Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13500

Search results for: cognitive development

13500 Cognitive Based Approach to Organizational Development

Authors: Tatiana V. Korsakova

Abstract:

The cognitive methodology in management is considered: Cognitive structuring - the formation of ideas about the functioning of a developing organization; Cognitive modeling - heuristic construction of existing actions (zone of successful actions); and Cognitive construct - the formation of filters for converting external information into specific events of managerial reality. The major findings of the study are the identification of areas of successful actions in the organization, harmonization of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of company management, and the frame-description that indicates the connection of environmental elements with the elements of the organization. It is stated the development of specific events of managerial reality in the direction of the further development of the organization depends on the personal cognitive construct of the development-subjects when it is used in the zone of successful actions.

Keywords: cognitive construct, focus of applicability, knowledge corporate culture, zones of successful actions

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
13499 Parental Engagement with Their Preschoolers’ Cognitive Development Prior to Their Kindergarten Admission: Sharjah-Based Case Study

Authors: Nada Mohammad Eljeshi

Abstract:

In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), preschoolers can enroll in kindergarten after completing four years old by August 31 of their admission year. This study aims to better understand how Sharjah-based parents’ engagement with preschoolers contributes to their phonological awareness, literacy development, and print knowledge before their kindergarten admission considering cognitive development is addressed in the UAE national child care standards. More specifically, it will discuss the importance of cognitive development activities to preschoolers, the rationale behind defining the admission age to kindergarten and compare and benchmark the policy to other countries. To achieve this study's objectives, an online survey was conducted and distributed. Respondents were asked 13 dichotomous questions related to activities that promote the preschooler’s linguistics literacy and cognitive development. The results suggested parents’ emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, it is clear parents’ awareness should occur by introducing various activities such as book reading, that there is a need to introduce and encourage parents to various activities such as reading a printed book and drawings to keep up with their children's cognitive development. The survey results suggested an emphasis on phonological awareness, followed by developing their print knowledge. However, the majority of the surveyed parents did not engage in literacy development with their preschoolers. On this basis, parental awareness of the importance of preschoolers' cognitive development should be developed and engage the parents in understanding their preschooler’s cognitive development before entering kindergarten.

Keywords: preschoolers, cognitive development, parental engagement, Sharjah-based case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
13498 Socio-Economic Sustainability for Artists with Cognitive Disability in Creative Space: Case Studies of Supported Studios in Australia

Authors: Jung Hyoung Yoon

Abstract:

This paper examines ways of building socio-economic sustainability for artists with cognitive disabilities who pursue professional artistic careers in Australia. It investigates two case studies of supported studios in terms of management, inclusivity and accessibility to facilitate professional development and create socio-economic values for artists with cognitive disabilities. This study uses semi-structured interviews with key art directors and staff of supported studios to unfold their experiences on the professional development of artists with cognitive disability at the individual, organizational and societal levels. It also analyses secondary data collection related to management, business strategic plans and marketing. This paper discusses the potentials of socio-economic sustainability for artists with cognitive disabilities through their art practice and careers, as well as the central role of the supported studio in order to achieve such goals for individual artists.

Keywords: artists with cognitive disability, inclusive management, professional development, socio-economic sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
13497 The Negative Implications of Childhood Obesity and Malnutrition on Cognitive Development

Authors: Stephanie Remedios, Linda Veronica Rios

Abstract:

Background. Pediatric obesity is a serious health problem linked to multiple physical diseases and ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, and joint issues. While research has shown pediatric obesity can bring about an array of physical illnesses, it is less known how such a condition can affect children’s cognitive development. With childhood overweight and obesity prevalence rates on the rise, it is essential to understand the scope of their cognitive consequences. The present review of the literature tested the hypothesis that poor physical health, such as childhood obesity or malnutrition, negatively impacts a child’s cognitive development. Methodology. A systematic review was conducted to determine the relationship between poor physical health and lower cognitive functioning in children ages 4-16. Electronic databases were searched for studies dating back to ten years. The following databases were used: Science Direct, FIU Libraries, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria consisted of peer-reviewed academic articles written in English from 2012 to 2022 that analyzed the relationship between childhood malnutrition and obesity on cognitive development. A total of 17,000 articles were obtained, of which 16,987 were excluded for not addressing the cognitive implications exclusively. Of the acquired articles, 13 were retained. Results. Research suggested a significant connection between diet and cognitive development. Both diet and physical activity are strongly correlated with higher cognitive functioning. Cognitive domains explored in this work included learning, memory, attention, inhibition, and impulsivity. IQ scores were also considered objective representations of overall cognitive performance. Studies showed physical activity benefits cognitive development, primarily for executive functioning and language development. Additionally, children suffering from pediatric obesity or malnutrition were found to score 3-10 points lower in IQ scores when compared to healthy, same-aged children. Conclusion. This review provides evidence that the presence of physical activity and overall physical health, including appropriate diet and nutritional intake, has beneficial effects on cognitive outcomes. The primary conclusion from this research is that childhood obesity and malnutrition show detrimental effects on cognitive development in children, primarily with learning outcomes. Assuming childhood obesity and malnutrition rates continue their current trade, it is essential to understand the complete physical and psychological implications of obesity and malnutrition in pediatric populations. Given the limitations encountered through our research, further studies are needed to evaluate the areas of cognition affected during childhood.

