Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: M. S. Haider

34 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model for UPFC

Authors: A. Haider, S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi


Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: dynamic modeling, facts, PWM, UPFC, fundamental frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
33 Resons for Seeking Dental Care, Caries Profile and Treatment Need of Children in Tabuk, KSA

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri, Mariam Amri


Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease of childhood. The aims and objectives of this study were to identify the most common reason for seeking dental treatment and to determine caries profile and there is a treatment need in children visiting the hospital. A total of 170 Saudi children of age 1-5 years studied. Results show the most common reason for visiting hospital was decay followed by pain. These children show mean DMFT/DMFS of 9.8/22.4 and most commonly needed treatment was one-surface restoration followed by pulp treatment.

Keywords: Dental Caries, Prevalence, DMFT/DMFS index, dental treatment need

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
32 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed


Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: nanostructure, Gas Sensor, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films

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31 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, LTE, WLAN, slot antenna

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30 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal


Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: Modelling, granulation, fine material, intelligent technique

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29 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid


Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: generator, electricity harvesting, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

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28 Hardware Co-Simulation Based Based Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Hanan Mikhael Dawood, Haider Salim, Jafar Al-Wash


This paper presents Proportional-Integral (PI) controller to improve the system performance which gives better torque and flux response. In addition, it reduces the undesirable torque ripple. The conventional DTC controller approach for induction machines, based on an improved torque and stator flux estimator, is implemented using Xilinx System Generator (XSG) for MATLAB/Simulink environment through Xilinx blocksets. The design was achieved in VHDL which is based on a MATLAB/Simulink simulation model. The hardware in the loop results are obtained considering the implementation of the proposed model on the Xilinx NEXYS2 Spartan 3E1200 FG320 Kit.

Keywords: Induction Motor, motor drive, direct torque Control (DTC), Xilinx FPGA

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27 Investigation of Different Control Stratgies for UPFC Decoupled Model and the Impact of Location on Control Parameters

Authors: A. Haider, S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi


In order to evaluate the performance of a unified power flow controller (UPFC), mathematical models for steady state and dynamic analysis are to be developed. The steady state model is mainly concerned with the incorporation of the UPFC in load flow studies. Several load flow models for UPFC have been introduced in literature, and one of the most reliable models is the decoupled UPFC model. In spite of UPFC decoupled load flow model simplicity, it is more robust compared to other UPFC load flow models and it contains unique capabilities. Some shortcoming such as additional set of nonlinear equations are to be solved separately after the load flow solution is obtained. The aim of this study is to investigate the different control strategies that can be realized in the decoupled load flow model (individual control and combined control), and the impact of the location of the UPFC in the network on its control parameters.

Keywords: UPFC, decoupled model, load flow, control parameters

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26 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Sajjad Haider, Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: Polymer Hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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25 Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Nose Landing Gear

Authors: Kamal Haider


Numerical simulations over landing gear of simplified and partially-dressed configurations with closed cavity have been performed to compute aerodynamically and aeroacoustics parameters using commercial engineering software. The objective of numerical computations is two folds. Firstly, to validate experimental data of newly built nose landing gear and secondly perform high-fidelity calculations using CFD/FW-H hybrid approach, as future engineering challenges need more advanced aircraft configurations such as performance noise and efficiency. Both geometries are used for multi-block structured, and unstructured/hybrid meshed to develop some understanding of physics in terms of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is employed to compute surface pressure. Also far-field noise calculations have been generated by Ffowcs-William and Hawking solver. Both results of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: Computational Aeroacoustics, Computational Aerodynamics, landing gear, detached eddy simulation

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24 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Haider Raad, Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney


Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: Bluetooth technology, Flexible Electronics, Wearable Antennas, thermal deposition

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23 Solid Waste Management Challenges and Possible Solution in Kabul City

