumulation (flavonoids, steroids, terpenes). Acknowledgment: This work was supported by IKY - State Scholarship Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Keywords: Vitex agnus-castus, leaf anatomy, histochemical reagents, secondary metabolites

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36 Vitex agnus-castus Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidants Characters and Anti-Tumor Effect in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Model

Authors: Abeer Y. Ibrahim, Faten M. Ibrahim, Samah A. El-Newary, Saber F. Hendawy


Objective: Appreciation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characters of Vitex agnus-castus berries alcoholic extract and fractions, as well as in-vivo antitumor ability of alcoholic extract and chloroform fraction against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is the aim of this study. Material and methods: Antioxidant properties of crude alcoholic extract of vitex berries as well as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were evaluated, in-vitro assessments, as compared with standard materials, l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and butylated hydroxyl toluene(BHT). The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition assays. Moreover, in-vivo antitumor effect of vitex berries alcoholic and chloroform extracts were evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Data were presented as mean±SE, and data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. Results and conclusion: Berries crude extract showed potent antioxidant activity followed with its fractions ethyl acetate and chloroform as compared with standard (V.C and BHT). Ethyl acetate fraction showed good reduction capability, metal ion chelation, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging and superoxide anion scavenging. Meanwhile, chloroform fraction produced the highest free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. In respectable of lipid peroxidation inhibition, crude alcoholic extract and its fractions cleared weak inhibition in comparing with standard materials. Anti-inflammatory activity of V. agnus-castus berries chloroform fraction of vitex was best COX-2 inhibitor (IC₅₀, 135.41 µg/ ml) as compared to vitex alcoholic extract or ethyl acetate fraction with weak inhibitory effect on COX-1 (IC50, 778.432 µg/ ml), where the lowest effect on COX-1 was recorded with alcoholic extract. Alcoholic extract and its fractions showed weak COX-1 inhibition activity, whereas COX-2 was inhibited (100%), compared with celecoxib drug (72% at 1000ppm). The crude alcoholic and chloroform extracts of V. agnus-castus barries significantly reduced the viable Ehrlich cell count and increased nonviable count with amelioration of all hematological parameters. This amelioration was reflected on increasing median survival time and significant increase (P < 0.05) in lifespan.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Vitex agnus-castus

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35 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans


In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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34 Random Walks and Option Pricing for European and American Options

Authors: Guillaume Leduc


In this paper, we describe a broad setting under which the error of the approximation can be quantified, controlled, and for which convergence occurs at a speed of n⁻¹ for European and American options. We describe how knowledge of the error allows for arbitrarily fast acceleration of the convergence.

Keywords: random walk approximation, European and American options, rate of convergence, option pricing

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33 Experimental Study on Friction Factor of Oscillating Flow Through a Regenerator

Authors: Mohamed Saïd Kahaleras, François Lanzetta, Mohamed Khan, Guillaume Layes, Philippe Nika


This paper presents an experimental work to characterize the dynamic operation of a metal regenerator crossed by dry compressible air alternating flow. Unsteady dynamic measurements concern the pressure, velocity and temperature of the gas at the ends and inside the channels of the regenerator. The regenerators are tested under isothermal conditions and thermal axial temperature gradient.

Keywords: friction factor, oscillating flow, regenerator, stirling machine

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32 A Pull-Out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites, the Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay


This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find a molding temperature of 183°C leads to better interface properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: composite, hemp, interface, pull-out, processing, polypropylene, temperature

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31 Modelling of Passengers Exchange between Trains and Platforms

Authors: Guillaume Craveur


The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.