Keywords: childhood malnutrition, childhood obesity, cognitive development, cognitive functioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
13496 Impact of Early Father Involvement on Middle Childhood Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

Authors: Jamel Slaughter

Abstract:

Father involvement across the development of a child has been linked to children’s psychological adjustment, fewer behavioral problems, and higher educational attainment. Conversely, there is much less research that highlights father involvement in relation to childhood development during early childhood period prior to preschool age (ages 1-3 years). Most research on fathers and child outcomes have been limited by its focus on the stages of adolescence, middle childhood, and infancy. This study examined the influence of father involvement, during the toddler stage, on 5th grade cognitive development, rule-breaking, and behavior outcomes measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) Study, 1996-2010: United States, a total of 3,001 children and families were identified in 17 sites (cities), representing a diverse demographic sample. An independent samples t-test was run to compare cognitive development, aggressive, and rule-breaking behavior mean scores among children who had early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months to children who did not have early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine if continuous, or non-continuous father involvement (14 month-36 months), can be used to predict outcome scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and cognitive development, at 5th grade. A statistically significant mean difference in cognitive development scores were found for children who had continuous father involvement (M=1.92, SD=2.41, t (1009) =2.81, p =.005, 95% CI=.146 to .828) compared to those who did not (M=2.60, SD=3.06, t (1009) =-2.38, p=.017, 95% CI= -1.08 to -.105). There was also a statistically significant mean difference in rule-breaking behavior scores between children who had early continuous father involvement (M=1.95, SD=2.33, t (1009) = 3.69, p <.001, 95% CI= .287 to .940), compared to those that did not (M=2.87, SD=2.93, t (1009) = -3.49, p =.001, 95% CI= -1.30 to -.364). No statistically significant difference was found in aggressive behavior scores. Multiple linear regression was performed using continuous father involvement to determine which has the largest relationship to rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development based on CBCL scores. Rule-breaking behavior was found to be significant (F (2, 1008) = 8.353, p<.001), with an R2 of .016. Cognitive development was also significant (F (2, 1008) = 4.44, p=.012), with an R2 of .009. Early continuous father involvement was a significant predictor of rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development at middle childhood. Findings suggest early continuous father involvement during the first 14 – 36 months of their children’s life, may lead to lower levels of rule-breaking behaviors and thought problems at 5th grade.

Keywords: cognitive development, early continuous father involvement, middle childhood, rule-breaking behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
13495 Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity

Authors: Barbara Gawda

Abstract:

Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.

Keywords: attachment styles, cognitive rigidity, dogmatism, intolerance of ambiguity

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
13494 Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Cognitive Development: Preliminary Analyses of a 12-Month Follow-Up

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Introduction: Over the last decade, researchers have implemented attachment-based interventions to promote parental interactive sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families. In the context of the present study, these interventions have been shown to be effective to enhance cognitive development when child outcome was measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child cognitive development one year post-intervention. Methods: Thirty-five mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, were included in this study: 21 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 14 dyads not exposed to the intervention and matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex and family status. Child cognitive development was measured using the WPPSI-IV, 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children was 54 months old. Findings: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores obtained on the WPPSI-IV for the two groups. In general, no differences were observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference on the fluid reasoning scale between children exposed to the intervention (M = 95,13, SD = 16,67) and children not exposed (M = 81, SD = 9,90). T (23) = -2,657; p= .014 (IC :-25.13;3.12). This difference was found only for children aged between 48 and 92 months old. Other results did not show any significant difference between the two groups (Global IQ or subscales). Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggest that relatively little effects of attachment-based intervention remain on the level of cognitive functioning 12-months post-intervention. It is possible that the significant findings concerning fluid reasoning may be pertinent in that fluid reasoning is linked to the capacity to analyse, to solve problems, and remember information, which may be important for promoting school readiness. As the study is completed and as more information is gained from other assessments of cognitive and socioemotional outcome, a clearer picture of the potential moderate-term impact of attachment-based intervention will emerge.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child development, child protective services, cognitive development