Authors: Nsenda Lukumwena, Ghulam Haider Haidaree


Most developing nations face energy production and supply problems. This is also the case of Afghanistan whose generating capacity does not meet its energy demand. This is due in part to high security and risk caused by war which deters foreign investments and insufficient internal revenue. To address the issue above, this paper would like to suggest an alternative and affordable way to deal with the energy problem. That is by converting Solid Waste to energy. As a result, this approach tackles the municipal solid waste issue (potential cause of several diseases), contributes to the improvement of the quality of life, local economy, and so on. While addressing the solid waste problem in general, this paper samples specifically one municipality which is District-12, one of the 22 districts of Kabul city. Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, District-12 is divided into nine different zones whose municipal solid waste is respectively collected, processed, and converted into electricity and distributed to the closest area. It is important to mention that GIS has been used to estimate the amount of electricity to be distributed and to optimally position the production plant.

Keywords: energy problem, estimation of electricity, GIS zones, solid waste management system

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22 Optimal Design of Composite Cylindrical Shell Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq


The present research is an attempt to figure out the best configuration of composite cylindrical shells of the sandwich type, i.e. the lightest design of such shells required to sustain a certain load over a certain area. The optimization is based on elastic-plastic geometrically nonlinear incremental-iterative finite element analysis. The nine-node degenerated curved shell element is used in which five degrees of freedom are specified at each nodal point, with a layered model. The formulation of the geometrical nonlinearity problem is carried out using the well-known total Lagrangian principle. For the structural optimization problem, which is dealt with as a constrained nonlinear optimization, the so-called Modified Hooke and Jeeves method is employed by considering the weight of the shell as the objective function with stress and geometrical constraints. It was concluded that the optimum design of composite sandwich cylindrical shell that have a rigid polyurethane foam core and steel facing occurs when the area covered by the shell becomes almost square with a ratio of core thickness to facing thickness lies between 45 and 49, while the optimum height to length ration varies from 0.03 to 0.08 depending on the aspect ratio of the shell and its boundary conditions.

Keywords: Optimization, Non-linear Analysis, finite element, composite structure, cylindrical shell

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21 Ethnography of Lamentation: Azadari as It Exists in the Tri-State Shi'i Community and Its Future in the American Milieu

Authors: Safi Haider


This work seeks to understand the fundamental mourning ceremonies termed azadari in the tristate Shi’i community. Azadari, a name derived from the Arabic aza (mourning) and the Persian dari (commemoration) as it exists in the Tri-State Shi'i community has a unique relation to the hearts and minds of its adherents. It shows the development of the community from the various perspective offered by the participants of this work. This work seeks to analyze Azadari in the light of the Tri-State Shi'i community, which is a deeply diverse community, consisting of immigrants from various other countries, including Pakistan, India, Iran, and the Arab communities. At its heart, this work is an ethnography, it seeks to know the experience of those who are a part of the Muharram commemorations and it seek to see what the underlying psychological and the social foundations of Azadari are. Five people from each of the four communities were interviewed, and the aim was to have at least two men, two women, two youth, two elders, and one person from either of these categories. What was found was that the Shi’i community is scarcely a monolith in its mourning practices, and there is a great difference not only when comparing one cultural community to another, but also within the communities as well. This work seeks to analyze azadari from the various perspective of the Shi’i community in the tri-state area. This work seeks to analyze interviews from twenty people in total: two men, two women, two youth, and two adults from each of the communities of the Shi’i of the tristate area, for a total of twenty people. Two Priests were also interviewed for the sake of the paper as well.

Keywords: Islam, Ashura, Imam Husayn, Muharram, Shi'i

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20 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Haider Karar, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq


The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: Cotton, red cotton bug, weather factors, years

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19 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider


Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: essential oils, potato, clove, fennel

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18 Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Common Oxidants for Ruthenium (II) Chemiluminescence in a Microfluidic Detection Device Coupled to Microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Drugs in Formulations and Biological Fluids

Authors: Afsal Mohammed Kadavilpparampu, Haider A. J. Al Lawati, Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman, Salma M. Z. Al Kindy