Keywords: passengers exchange, numerical tools, rolling stock, platforms

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30 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur


This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

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29 Effect of Different Chemical Concentrations on Control of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) in Vitex (Agnus castus)

Authors: Aliyu B. Mustapha, Poul A. Gida


Pot experiment was conducted at the landscape unit of Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola in 2015 and 2016 to determine the effect of some chemicals namely glyphosate, salt and detergent on Golden dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk). The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments include the following: glyphosate-T0= (control),(Og a.i/ha-1) T1=35g a.i/ha-1, T2=70g a.i/ha-1, T3=105g a.i/ha-1, T4=140 a.i/ha-1 and T5=175g a.i/ha-1: Salt (T0=control O mole/ha-1 T1=1mole/ha-1 T2=2mole/ha-1, T3=3mole/ha-1 , T4=4mole/ha-1 and T5=5mole/ha-1:washing detergent T0=Og/ha-1(control), T1=30ml detergent +70ml distilled water T2=45ml detergent+65ml distilled water T3=60ml detergent+40ml distilled water, T4=75ml detergent+25ml distilled water and T5=90ml detergent +10mldistilled water, the treatments were replicated three times. Data were collected include: plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and Cuscuta cover score at 3,6,9and 12 weeks after sprouting(WAS). Biomas of Vitex was also collected at the end of the experiment. Data collected were analyzed using software Genstat version 8.0. Results showed that glyphosate gave the least Cuscuta cover score and the tallest Vitex plant. However, detergent mildly controlled Cuscuta, while salt has no effect on Cuscuta campestris indicating that glyphosate could be used in the control of parasitic dodder (Cuscuta campestris) on Vitex plant.

Keywords: chemical, control, dudder, Vitex

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28 Performance and Lifetime of Tandem Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Guillaume Schuchardt, Solenn Berson, Gerard Perrier


Multi-junction solar cell configurations, where two sub-cells with complementary absorption are stacked and connected in series, offer an exciting approach to tackle the single junction limitations of organic solar cells and improve their power conversion efficiency. However, the augmentation of the number of layers has, as a consequence, to increase the risk of reducing the lifetime of the cell due to the ageing phenomena present at the interfaces. In this work, we study the intrinsic degradation mechanisms, under continuous illumination AM1.5G, inert atmosphere and room temperature, in single and tandem organic solar cells using Impedance Spectroscopy, IV Curves, External Quantum Efficiency, Steady-State Photocarrier Grating, Scanning Kelvin Probe and UV-Visible light.

Keywords: single and tandem organic solar cells, intrinsic degradation mechanisms, characterization: SKP, EQE, SSPG, UV-Visible, Impedance Spectroscopy, optical simulation

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27 Creation of Processes for a Safety Element Out of Context for an Actuator Circuit Control Module

Authors: Hassan Noun, Christian Urban-Seelmann, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Guillaume Zeller, Rajesh G., Iryna Mozgova, Roland Lachmayer


Several modules in automotive are usually modified and adapted for various project-specific applications. Due to a standardized safety concept, high reusability is accessible. A safety element out of context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 can be a suitable approach. Based on the same safety concept and analysis, common modules can reach high usability. For developing according to a module out of context, an appropriate and detailed development approach is required. This paper shows how to derive these development processes for platform modules. Therefore, the detailed approach to the safety element out of context is derived. The aim is to create a detailed workflow for all phases of the development and integration of any kind of system modules. As an application example, an automotive project for an actuator control module is considered.

Keywords: functional safety, engineering processes, system engineering, electronic engineering

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26 Quantifying Product Impacts on Biodiversity: The Product Biodiversity Footprint

Authors: Leveque Benjamin, Rabaud Suzanne, Anest Hugo, Catalan Caroline, Neveux Guillaume


Human products consumption is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few pertinent ecological indicators regarding product life cycle impact on species and ecosystems have been built. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies are well under way to conceive standardized methods to assess this impact, by taking already partially into account three of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment pressures (land use, pollutions, climate change). Coupling LCA and ecological data and methods is an emerging challenge to develop a product biodiversity footprint. This approach was tested on three case studies from food processing, textile, and cosmetic industries. It allowed first to improve the environmental relevance of the Potential Disappeared Fraction of species, end-point indicator typically used in life cycle analysis methods, and second to introduce new indicators on overexploitation and invasive species. This type of footprint is a major step in helping companies to identify their impacts on biodiversity and to propose potential improvements.