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
13493 Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools

Authors: Viola Hubačová Pirová

Abstract:

The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.

Keywords: assessment of psychomotor development, preschool children, psychomotor development, review of assessment tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
13492 Tablet Computer Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program, Injini, for Children with Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng

Abstract:

Cognitive impairment is commonly encountered problem in children with various clinical diseases, including Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, brain injury, and others. Cognitive impairment limits participation in education and society, and this further hinders development in cognition. However, young children with cognitive impairment tend not to respond well to traditional cognitive treatments, therefore alternative treatment choices are need. As a cognitive training program, touch screen technology can easily be applied to very young children by involving visual and auditory support. Injini was developed as tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program for young children or individuals with severe cognitive impairment, which targeted on cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for children with cognitive impairment. 38 children between cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months confirmed by cognitive evaluations were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=20) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group received tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for 30 minutes per session, twice a week, over a period of 12 weeks, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation program. The control group received traditional rehabilitation program only. Mental score of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of therapeutic intervention. When comparing the baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the measurements of cognitive function. After 12 weeks of treatment, both group showed improvements in all measurements. However, in comparison of improvements after treatment, the intervention group showed more improvements in the mental score of BSID II, social function domain of PEDI, observation domain of Lab-TAB, and GAS, as compared to the control group. Application of the tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) would be beneficial for improvement of cognitive function in young children with cognitive impairment.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, computer-assisted therapy, early intervention, tablets

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
13491 Symbolic Play and Language: A Developmental Relationship

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy

Abstract:

Play activities have long been utilized to support the development of expressive language in young children. More specifically, stages of symbolic play, or pretend play, have served as indicators of levels of cognitive development, the foundation of language. This presentation will examine the relationship between symbolic play and language development in toddlers and preschoolers. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: cognition, language development, pretend play, symbolic play

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
13490 Bridging the Gap: Theoretical Challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies and the Language Industry

Authors: Alvaro Marin

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) conceptual development to accommodate professionals’ perceptions in the language industry into CTS established theoretical apparatus, empirical research projects, and university pedagogical proposals. A comparative conceptual assessment framework is developed from a pluralist epistemological stance that promotes interdisciplinary explorations of the translation process. The framework is used to review key notions such as expertise or feedback, as understood by language industry stakeholders. This review is followed by an analysis of how these notions can enrich research constructs to be applied in empirical investigations of translators’ cognitive processes from an embedded, situated cognition perspective. Thus, it will be proposed to apply the conceptual assessment framework as an effort towards strengthening the interpretative research tools and bridging the gap between industry and academia. The conclusions of this analysis will serve as a basis to further discuss how professional practices, combined with our current knowledge about expertise development in cognitive science and Expertise Studies, can enhance the learning experience of university translation students and help them better understand the processes and requirements of professional cross-linguistic mediation.

Keywords: language industry, cognitive translation studies, translation cognitive theory, translation teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
13489 Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Theoretical-and-Pedagogical e-Framework for Language Development

Authors: Boon Yih Mah

Abstract:

Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI)’s contribution towards language development can be divided into linguistic and non-linguistic perspectives. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI focuses on the literacy and language discoveries, while the cognitive and psychological discoveries are the hubs in non-linguistic perspective. In linguistic perspective, WeCWI draws attention to free reading and enterprises, which are supported by the language acquisition theories. Besides, the adoption of process genre approach as a hybrid guided writing approach fosters literacy development. Literacy and language developments are interconnected in the communication process; hence, WeCWI encourages meaningful discussion based on the interactionist theory that involves input, negotiation, output, and interactional feedback. Rooted in the e-learning interaction-based model, WeCWI promotes online discussion via synchronous and asynchronous communications, which allows interactions happened among the learners, instructor, and digital content. In non-linguistic perspective, WeCWI highlights on the contribution of reading, discussion, and writing towards cognitive development. Based on the inquiry models, learners’ critical thinking is fostered during information exploration process through interaction and questioning. Lastly, to lower writing anxiety, WeCWI develops the instructional tool with supportive features to facilitate the writing process. To bring a positive user experience to the learner, WeCWI aims to create the instructional tool with different interface designs based on two different types of perceptual learning style.