In this work, we evaluated the appropriateness of various oxidants that can be used potentially with Ru(bipy)32+ CL system while performing CL detection in a microfluidic device using eight common active pharmaceutical ingredients- ciprofloxacin, hydrochlorothiazide, norfloxacin, buspirone, fexofenadine, cetirizine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. This is because, microfludics have very small channel volume and the residence time is also very short. Hence, a highly efficient oxidant is required for on-chip CL detection to obtain analytically acceptable CL emission. Three common oxidants were evaluated, lead dioxide, cerium ammonium sulphate and ammonium peroxydisulphate. Results obtained showed that ammonium peroxydisulphate is the most appropriate oxidant which can be used in microfluidic setup and all the tested analyte give strong CL emission while using this oxidant. We also found that Ru(bipy)33+ generated off-line by oxidizing [Ru(bipy)3]Cl2.6H2O in acetonitrile under acidic condition with lead dioxide was stable for more than 72 hrs. A highly sensitive microbore HPLC- CL method using ammonium peroxydisulphate as an oxidant in a microfluidic on-chip CL detection has been developed for the analyses of fixed-dose combinations of pseudoephedrine (PSE), fexofenadine (FEX) and cetirizine (CIT) in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample pre-treatment.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Chemiluminescence, Oxidants, microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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17 Evaluation of Commercial Herbicides for Weed Control and Yield under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Cultivation System in Pakistan

Authors: Sanaullah Jalil, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas


Direct dry seeded rice cultivation system is an emerging production technology in Pakistan. Weeds are a major constraint to the success of direct dry seeded rice (DDSR). Studies were carried out for two years during 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the performance of applications of pre-emergence herbicides (Top Max @ 2.25 lit/ha, Click @1.5 lit/ha and Pendimethaline @ 1.25 lit/ha) and post-emergence herbicides (Clover @ 200 g/ha, Pyranex Gold @ 250 g/ha, Basagran @ 2.50 lit/ha, Sunstar Gold @ 50 g/ha and Wardan @ 1.25 lit/ha) at rice research field area of National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5 m with 10 rows. Basmati-385 was used as test variety of rice. Data indicated that Top Max and Click provided best weed control efficiency but suppressed the germination of rice seed which causes the lowest grain yield production (680.6 kg/ha and 314.5 kg/ha respectively). A weedy check plot contributed 524.7 kg/ha paddy yield with highest weed density. Pyranex Gold provided better weed control efficiency and contributed to significantly higher paddy yield 5116.6 kg/ha than that of all other herbicide applications followed by the Clover which give paddy yield 4241.7 kg/ha. The results of our study suggest that pre-emergence herbicides provided best weed control but not fit for direct dry seeded rice (DDSR) cultivation system, and therefore post-emergence herbicides (Pyranex Gold and Clover) can be suggested for weed control and higher yield.

Keywords: Yield, clover, pyranex gold, direct dry seeded rice (DDSR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
16 Pharmacological Activities and Potential Uses of Cyperus Rotundus: A Review

Authors: MUHAMMAD IJAZ, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali, Arslan Masood Pirzada, Muhammad Latif, Aown Sammar Raza, Asad Hussain Bukhari, Muhammad Saqib


Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), a medicinal herb, is being traditionally used as a home remedy for the treatment of various clinical conditions like diarrhea, diabetic, pyretic, inflammation, malaria, and for treating stomach and bowel disorders. Its current status is one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds, growing wildly in various tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Tuber and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus possess a higher concentration of active ingredients in the form of essential oils, phenolic acids, ascorbic acids and flavonoids, responsible for its remedial properties. Exploitation of any medicinal plant application depends on the crucial and comprehensive information about the therapeutic potential of a plant. Researchers have evaluated and characterized the significance of Cyperus rotundus as an anti-androgenic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic, anti-malarial, anti-mutagenic, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-uropathogenic, hepato-, cardio-, neuroprotective, and nootropic agent. This paper comprises a broad review to summarize the current state of knowledge about chemical constituents, potential economic uses and therapeutic aspects of Cyperus rotundus that will aid in the development of bioethanol and modern herbal medicine through latest technologies that will promote the ability of this plant in the cure of many clinical disorders.

