Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Tlemcen

14 Dynamics of Plant Communities with Chamaerops humilis in the Region of Tlemcen

Authors: O. Hasnaoui, A. Bekkouche, A. Mostefai, M. Bouazza


The region of Tlemcen (west Algeria) is known by their very important floral diversity bound to the conjugation of the multiple factors. Chamaerops humilis covers a big surface in this region, which appears in the majority of the cases in the form of more or less degraded matorral. Our work is dedicated to the comparative analysis of the groupings in chamaeropaie of the mounts of Tlemcen and mounts of traras, based on a phytoécologique approach. Four representative stations of chamaeropaies were retained to make this work. 120 floristic surveys were realized by using a minimal area of 100 m2. The obtained results show that the Mounts of Tlemcen present a wealth more important than those met at the level of the Mounts of Traras. More we go away from the coast towards the Mounts of Tlemcen, we notice a regressive evolution and a transformation of the plant carpet towards a thérophytisation, as well as an accentuation of the aridity.

Keywords: Tlemcen, west Algeria, Chamaerops humilis L., phytoécological, floristic survey, thérophytisation

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13 Energy System for Algerian Green Building in Tlemcen, North Africa

Authors: M. A. Boukli Hacene, N. E.Chabane Sari, A. Benzair


This article highlights a method for natural heating and cooling of systems in areas of moderate climate. Movement of air is generated inside a space by an underground piping system. In this paper, we discuss a feasibility study in Algeria of air-conditioning using a ground source heat pump (GSHP) with vertical mounting, coupled with a solar collector. This study consists of modeling ground temperature at different depths, for a clay soil in the city of Tlemcen. Our model is developed from the non-stationary heat equation for a homogeneous medium and takes into consideration the soil thermal diffusivity. It uses the daily ambient temperature during a typical year for the locality of Tlemcen. The study shows the feasibility of using a heating/cooling GSHP in the town of Tlemcen for the particular soil type; and indicates that the duration of air flow in the borehole has a major influence on the outgoing temperature drilling.

Keywords: green building, heat pump, insulation, climate change

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12 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria


The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: olivier, ecology, biometrics, Tlemcen, Algeria

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11 Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria

Authors: Nassima Elyebdri, Asma Boumediou, Soumia Addoun


Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. The toxic plants contain diverse natural substances which supplied a lot of medicine in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 ± 16 years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. 80 medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. 11% of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. Among toxics plants, the most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethno-pharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.

Keywords: ethnobotany, phytotherapy, Tlemcen, toxic plants

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10 Phytodiversity and Phytogeographic Characterization Stands of Pistacia lentiscus L. in the Coastal Region of Honaine, Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: I. Benmehdi, O. Hasnaoui, N. Hachemi, M. Bouazza


The Understanding of the mechanisms structuring of plant diversity in the region of Tlemcen (western Algeria) is a related problem. The current floristic composition of different groups in Pistacia lentiscus L. resulting from the combination of human and climate action. This study is devoted to biodiversity inventory and phytogeographic characterization of Pistacia lentiscus groups in the Honaine coastal (western Algeria). The floristic inventory (150 levels) made in three stations of the study area allowed to count a 109 species belonging to 44 families of vascular plants. The biogeographical analysis of the Pistacia lentiscus groups reveals the most representative elements. The Mediterranean elements are numerically the most dominant with 39.45% represented by: Pistacia lentiscus, Cistus monspeliensis, Plantago lagopus, Linum strictum, Echium vulgare; followed by the western Mediterranean elements with 10.09% and are represented by: Chamaerops humilis, Lavandula dentata, Ampelodesma mauritanicum and Iris xyphium. However, this phytotaxonomic wealth is exposed to anthropogenic impact causing its disruption see its decline.

Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus L., phytodiversity, phytogeography, honaine, western Algeria

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9 A Sociolinguistic Study of the Outcomes of Arabic-French Contact in the Algerian Dialect Tlemcen Speech Community as a Case Study