Keywords: WeCWI, literacy discovery, language discovery, cognitive discovery, psychological discovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
13488 Studying Second Language Development from a Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the application of complex dynamic system theory (DST) to the study of individual differences in second language development. This transdisciplinary framework allows researchers to view the trajectory of language development as a dynamic, non-linear process. A DST approach views language as multi-componential, consisting of multiple complex systems and nested layers. These multiple components and systems continuously interact and influence each other at both the macro- and micro-level. Dynamic systems theory aims to explain and describe the development of the language system, rather than make predictions about its trajectory. Such a holistic and ecological approach to second language development allows researchers to include various research methods from neurological, cognitive, and social perspectives. A DST perspective would involve in-depth analyses as well as mixed methods research. To illustrate, a neurobiological approach to second language development could include non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate areas of brain activation during language-related tasks. A cognitive framework would further include behavioural research methods to assess the influence of intelligence and personality traits, as well as individual differences in foreign language aptitude, such as phonetic coding ability and working memory capacity. Exploring second language development from a DST approach would also benefit from including perspectives from the field of applied linguistics, regarding the teaching context, second language input, and the role of affective factors such as motivation. In this way, applying mixed research methods from neurobiological, cognitive, and social approaches would enable researchers to have a more holistic view of the dynamic and complex processes of second language development.

Keywords: dynamic systems theory, mixed methods, research design, second language development

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
13487 The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Performance

Authors: Omar Al Ali

Abstract:

The current study was aimed to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and leader's performance. Data were collected from 260 senior managers from UAE. The results showed that there are significant relationships between emotional intelligence and leadership performance as measured by the annual internal evaluations of each participant (r = .42, p < .01). Data from regression analysis revealed that both variables namely emotional intelligence (beta = .31, p < .01), and cognitive ability (beta = .29, p < .01), predicted leadership competencies, and together explained 26% of its variance. Data suggests that EI and cognitive ability are significantly correlated with leadership performance. In depth implications of the present findings for human resource development theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, leadership, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
13486 Modeling Child Development Factors for the Early Introduction of ICTs in Schools

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affecting the early introduction of ICTs in schools in an attempt to improve the understanding of child development and introduction of ICTs in schools. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of child development theories and child development factors. The child development theoretical framework that fitted to the best of all child development factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the Jean Piaget cognitive developmental theory is the most adequate theoretical frameworks for modeling child development factors for ICT introduction in schools.

Keywords: child development factors, child development theories, ICTs, theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
13485 The Relationship between Creative Imagination and Curriculum

Authors: Faride Hashemiannejad, Shima Oloomi

Abstract:

Imagination is one of the important elements of creative thinking which as a skill needs attention by the educational system. Although most students learn reading, writing, and arithmetic skills well, they lack high level thinking skills like creative thinking. Therefore, in the information age and in the beginning of entry to knowledge-based society, the educational system needs to think over its goals and mission, and concentrate on creativity-based curriculum. From among curriculum elements-goals, content, method and evaluation “method” is a major domain whose reform can pave the way for fostering imagination and creativity. The purpose of this study was examining the relationship between creativity development and curriculum. Research questions were: (1) is there a relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and creativity development? (2) Is there a relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and creativity development? (3) Is there a relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and creativity development? (4) Is there a relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and creativity development? (5) Is there a relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and creativity development? Method: This research is a applied research and the research method is Correlational research. Participants: The total number of participants in this study included 894 students from High school through 11th grade from seven schools of seven zones in Mashad city. Sampling Plan: Sampling was selected based on Random Multi State. Measurement: The dependent measure in this study was: (a) the Test of Creative Thinking, (b) The researcher-made questionnaire includes five fragments, cognitive, emotional structure, environmental social structure, thinking structure, physical structure, and instructional structure. The Results Show: There was significant relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.139). There was significant relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.006). There was significant relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.004). There was not significant relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.215). There was significant relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.003). These findings denote if students feel secure, calm and confident, they can experience creative learning. Also the quality of coping with students’ questions, imaginations and risks can influence on their creativity development.