Keywords: Future Directions, Chemical Composition, purple nutsedge, economic uses, therapeutic values

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15 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Oxidative Stress, pistachio, rotenone

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14 Investigating the Significance of Ground Covers and Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation for Water Conservation Weed Suppression and Quality Traits of Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar


One of the main negative effects of climate change is the increasing scarcity of water worldwide, especially for irrigation purpose. In order to ensure food security with less available water, there is a need to adopt easy and economic techniques. Two of the effective techniques are; use of ground covers and partial root zone drying (PRD). A field experiment was arranged to find out the most suitable mulch for PRD irrigation system in wheat. The experiment was comprised of two irrigation methods (I0 = irrigation on both sides of roots and I1= irrigation to only one side of the root as alternate irrigation) and four ground covers (M0= open ground without any cover, M1= black plastic cover, M2= wheat straw cover and M4= cotton sticks cover). More plant height, spike length, number of spikelets and number of grains were found in full irrigation treatment. While water use efficiency and grain nutrient (NPK) contents were more in PRD irrigation. All soil covers suppress the weeds and significantly influenced the yield attributes, final yield as well as the grain nutrient contents. However black plastic cover performed the best. It was concluded that joint use of both techniques was more effective for water conservation and increasing grain yield than their sole application and combination of PRD with black plastic mulch performed the best than other ground covers combination used in the experiment.

Keywords: grain yield, quality traits, partial root zone drying, ground covers, WUE, weed control efficiency

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13 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar


Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, leaf water relations, Mulches

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12 Fluoride as Obturating Material in Primary Teeth

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri


The primary goal of a root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is to eliminate infection and to retain the tooth in a functional state until it gets physiologically exfoliated and replaced by permanent successor. Important requisite of a root canal filling material for primary teeth is that, it should resorb at a similar rate as the roots of primary tooth, be harmless to the periapical tissue and to the permanent tooth germ, resorb readily if pushed beyond the apex, be antiseptic, radio-opaque, should not shrink, adhere to the walls, not discolor the tooth and easy to fill & remove, if required at any stage. Presently available, commonly used obturating materials for primary teeth are zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform based pastes. None of these materials so far meet the ideal requirement of root canal filling material. So in search of ideal obturating material, this study was planed, in which mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide & sodium fluoride and mixture of calcium hydroxide & sodium fluoride was compared clinically and radiographically with calcium hydroxide for the obturation of root canals of 75 carious exposed primary mandibular second molars of 59 children aged 4-9 years. All the three material shows good results, but after a follow-up of 9 months mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide powder closely follow the resorption of root, mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride follow resorption of root in the beginning but later on majority of cases shows faster resorption whereas calcium hydroxide starts depleting from the canal from the beginning even as early as 3 months. Thus mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide found to be best obturaring material for primary tooth.

Keywords: success rate, obturating material, primary teeth, root canal treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
11 The Effect of the Adhesive Ductility on Bond Characteristics of CFRP/Steel Double Strap Joints Subjected to Dynamic Tensile Loadings

Authors: Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Haider Al-Zubaidy, Xiao-Ling Zhao


In recent years, the technique adhesively-bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has found its way into civil engineering applications and it has attracted a widespread attention as a viable alternative strategy for the retrofitting of civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. When adopting this method, adhesive has a significant role and controls the general performance and degree of enhancement of the strengthened and/or upgraded structures. This is because the ultimate member strength is highly affected by the failure mode which is considerably dependent on the utilised adhesive. This paper concerns with experimental investigations on the effect of the adhesive used on the bond between CFRP patch and steel plate under medium impact tensile loading. Experiment were conducted using double strap joints and these samples were prepared using two different types of adhesives, Araldite 420 and MBrace saturant. Drop mass rig was used to carry out dynamic tests at impact speeds of 3.35, 4.43 and m/s while quasi-static tests were implemented at 2mm/min using Instrone machine. In this test program, ultimate load-carrying capacity and failure modes were examined for all loading speeds. For both static and dynamic tests, the adhesive type has a significant effect on ultimate joint strength. It was found that the double strap joints prepared using Araldite 420 showed higher strength than those prepared utilising MBrace saturant adhesive. Failure mechanism for joints prepared using Araldite 420 is completely different from those samples prepared utilising MBrace saturant. CFRP failure is the most common failure pattern for joints with Araldite 420, whereas the dominant failure for joints with MBrace saturant adhesive is adhesive failure.