Authors: R. Rahmoun-Mrabet


It is acknowledged that our style of speaking changes according to a wide range of variables such as gender, setting, the age of both the addresser and the addressee, the conversation topic, and the aim of the interaction. These differences in style are noticeable in monolingual and multilingual speech communities. Yet, they are more observable in speech communities where two or more codes coexist. The linguistic situation in Algeria reflects a state of bilingualism because of the coexistence of Arabic and French. Nevertheless, like all Arab countries, it is characterized by diglossia i.e. the concomitance of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Algerian Arabic (AA), the former standing for the ‘high variety’ and the latter for the ‘low variety’. The two varieties are derived from the same source but are used to fulfil distinct functions that is, MSA is used in the domains of religion, literature, education and formal settings. AA, on the other hand, is used in informal settings, in everyday speech. French has strongly affected the Algerian language and culture because of the historical background of Algeria, thus, what can easily be noticed in Algeria is that everyday speech is characterized by code-switching from dialectal Arabic and French or by the use of borrowings. Tamazight is also very present in many regions of Algeria and is the mother tongue of many Algerians. Yet, it is not used in the west of Algeria, where the study has been conducted. The present work, which was directed in the speech community of Tlemcen-Algeria, aims at depicting some of the outcomes of the contact of Arabic with French such as code-switching, borrowing and interference. The question that has been asked is whether Algerians are aware of their use of borrowings or not. Three steps are followed in this research; the first one is to depict the sociolinguistic situation in Algeria and to describe the linguistic characteristics of the dialect of Tlemcen, which are specific to this city. The second one is concerned with data collection. Data have been collected from 57 informants who were given questionnaires and who have then been classified according to their age, gender and level of education. Information has also been collected through observation, and note taking. The third step is devoted to analysis. The results obtained reveal that most Algerians are aware of their use of borrowings. The present work clarifies how words are borrowed from French, and then adapted to Arabic. It also illustrates the way in which singular words inflect into plural. The results expose the main characteristics of borrowing as opposed to code-switching. The study also clarifies how interference occurs at the level of nouns, verbs and adjectives.

Keywords: bilingualism, borrowing, code-switching, interference, language contact

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8 South-Mediterranean Oaks Forests Management in Changing Climate Case of the National Park of Tlemcen-Algeria

Authors: K. Bencherif, M. Bellifa


The expected climatic changes in North Africa are the increase of both intensity and frequencies of the summer droughts and a reduction in water availability during growing season. The exiting coppices and forest formations in the national park of Tlemcen are dominated by holm oak, zen oak and cork oak. These opened-fragmented structures don’t seem enough strong so to hope durable protection against climate change. According to the observed climatic tendency, the objective is to analyze the climatic context and its evolution taking into account the eventual behaving of the oak species during the next 20-30 years on one side and the landscaped context in relation with the most adequate sylvicultural models to choose and especially in relation with human activities on another side. The study methodology is based on Climatic synthesis and Floristic and spatial analysis. Meteorological data of the decade 1989-2009 are used to characterize the current climate. An another approach, based on dendrochronological analysis of a 120 years sample Aleppo pine stem growing in the park, is used so to analyze the climate evolution during one century. Results on the climate evolution during the 50 years obtained through climatic predictive models are exploited so to predict the climate tendency in the park. Spatially, in each forest unit of the Park, stratified sampling is achieved so to reduce the degree of heterogeneity and to easily delineate different stands using the GPS. Results from precedent study are used to analyze the anthropogenic factor considering the forecasts for the period 2025-2100, the number of warm days with a temperature over 25°C would increase from 30 to 70. The monthly mean temperatures of the maxima’s (M) and the minima’s (m) would pass respectively from 30.5°C to 33°C and from 2.3°C to 4.8°C. With an average drop of 25%, precipitations will be reduced to 411.37 mm. These new data highlight the importance of the risk fire and the water stress witch would affect the vegetation and the regeneration process. Spatial analysis highlights the forest and the agricultural dimensions of the park compared to the urban habitat and bare soils. Maps show both fragmentation state and forest surface regression (50% of total surface). At the level of the park, fires affected already all types of covers creating low structures with various densities. On the silvi cultural plan, Zen oak form in some places pure stands and this invasion must be considered as a natural tendency where Zen oak becomes the structuring specie. Climate-related changes have nothing to do with the real impact that South-Mediterranean forests are undergoing because human constraints they support. Nevertheless, hardwoods stand of oak in the national park of Tlemcen will face up to unexpected climate changes such as changing rainfall regime associated with a lengthening of the period of water stress, to heavy rainfall and/or to sudden cold snaps. Faced with these new conditions, management based on mixed uneven aged high forest method promoting the more dynamic specie could be an appropriate measure.

Keywords: global warming, mediterranean forest, oak shrub-lands, Tlemcen

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7 Depression among University Students an Epidemiological Study on a Sample of University Students

Authors: Laid Fekih


Background: Depression affects people in all communities across the world and in all aspects of their lives. Its spread varies from one country to another, can happen at any age and get rid of it is not easy. There is no clear policy in Algeria's higher education institutions to detect and treat these disorders or pay particular attention to those at risk. Identifying the prevalence of depression among Algerian students, its correlation with different variables, and studying gender differences in the light of a range of variables is necessary to develop an appropriate plan to raise the level of hope and love of life among students. Method: Random samples of 1500 University of Tlemcen students (967 girls and 533 boys), aged 19 to 24 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Beck's Depression Inventory ®-II (BDI®-II), (School Health Promotion: The Mood part), Other questions included in this survey focused on demographic characteristics including gender, age and year of study, academic performance (Annual Average Score (0-20) AAS), were examined. Results: The rate of depression (moderate, severe and extreme) varied from 03% to 13% among university students in Tlemcen University. There was no difference in the rates of depression in male and female students, which means that male and female students do have similar rates of depression. The rate of depression in the first-year of the study shows a higher score relative to students of other years. Depression has a negative relationship with academic performance, which means that depressed students have many difficulties in academic tasks at university. Conclusion: Depression among university students is an important center of interest in the world, not only because of the ease with which they can be followed, or the difficulties encountered during their studies and their technical courses but for the link between the level of depression and the quality of care of mental health services, especially if many students with mood and emotional problems don't meet the criteria for psychotherapy.