Keywords: imagination, creativity, curriculum, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
13484 Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Stunted Egyptian Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: An Interventional Study

Authors: Ghada M. El-Kassas, Maged A. El Wakeel, Salwa R. El-Zayat

Abstract:

Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary omega-3 might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether omega-3 supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: 100 Egyptian stunted children aged 1-5 years and 100 age and gender-matched normal children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, we assessed anthropometric measures and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED). Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral n-3 (omega-3) LC-PUFA at a dosage of 500 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory and cognitive assessment. Results: Fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. (MPO), (NEO) and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the 2ry phase (P < 0.001 for all). Omega-3 supplementation resulted also in a significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both). Cases showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusions: Omega-3 supplementation successfully improved intestinal inflammatory state related to EED. Also, some improvement of anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with omega-3 supplementation.

Keywords: cognitive functions, EED, omega-3, stunting

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
13483 Clinical Neuropsychology in India: Challenges and Achievements

Authors: Garima Joshi, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Neuropsychology in India is a fairly new field, having started only four decades back. Neuropsychology has come a long way since the establishment of the first department, from using western batteries for assessing patients to the development of highly reliable indigenous tools for assessing neuropsychological functioning. Clinical neuropsychology has risen as a discipline in the field of assessing and rehabilitating patients with various neurological conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and other disorders with cognitive decline. The current review attempts to assimilate the history of the discipline in India, along with the current developments and future direction of the field and highlights the pursuit and undertakings of the scientists to provide culturally appropriate services, in terms of assessment and rehabilitation, to the Indian population.

Keywords: clinical neuropsychology, cognitive assessment, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological test batteries in India

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
13482 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
13481 The Attitudinal Development of Nigerian Children: The Role of Social Studies in the 21st Century

Authors: Agogo Agnes

Abstract:

An attempt was made in the paper to x-ray the progressive and systematic development of the Nigerian child vis-a-vis the role of social studies as a discipline in the 21st century. An indepth explanation was equally made with regards to the commitment and role of teachers in both cognitive and social modification of the attitude of the Nigerian child.

Keywords: social studies, systematic development, social skills, vis-a-vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
13480 Teaching Practices for Subverting Significant Retentive Learner Errors in Arithmetic

Authors: Michael Lousis

Abstract:

The systematic identification of the most conspicuous and significant errors made by learners during three-years of testing of their progress in learning Arithmetic throughout the development of the Kassel Project in England and Greece was accomplished. How much retentive these errors were over three-years in the officially provided school instruction of Arithmetic in these countries has also been shown. The learners’ errors in Arithmetic stemmed from a sample, which was comprised of two hundred (200) English students and one hundred and fifty (150) Greek students. The sample was purposefully selected according to the students’ participation in each testing session in the development of the three-year project, in both domains simultaneously in Arithmetic and Algebra. Specific teaching practices have been invented and are presented in this study for subverting these learners’ errors, which were found out to be retentive to the level of the nationally provided mathematical education of each country. The invention and the development of these proposed teaching practices were founded on the rationality of the theoretical accounts concerning the explanation, prediction and control of the errors, on the conceptual metaphor and on an analysis, which tried to identify the required cognitive components and skills of the specific tasks, in terms of Psychology and Cognitive Science as applied to information-processing. The aim of the implementation of these instructional practices is not only the subversion of these errors but the achievement of the mathematical competence, as this was defined to be constituted of three elements: appropriate representations - appropriate meaning - appropriately developed schemata. However, praxis is of paramount importance, because there is no independent of science ‘real-truth’ and because praxis serves as quality control when it takes the form of a cognitive method.