Keywords: biodiversity, companies, footprint, life cycle assessment, products

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25 Study of Parameters Influencing Dwell Times for Trains

Authors: Guillaume Craveur


The work presented here shows a study on several parameters identified as influencing dwell times for trains. Three kinds of rolling stocks are studied for this project and the parameters presented are the number of passengers, the allocation of passengers, their priorities, the platform station height, the door width and the train design. In order to make this study, a lot of records have been done in several stations in Paris (France). Then, in order to study these parameters, numerical simulations are completed. The goal is to quantify the impact of each parameter on the dwelling times. For example, this study highlights the impact of platform height and the presence of steps between the platform and the train. Three types of station platforms are concerned by this study : ‘optimum’ station platform which is 920 mm high, standard station platform which is 550 mm high, and high station platform which is 1150 mm high and different kinds of steps exist in order to fill these gaps. To conclude, this study shows the impact of these parameters on dwell times and their impact in function of the size of population.

Keywords: dwell times, numerical tools, rolling stock, platforms

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24 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment

Authors: Tahani Farah, Hanène Souli, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht


In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.

Keywords: bio-clogging, granulometry, permeability, nutrition

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23 New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis


We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Non-destructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscale-specific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications.

Keywords: ceramic matrix composites, carbon nanotubes, toughening, ultrasonics

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22 Visual and Chemical Servoing of a Hexapod Robot in a Confined Environment Using Jacobian Estimator

Authors: Guillaume Morin-Duponchelle, Ahmed Nait Chabane, Benoit Zerr, Pierre Schoesetters


Industrial inspection can be achieved through robotic systems, allowing visual and chemical servoing. A popular scheme for visual servo-controlled robotic is the image-based servoing sys-tems. In this paper, an approach of visual and chemical servoing of a hexapod robot using a visual and chemical Jacobian matrix are proposed. The basic idea behind the visual Jacobian matrix is modeling the differential relationship between the camera system and the robotic control system to detect and track accurately points of interest in confined environments. This approach allows the robot to easily detect and navigates to the QR code or seeks a gas source localization using surge cast algorithm. To track the QR code target, a visual servoing based on Jacobian matrix is used. For chemical servoing, three gas sensors are embedded on the hexapod. A Jacobian matrix applied to the gas concentration measurements allows estimating the direction of the main gas source. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is first demonstrated on simulation. Finally, a hexapod prototype is designed and built and the experimental validation of the approach is presented and discussed.

Keywords: chemical servoing, hexapod robot, Jacobian matrix, visual servoing, navigation

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21 Luminescence and Local Environment: Identification of Thermal History

Authors: Veronique Jubera, Guillaume Salek, Manuel Gaudon, Alain Garcia, Alain Demourgues


Luminescence of transition metal and rare earth elements cover ultraviolet to far infrared wavelengths. Applications of phosphors are numerous. One can cite lighting, sensing, laser, energy, medical or military applications. But regarding each domain, specific criteria are required and they can be achieved with a strong control of the chemical composition. Emission of doped materials can be tailored with modifications of the local environment of the cations. For instance, the increase of the crystal field effect shifts the divalent manganese radiative transitions from the green to the red color. External factor as heat-treatment can induce changes of the doping element location or modify the unit cell crystalline symmetry. By controlling carefully the synthesis route, it is possible to initiate emission shift and to establish the thermal history of a compound. We propose to demonstrate through the luminescence of divalent manganese and trivalent rare earth doped oxide, that it is possible to follow the thermal history of a material. After optimization of the synthesis route, structural and optical properties are discussed. Finally, thermal calibration graphs are successfully established on these doped compounds. This makes these materials promising probe for thermal sensing.

Keywords: emission, thermal sensing, transition metal, rare eath element

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20 3D Steady and Transient Centrifugal Pump Flow within Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM

Authors: Clement Leroy, Guillaume Boitel


This paper presents a comparative benchmarking review of a steady and transient three-dimensional (3D) flow computations in centrifugal pump using commercial (AnsysCFX) and open source (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. In centrifugal rotor-dynamic pump, the fluid enters in the impeller along to the rotating axis to be accelerated in order to increase the pressure, flowing radially outward into another stage, vaned diffuser or volute casing, from where it finally exits into a downstream pipe. Simulations are carried out at the best efficiency point (BEP) and part load, for single-phase flow with several turbulence models. The results are compared with overall performance report from experimental data. The use of CFD technology in industry is still limited by the high computational costs, and even more by the high cost of commercial CFD software and high-performance computing (HPC) licenses. The main objectives of the present study are to define OpenFOAM methodology for high-quality 3D steady and transient turbomachinery CFD simulation to conduct a thorough time-accurate performance analysis. On the other hand a detailed comparisons between computational methods, features on latest Ansys release 18 and OpenFOAM is investigated to assess the accuracy and industrial applications of those solvers. Finally an automated connected workflow (IoT) for turbine blade applications is presented.

Keywords: benchmarking, CFX, internet of things, openFOAM, time-accurate, turbomachinery

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19 An Immersive Serious Game for Firefighting and Evacuation Training in Healthcare Facilities

Authors: Anass Rahouti, Guillaume Salze, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Sélim Datoussaïd


In healthcare facilities, training the staff for firefighting and evacuation in real buildings is very challenging due to the presence of a vulnerable population in such an environment. In a standard environment, traditional approaches, such as fire drills, are often used to train the occupants and provide them with information about fire safety procedures. However, those traditional approaches may be inappropriate for a vulnerable population and can be inefficient from an educational viewpoint as it is impossible to expose the occupants to scenarios similar to a real emergency. Immersive serious games could be used as an alternative to traditional approaches to overcome their limitations. Serious games are already being used in different safety domains such as fires, earthquakes and terror attacks for several building types (e.g., office buildings, train stations, tunnels, etc.). In this study, we developed an immersive serious game to improve the fire safety skills of staff in healthcare facilities. An accurate representation of the healthcare environment was built in Unity3D by including visual and audio stimuli inspired from those employed in commercial action games. The serious game is organised in three levels. In each of them, the trainee is presented with a specific fire emergency and s/he can perform protective actions (e.g., firefighting, helping non-ambulant occupants, etc.) or s/he can ignore the opportunity for action and continue the evacuation. In this paper, we describe all the steps required to develop such a prototype, as well as the key questions that need to be answered, to develop a serious game for firefighting and evacuation in healthcare facilities.

Keywords: fire safety, healthcare, serious game, training

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18 Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulations to Estimate Thermophysical Properties of Phase Equilibria

Authors: Hai Hoang, Thanh Xuan Nguyen Thi, Guillaume Galliero


Coarse-Grained (CG) molecular simulations have shown to be an efficient way to estimate thermophysical (static and dynamic) properties of fluids. Several strategies have been developed and reported in the literature for defining CG molecular models. Among them, those based on a top-down strategy (i.e. CG molecular models related to macroscopic observables), despite being heuristic, have increasingly gained attention. This is probably due to its simplicity in implementation and its ability to provide reasonable results for not only simple but also complex systems. Regarding simple Force-Fields associated with these CG molecular models, it has been found that the four parameters Mie chain model is one of the best compromises to describe thermophysical static properties (e.g. phase diagram, saturation pressure). However, parameterization procedures of these Mie-chain GC molecular models given in literature are generally insufficient to simultaneously provide static and dynamic (e.g. viscosity) properties. To deal with such situations, we have extended the corresponding states by using a quantity associated with the liquid viscosity. Results obtained from molecular simulations have shown that our approach is able to yield good estimates for both static and dynamic thermophysical properties for various real non-associating fluids. In addition, we will show that on simple (e.g. phase diagram, saturation pressure) and complex (e.g. thermodynamic response functions, thermodynamic energy potentials) static properties, results of our scheme generally provides improved results compared to existing approaches.