Keywords: CFRP/steel double strap joints, adhesives of different ductility, dynamic tensile loading, bond between CFRP and steel

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10 Porosity and Surface Chemistry of Functionalized Carbonaceous Materials from Date Palm Leaflets

Authors: El-Said I. El-Shafey, Syeda Naheed F. Ali, Saleh S. Al-Busafi, Haider A. J. Al-Lawati


Date palm leaflets were utilized as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) preparation using KOH activation. AC produced was oxidized using nitric acid producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC that possesses acidic surface was surface functionalized to produce basic activated carbons using linear diamine compounds (ethylene diamine and propylene diamine). OAC was also functionalized to produce hydrophobic activated carbons using ethylamine (EA) and aniline (AN). Dehydrated carbon was also prepared from date palm leaflets using sulfuric acid dehydration/ oxidation and was surface functionalized in the same way as AC. Nitric acid oxidation was not necessary for DC as it is acidic carbon. The surface area of AC is high (823 m2/g) with microporosity domination, however, after oxidation and surface functionalization, both the surface area and surface microporosity decrease tremendously. DC surface area was low (15 m2/g) with mesoporosity domination. Surface functionalization has decreased the surface area of activated carbons. FTIR spectra show that -COOH group on DC and OAC almost disappeared after surface functionalization. The surface chemistry of all carbons produced was tested for pHzpc, basic sites, boehm titration, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in addition to CHN elemental analysis were also carried out. DC and OAC possess low pHzpc and high surface functionality, however, basic and hydrophobic carbons possess high pHzpc and low surface functionality. The different behavior of carbons is related to their different surface chemistry. Methylene blue adsorption was found to be faster on hydrophobic carbons based on AC and DC. The Larger adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found for hydrophobic carbons. Dominating adsorption forces of methylene blue varies from carbon to another depending on its surface nature. Sorption forces include hydrophobic forces, H-bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces.

Keywords: Carbon, hydrophobic, BASIC, acidic

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9 Recovery and Identification of Phenolic Acids in Honey Samples from Different Floral Sources of Pakistan Having Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Samiyah Tasleem, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Muhammad Abid Husnain, Sajjad Haider Naqvi


The objective of the present study was: a) to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples of different floral sources of Pakistan, b) to recover the phenolic acids in them as a possible contributing factor of antimicrobial activity. Six honey samples from different floral sources, namely: Trachysperm copticum, Acacia species, Helianthus annuus, Carissa opaca, Zizyphus and Magnifera indica were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disc diffusion method against eight freshly isolated clinical isolates (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans). Antimicrobial activity of honey was compared with five commercial antibiotics, namely: doxycycline (DO-30ug/mL), oxytetracycline (OT-30ug/mL), clarithromycin (CLR–15ug/mL), moxifloxacin (MXF-5ug/mL) and nystatin (NT – 100 UT). The fractions responsible for antimicrobial activity were extracted using ethyl acetate. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to recover the phenolic acids of honey samples. Identification was carried out via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that antimicrobial activity was present in all honey samples and found comparable to the antibiotics used in the study. In the microbiological assay, the ethyl acetate honey extract was found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms tested, indicating the existence of phenolic compounds. Six phenolic acids, namely: gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified besides some unknown substance by HPLC. In conclusion, Pakistani honey samples showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and promising antifungal activity. Identification of six different phenolic acids showed that Pakistani honey samples are rich sources of phenolic compounds that could be the contributing factor of antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Pakistani honey, Phenolic acids eg.gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids

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8 Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management

Authors: Theresa Steiner, Markus Pajones, Christian Haider


Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.