Keywords: arithmetic, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, information-processing paradigm, Kassel project, level of the nationally provided mathematical education, praxis, remedial mathematical teaching practices, retentiveness of errors

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
13479 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, depression, stroke, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
13478 Analogical Reasoning on Preschoolers’ Linguistic Performance

Authors: Yenie Norambuena

Abstract:

Analogical reasoning is a cognitive process that consists of structured comparisons of mental representations and scheme construction. Because of its heuristic function, it is ubiquitous in cognition and could play an important role in language development. The use of analogies is expressed early in children and this behavior is also reflected in language, suggesting a possible way to understand the complex links between thought and language. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal reasoning that should be taken into consideration in the study of language development for their relations and predictive value. The study was conducted with 48 Chilean preschoolers (Spanish speakers) from 4 to 6-year-old. We assessed children’s verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning and linguistics skills (Listening Comprehension, Phonemic awareness, Alphabetic principle, Syllabification, Lexical repetition and Lexical decision). The results evidenced significant correlations between analogical reasoning factors and linguistic skills and they can predict linguistic performance mainly on oral comprehension, lexical decision and phonological skills. These findings suggest a fundamental interrelationship between analogical reasoning and linguistic performance on children’s and points to the need to consider this cognitive process in comprehensive theories of children's language development.

Keywords: verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning, linguistic skills, language development

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
13477 The Origin and Development of Entrepreneurial Cognition: The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Cognitive Style and Subsequent Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Salma Hussein, Hadia Aziz

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship plays a significant and imperative role in economic and social growth, and therefore, is stimulated and encouraged by governments and academics as a mean of creating job opportunities, innovation, and wealth. Indicative of its importance, it is essential to identify factors that encourage and promote entrepreneurial behavior. This is particularly true for developing countries where the need for entrepreneurial development is high and the resources are scarce, thus, there is a need to maximize the outcomes of investing in entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurial education has been the center of attention and interest among researchers as it is believed to be one of the most critical factors in promoting entrepreneurship over the long run. Accordingly, the urgency to encourage entrepreneurship education and develop an enterprise culture is now a main concern in Egypt. Researchers have postulated that cognition has the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of entrepreneurship. One such contribution that future studies need to consider in entrepreneurship research is the cognitive processes that occur within the individual such as cognitive style. During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive style among researchers and practitioners specifically in innovation and entrepreneurship field. Limited studies pay attention to study the antecedent dynamics that fuel entrepreneurial cognition to better understand its role in entrepreneurship. Moreover, while many studies were conducted on entrepreneurship education, scholars are still hesitant regarding the teachability of entrepreneurship due to the lack of clear evidence of its impact. Furthermore, the relation between cognitive style and entrepreneurial intentions, has yet to be discovered. Hence, this research aims to test the impact of entrepreneurship education on cognitive style and subsequent intention in order to evaluate whether student’s and potential entrepreneur’s cognitive styles are affected by entrepreneurial education and in turn affect their intentions. Understanding the impact of Entrepreneurship Education on ways of thinking and intention is critical for the development of effective education and training in entrepreneurship field. It is proposed that students who are exposed to entrepreneurship education programs will have a more balanced thinking style compared to those students who are not exposed. Moreover, it is hypothesized that students having a balanced cognitive style will exhibit higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions than students having an intuitive or analytical cognitive style. Finally, it is proposed that non-formal entrepreneurship education will be more positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions than will formal entrepreneurship education. The proposed methodology is a pre and post Experimental Design. The sample will include young adults, their age range from 18 till 35 years old including both students enrolled in formal entrepreneurship education programs in private universities as well as young adults who are willing to participate in a Non-Formal entrepreneurship education programs in Egypt. Attention is now given on how far individuals are analytical or intuitive in their cognitive style, to what extent it is possible to have a balanced thinking style and whether or not this can be aided by training or education. Therefore, there is an urge need for further research on entrepreneurial cognition in educational contexts.

Keywords: cognitive style, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship education, experimental design

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
13476 Cognitive Development Theories as Determinant of Children's Brand Recall and Ad Recognition: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Ruchika Sharma

Abstract:

In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research that has examined children’s understanding of TV advertisements and its persuasive intent, socialization of child consumer and child psychology. However, it is evident from the literature review that no studies in this area have covered advertising messages and its impact on children’s brand recall and ad recognition. Copywriters use various creative devices to lure the consumers and very impressionable consumers such as children face far more drastic effects of these creative ways of persuasion. On the basis of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical basis for predicting/understanding children’s response and understanding, a quasi-experiment was carried out for the study, that manipulated measurement timing and advertising messages (familiar vs. unfamiliar) keeping gender and age group as two prominent factors. This study also examines children’s understanding of Advertisements and its elements, predominantly - Language, keeping in view Fishbein’s model. Study revealed significant associations between above mentioned factors and children’s brand recall and ad identification. Further, to test the reliability of the findings on larger sample, bootstrap simulation technique was used. The simulation results are in accordance with the findings of experiment, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from the study can be generalized for entire children’s (as consumers) market in India.