Keywords: coarse-grained model, mie potential, molecular simulations, thermophysical properties, phase equilibria

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17 Numerical Investigation of Tsunami Flow Characteristics and Energy Reduction through Flexible Vegetation

Authors: Abhishek Mukherjee, Juan C. Cajas, Jenny Suckale, Guillaume Houzeaux, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Simone Marras


The investigation of tsunami flow characteristics and the quantification of tsunami energy reduction through the coastal vegetation is important to understand the protective benefits of nature-based mitigation parks. In the present study, a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic incompressible Computational Fluid Dynamics model with a two-way coupling enabled fluid-structure interaction approach (FSI) is used. After validating the numerical model against experimental data, tsunami flow characteristics have been investigated by varying vegetation density, modulus of elasticity, the gap between stems, and arrangement or distribution of vegetation patches. Streamwise depth average velocity profiles, turbulent kinetic energy, energy flux reflection, and dissipation extracted by the numerical study will be presented in this study. These diagnostics are essential to assess the importance of different parameters to design the proper coastal defense systems. When a tsunami wave reaches the shore, it transforms into undular bores, which induce scour around offshore structures and sediment transport. The bed shear stress, instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, and the vorticity near-bed will be presented to estimate the importance of vegetation to prevent tsunami-induced scour and sediment transport.

Keywords: coastal defense, energy flux, fluid-structure interaction, natural hazards, sediment transport, tsunami mitigation

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16 Experimental Characterization of Anti-Icing System and Accretion of Re-Emitted Droplets on Turbojet Engine Blades

Authors: Guillaume Linassier, Morgan Balland, Hugo Pervier, Marie Pervier, David Hammond


Atmospheric icing for turbojet is caused by ingestion of super-cooled water droplets. To prevent operability risks, manufacturer can implement ice protection systems. Thermal systems are commonly used for this purpose, but their activation can cause the formation of a water liquid film, that can freeze downstream the heated surface or even on other components. In the framework of STORM, a European project dedicated to icing physics in turbojet engines, a cascade rig representative of engine inlet blades was built and tested in an icing wind tunnel. This mock-up integrates two rows of blades, the upstream one being anti-iced using an electro-thermal device the downstream one being unheated. Under icing conditions, the anti-icing system is activated and set at power level to observe a liquid film on the surface and droplet re-emission at the trailing edge. These re-emitted droplets will impinge on the downstream row and contribute to ice accretion. A complete experimental database was generated, including the characterization of ice accretion shapes, and the characterization of electro-thermal anti-icing system (power limit for apparition of the runback water or ice accretion). These data will be used for validation of numerical tools for modeling thermal anti-icing systems in the scope of engine application, as well as validation of re-emission droplets model for stator parts.

Keywords: turbomachine, anti-icing, cascade rig, runback water

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15 Saponins vs Anthraquinones: Different Chemicals, Similar Ecological Roles in Marine Symbioses

Authors: Guillaume Caulier, Lola Brasseur, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut


Saponins and quinones are two major groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the biosphere. More specifically, triterpenoid saponins and anthraquinones are mainly found in a wide variety of plants, bacteria and fungi. In the animal kingdom, these natural organic compounds are rare and only found in small quantities in arthropods, marine sponges and echinoderms. In this last group, triterpenoid saponins are specific to holothuroids (sea cucumbers) while anthraquinones are the chemical signature of crinoids (feather stars). Depending on the species, they present different molecular cocktails. Despite presenting different chemical properties, these molecules share numerous similarities. This study compares the biological distribution, the pharmacological effects and the ecological roles of holothuroid saponins and crinoid anthraquinones. Both of them have been defined as allomones repelling predators and parasites (i.e. chemical defense) and have interesting pharmacological properties (e.g. anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer). Our study investigates the chemical ecology of two symbiotic associations models; between the snapping shrimp Synalpheus stimpsonii associated with crinoids and the Harlequin crab Lissocarcinus orbicularis associated with holothuroids. Using behavioral experiments in olfactometers, chemical extractions and mass spectrometry analyses, we discovered that saponins and anthraquinones present a second ecological role: the attraction of obligatory symbionts towards their hosts. They can, therefore, be defined as kairomones. This highlights a new paradigm in marine chemical ecology: Chemical repellents are attractants to obligatory symbionts because they constitute host specific chemical signatures.