Keywords: depression, epidemiology, university students, academic performance

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6 Chemical Composition Pistachio Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nadjiba Mezıou-Cheboutı, Amel Merabet, Yahia Cheboutı, Nassima Behidj, Fatima-Zohra Bıssaad et Salahedine Doumandjı


Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila . Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60 ± 0.45%, the water rate is 7.21 ± 0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00 ± 0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02 ± 0.47%, the protein reached 29.88 ± 0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: pistachio, dry matter, fat, sugar, protein

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5 The Chemical Composition of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nadjiba Meziou-Chebouti, Amel Merabet, Yahia Chebouti, Nassima Behidj, Salahedine Doumandji


Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila. Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60±0.45%, the water rate is 7.21±0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00±0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02±0.47%, the protein reached 29.88±0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: pistachio, dry matter, fat, sugar, protein

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4 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti


Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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3 The Impact of Culture in Teaching English, the Case Study of Preparatory School of Sciences and Techniques

Authors: Nouzha Yasmina Soulimane-Benhabib


Language is a medium of communication and a means of expression that is why today the learning of foreign languages especially the English language has become a basic necessity for every student who is ambitious. It is known that culture and language are inseparable and complementary, however, in the process of teaching a foreign language, teachers used to focus mainly on preparing adequate syllabi for ESP students, yet, some parameters should be considered. For instance; the culture of the target language may play an important role since students attitudes towards a foreign language enhance their learning or vice versa. The aim of this study is to analyse how culture could influence the teaching of a foreign language, we have taken the example of the English language as it is considered as the second foreign language in Algeria after French. The study is conducted at the Preparatory School of Sciences and Techniques, Tlemcen where twenty-five students participated in this research. The reasons behind learning the English language are various, and since English is the most widely-spoken language in the world, it is the language of research and education and it is used in many other fields, we have to take into consideration one important factor which is the social distance between the culture of the Algerian learner and the culture of the target language, this gap may lead to a culture shock. Two steps are followed in this research: The first one is to collect data from those students who are studying at the Preparatory School under the form of questionnaire and an interview is submitted to six of them in order to reinforce our research and get effective and precise results, and the second step is to analyse these data taking into consideration the diversity of the learners within this institution. The results obtained show that learners’ attitudes towards the English community and culture are mixed and it may influence their curiosity and attention to learn. Despite of big variance between Algerian and European cultures, some of the students focused mainly on the benefits of the English language since they need it in their studies, research and a future carrier, however, the others manifest their reluctance towards this language and this is mainly due to the profound impact of the English culture which is different from the Algerian one.

Keywords: Algeria, culture, English, impact

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2 Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections

Authors: Ouassila Bekkal Brikci Benhabib, Zahia Boucherit Otmani, Kebir Boucherit, A. Seghir


The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.

Keywords: candida, biofilm, hospital, infection, amphotericin B, caspofungin

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1 Dietary Micronutritient and Health among Youth in Algeria

Authors: Allioua Meryem


Similar to much of the developing world, Algeria is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition. While mal- and under-nutrition and infectious diseases used to be the main causes of poor health, today there is a higher proportion of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, etc. According to estimates for Algeria from the World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs accounted for 63% of all deaths in 2010. The objective of this study was the assessment of eating habits and anthropometric characteristics in a group of youth aged 15 to 19 years in Tlemcen. This study was conducted on a total effective of 806 youth enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional study; the classification of nutritional status has been established by international standards IOTF, youth were defined as obese if they had a BMI ≥ 95th percentile, and youth with 85th ≤ BMI ≤ 95th percentile were defined as overweight. Wc is classified by the criteria HD, Wc with moderate risk ≥ 90th percentile and Wc with high risk ≥ 95th percentile. The dietary assessment was based on a 24-hour dietary recall assisted by food records. USDA’S nutrient database for Nutrinux® program was used to analyze dietary intake. Nutrients adequacy ratio was calculated by dividing daily individual intake to dietary recommended intake DRI for each nutrient. 9% of the population was overweight, 3% was obese, 7.5% had abdominal obesity, foods eaten in moderation are chips, cookies, chocolate 1-3 times/day and increased consumption of fried foods in the week, almost half of youth consume sugary drinks more than 3 times per week, we observe a decreased intake of energy, protein (P < 0.001, P = 0.003), SFA (P = 0.018), the NAR of phosphorus, iron, magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin E, folate, niacin, and thiamin reflecting less consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, and milk products. Youth surveyed have eating habits at risk of developing obesity and chronic disease.

Keywords: food intake, health, anthropometric characteristics, Algeria

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