Keywords: advertising, brand recall, cognitive development, preferences

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
13475 Sustainable Development as a Part of Development and Foreign Trade in Turkey

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

Sustainable development is an economic development scope which covers the economic growth included environmental factors. With the help of economic development, the needs of the future generations are going to be met the needs. As it is aimed the environmental conscious, sustainable development focuses on decreasing the damage of natural sources. From this point of view, while sustainable development is environmentally conscious, it also improving the life standards of individuals. The relationship between development and foreign trade on sustainable development is theoretically searched in this study. In the second part, sustainable development at world and EU is searched and in the last part, the sustainability of trade and development in Turkey is stated.

Keywords: development, sustainable development, foreign trade, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
13474 Web-Based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI): A Hybrid e-Framework for Instructional Design

Authors: Boon Yih Mah

Abstract:

Web-based Cognitive Writing Instruction (WeCWI) is a hybrid e-framework that consolidates instructional design and language development towards the development of a web-based instruction (WBI). WeCWI divides instructional design into macro and micro perspectives. In macro perspective, a 21st century educator is encouraged to disseminate knowledge and share ideas with in-class and global learners. By leveraging the virtue of technology, WeCWI aims to transform the educator into an aggregator, curator, publisher, social networker and finally, a web-based instructor. Since the most notable contribution of integrating technology is being a tool of teaching as well as a stimulus for learning, WeCWI focuses on the use of contemporary web tools based on the multiple roles played by the 21st century educator. The micro perspective draws attention to the pedagogical approaches focussing on three main aspects: reading, discussion, and writing. With the effective use of pedagogical approaches, technology adds new dimensions and expands the bounds of learning capacity. Lastly, WeCWI also imparts the fundamental theoretical concepts for web-based instructors’ awareness such as interactionism, e-learning interactional-based model, computer-mediated communication (CMC), cognitive theories, and learning style model.

Keywords: web-based cognitive writing instruction, WeCWI, instructional design, e-framework, web-based instructor

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
13473 The Output Fallacy: An Investigation into Input, Noticing, and Learners’ Mechanisms

Authors: Samantha Rix

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the cognitive processing of learners who receive input but produce very little or no output, and who, when they do produce output, exhibit a similar language proficiency as do those learners who produced output more regularly in the language classroom. Previous studies have investigated the benefits of output (with somewhat differing results); therefore, the presentation will begin with an investigation of what may underlie gains in proficiency without output. Consequently, a pilot study was designed and conducted to gain insight into the cognitive processing of low-output language learners looking, for example, at quantity and quality of noticing. This will be carried out within the paradigm of action classroom research, observing and interviewing low-output language learners in an intensive English program at a small Midwest university. The results of the pilot study indicated that autonomy in language learning, specifically utilizing strategies such self-monitoring, self-talk, and thinking 'out-loud', were crucial in the development of language proficiency for academic-level performance. The presentation concludes with an examination of pedagogical implication for classroom use in order to aide students in their language development.

Keywords: cognitive processing, language learners, language proficiency, learning strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
13472 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

Abstract:

Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
13471 Impact of Neuropsychological Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Controlled, Randomized and Blind Study

Authors: Amanda de Oliveira Ferreira Leite, Ana Luiza del Pino Ferreira, Bruna Garcez Correa, Janaíne de Souza Mello, Marla Manquevich, Mirna Wetters Portuguez

Abstract:

Objective: We sought to investigate a neuropsychological intervention focused on improving cognition, psychological aspects, and quality of life of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. Method: A controlled and randomized study, blind to the evaluator, was executed. We evaluated 78 elderly people, divided into the neuropsychological and control groups, through a semi-structured interview, Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination, Katz Index, Lawton and Brody Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Personal Development Scale, WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL--old. Results: After the intervention, the neuropsychological group showed improvement in the cognitive subtests and in the total score, reduction in the frequency of symptoms associated with anxiety and depression, better psychological well-being, and quality of life. The research highlights useful intervention strategies for improving the general condition of these patients and rehabilitating damaged areas. Conclusion: We concluded that there is a relationship between neuropsychological intervention and improvement in cognitive and psychological performance, as well as in the quality of life in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment.

Keywords: aging, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychology, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 5