Keywords: anthraquinones, kairomones, marine symbiosis, saponins, attractant

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14 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys


During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: comfort, dentists, garment, thermal

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13 Computational Aided Approach for Strut and Tie Model for Non-Flexural Elements

Authors: Mihaja Razafimbelo, Guillaume Herve-Secourgeon, Fabrice Gatuingt, Marina Bottoni, Tulio Honorio-De-Faria


The challenge of the research is to provide engineering with a robust, semi-automatic method for calculating optimal reinforcement for massive structural elements. In the absence of such a digital post-processing tool, design office engineers make intensive use of plate modelling, for which automatic post-processing is available. Plate models in massive areas, on the other hand, produce conservative results. In addition, the theoretical foundations of automatic post-processing tools for reinforcement are those of reinforced concrete beam sections. As long as there is no suitable alternative for automatic post-processing of plates, optimal modelling and a significant improvement of the constructability of massive areas cannot be expected. A method called strut-and-tie is commonly used in civil engineering, but the result itself remains very subjective to the calculation engineer. The tool developed will facilitate the work of supporting the engineers in their choice of structure. The method implemented consists of defining a ground-structure built on the basis of the main constraints resulting from an elastic analysis of the structure and then to start an optimization of this structure according to the fully stressed design method. The first results allow to obtain a coherent return in the first network of connecting struts and ties, compared to the cases encountered in the literature. The evolution of the tool will then make it possible to adapt the obtained latticework in relation to the cracking states resulting from the loads applied during the life of the structure, cyclic or dynamic loads. In addition, with the constructability constraint, a final result of reinforcement with an orthogonal arrangement with a regulated spacing will be implemented in the tool.

Keywords: strut and tie, optimization, reinforcement, massive structure

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12 Spinochromes: Kairomones Involved in the Symbiosis between the Shrimp Tuleariocaris holthuisi and Echinometra mathaei

Authors: Lola Brasseur, Guillaume Caulier, Marie Demeyer, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut


Seawater being an ideal dispersing agent, chemical communication stays predominant in marine ecosystems. However, if many molecules acting in chemical heterospecific communication have already been well described in terrestrial ecosystems, only three of these molecules were identified in marine ecosystems. Echinoderms and their symbiotic organisms constitute very good models to study heterospecific chemical communication because each class synthesizes a specific type of molecules and symbioses with echinoderms as hosts are very usual. In this study, the chemical communication that allows the commensal shrimps Tuleariocaris holthuisi Hipeau-Jacquotte, 1965 to live with their host Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) was investigated. The chemoreception of the shrimp was characterized using olfactometers and it was demonstrated that hosts and synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinones are attractive to the symbiotic shrimps. Hydroxynaphthoquinonic pigments also known as spinochromes are by the way synthesized by sea urchin and involved in all probability in a lot of mechanisms. To our knowledge, this study is the first highlighting the ecological function of naphthoquinones as kairomones. Chemical extractions were also performed on sea urchins in order to analyze and identify their specific hydroxynaphthoquinones using HPLC-ESI-MS. Accurate mass identification and elemental composition have been performed on various organs (gonads, coelomic liquid, digestive system and test) in different morphotypes of Echinometra mathaei for a better understanding of the molecular diversity of these semiochemicals. Moreover, some experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of T. holthuisi for their host. First, the analyses showed that the molecules involved in shrimp pigmentation are the same that the ones involved in E. mathaei, suggesting a potential feeding on the host. Secondly, a substantial shrimp depigmentation and an increase of the mortality rate were demonstrated after the symbionts-host separation which could mean a potential implication of spinochromes in the shrimp metabolism.

Keywords: crustacean, sea urchin, spinochrome, symbiosis

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11 Influence of Thermal Damage on the Mechanical Strength of Trimmed CFRP

Authors: Guillaume Mullier, Jean François Chatelain


Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) are widely used for advanced applications, in particular in aerospace, automotive and wind energy industries. Once cured to near net shape, CFRP parts need several finishing operations such as trimming, milling or drilling in order to accommodate fastening hardware and meeting the final dimensions. The present research aims to study the effect of the cutting temperature in trimming on the mechanical strength of high performance CFRP laminates used for aeronautics applications. The cutting temperature is of great importance when dealing with trimming of CFRP. Temperatures higher than the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the resin matrix are highly undesirable: they cause degradation of the matrix in the trimmed edges area, which can severely affect the mechanical performance of the entire component. In this study, a 9.50 mm diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool with six flutes was used to trim 24-plies CFRP laminates. A 300 m/min cutting speed and 1140 mm/min feed rate were used in the experiments. The tool was heated prior to trimming using a blowtorch, for temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C. The temperature at the cutting edge was measured using embedded K-Type thermocouples. Samples trimmed for different cutting temperatures, below and above Tg, were mechanically tested using three-points bending short-beam loading configurations. New cutting tools as well as worn cutting tools were utilized for the experiments. The experiments with the new tools could not prove any correlation between the length of cut, the cutting temperature and the mechanical performance. Thus mechanical strength was constant, regardless of the cutting temperature. However, for worn tools, producing a cutting temperature rising up to 450°C, thermal damage of the resin was observed. The mechanical tests showed a reduced mean resistance in short beam configuration, while the resistance in three point bending decreases with increase of the cutting temperature.

Keywords: composites, trimming, thermal damage, surface quality

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10 Use of Numerical Tools Dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur


This study shows the opportunity to use numerical tools dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock. Indeed, some lawful requirements can now be demonstrated by using numerical tools. The first part of this study presents the use of modelling evacuation tool to satisfy the criteria of evacuation time for the rolling stock. The buildingEXODUS software is used to model and simulate the evacuation of rolling stock. Firstly, in order to demonstrate the reliability of this tool to calculate the complete evacuation time, a comparative study was achieved between a real test and simulations done with buildingEXODUS. Multiple simulations are performed to capture the stochastic variations in egress times. Then, a new study is done to calculate the complete evacuation time of a train with the same geometry but with a different interior architecture. The second part of this study shows some applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. This work presents the approach of a multi scales validation of numerical simulations of standardized tests with Fire Dynamics Simulations software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work highlights in first the cone calorimeter test, described in the standard ISO 5660, in order to characterize the fire reaction of materials. The aim of this process is to readjust measurement results from the cone calorimeter test in order to create a data set usable at the seat scale. In the second step, the modelisation concerns the fire seat test described in the standard EN 45545-2. The data set obtained thanks to the validation of the cone calorimeter test was set up in the fire seat test. To conclude with the third step, after controlled the data obtained for the seat from the cone calorimeter test, a larger scale simulation with a real part of train is achieved.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, multi-scales validation

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9 Murine Pulmonary Responses after Sub-Chronic Exposure to Environmental Ultrafine Particles

Authors: Yara Saleh, Sebastien Antherieu, Romain Dusautoir, Jules Sotty, Laurent Alleman, Ludivine Canivet, Esperanza Perdrix, Pierre Dubot, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Guillaume Garcon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice


Air pollution is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk factor, through the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancers. They are composed of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1 respectively). Ultrafine particles are emerging unregulated pollutants that might have greater toxicity than larger particles, since they are more abundant and consequently have higher surface area per unit of mass. Our project aims to develop a relevant in vivo model of sub-chronic exposure to atmospheric particles in order to elucidate the specific respiratory impact of ultrafine particles compared to fine particulate matter. Quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) and fine (PM2.5) particles have been collected in the urban industrial zone of Dunkirk in north France during a 7-month campaign, and submitted to physico-chemical characterization. BALB/c mice were then exposed intranasally to 10µg of PM0.18 or PM2.5 3 times a week. After 1 or 3-month exposure, broncho alveolar lavages (BAL) were performed and lung tissues were harvested for histological and transcriptomic analyses. The physico-chemical study of the collected particles shows that there is no major difference in elemental and surface chemical composition between PM0.18 and PM2.5. Furthermore, the results of the cytological analyses carried out show that both types of particulate fractions can be internalized in lung cells. However, the cell count in BAL and preliminary transcriptomic data suggest that PM0.18 could be more reactive and induce a stronger lung inflammation in exposed mice than PM2.5. Complementary studies are in progress to confirm these first data and to identify the metabolic pathways more specifically associated with the toxicity of ultrafine particles.

Keywords: environmental pollution, lung affect, mice, ultrafine particles

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