Keywords: mobility management, freight logistics processes, freight traffic, passenger traffic

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7 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar


Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: Germplasm, Variation, Rice, Genetic Diversity, association, morphological traits, water levels

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6 Sublethal Effects of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungus against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

Authors: M. Manzoor, J. N. Ahmad, R. M. Giblin Davis, N. Javed, M. S. Haider


The invasive Red Palm Weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus [Olivier] (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive palm pests in the world. Synthetic pesticides are environmentally hazardous pest control strategies being used in the past with emerging need of eco-friendly biological approaches including microbial entomopathogens for RPW management. The sublethal effects of a single entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) Beauveria bassiana (WG-11) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and two entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Rhabditida) were evaluated in various combinations against laboratory-reared 3rd, 5th and 8th instar larvae of RPW in laboratory assays. Individual and combined effects of both entomopathogens (EP) were observed after the pre-application of B. bassiana fungus at 1-2-week intervals. A number of parameters were measured after the application of sub-lethal doses of EPF such as diet consumption, development, frass production, mortality, and weight gain. Combined treatments were tested for additive and synergistic effects. Synergism was more frequently observed in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae combined treatments than in B. bassiana and H. bacteriophora combinations. Early instar larvae of RPW were more susceptible than older instars. Synergistic effects were observed in the 3rd and 5th instars exposed to B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae at 0, 7 and 14-day intervals. Whereas, in 8th instar larvae, the synergistic effect was observed only in B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae treatments after 0 and 7 days intervals. EPN treatments decreased pupation, egg hatching and emergence of adults. Lethal effects of nematodes were also observed in all growth stages of R. ferrugineus. Reduced larval weight, increased larval, pre-pupal and pupal duration, reduced adult weight and life span were observed. Sub-lethal concentrations of both entomopathogens induced variations in the different developmental stages and reduced food consumption, frass production, growth, and weight gain. So, on the basis of results, it is concluded that synthetic pesticides should be replaced with environmentally friendly sustainable biopesticides.

Keywords: Mortality, B. bassiana, H. bacteriophora, S. carpocapsae

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5 Gaze Behaviour of Individuals with and without Intellectual Disability for Nonaccidental and Metric Shape Properties

Authors: S. Haider, B. Bhushan


Eye Gaze behaviour of individuals with and without intellectual disability are investigated in an eye tracking study in terms of sensitivity to Nonaccidental (NAPs) and Metric (MPs) shape properties. Total fixation time is used as an indirect measure of attention allocation. Studies have found Mean reaction times for non accidental properties (NAPs) to be shorter than for metric (MPs) when the MP and NAP differences were equalized. METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with intellectual disability (mild and moderate level of Mental Retardation) and twenty-seven normal individuals were compared on mean total fixation duration, accuracy level and mean reaction time for mild NAPs, extreme NAPs and metric properties of images. 2D images of cylinders were adapted and made into forced choice match-to-sample tasks. Tobii TX300 Eye Tracker was used to record total fixation duration and data obtained from the Areas of Interest (AOI). Variable trial duration (total reaction time of each participant) and fixed trail duration (data taken at each second from one to fifteen seconds) data were used for analyses. Both groups did not differ in terms of fixation times (fixed as well as variable) across any of the three image manipulations but differed in terms of reaction time and accuracy. Normal individuals had longer reaction time compared to individuals with intellectual disability across all types of images. Both the groups differed significantly on accuracy measure across all image types. Normal individuals performed better across all three types of images. Mild NAPs vs. Metric differences: There was significant difference between mild NAPs and metric properties of images in terms of reaction times. Mild NAPs images had significantly longer reaction time compared to metric for normal individuals but this difference was not found for individuals with intellectual disability. Mild NAPs images had significantly better accuracy level compared to metric for both the groups. In conclusion, type of image manipulations did not result in differences in attention allocation for individuals with and without intellectual disability. Mild Nonaccidental properties facilitate better accuracy level compared to metric in both the groups but this advantage is seen only for normal group in terms of mean reaction time.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Eye Movements, eye gaze fixations, stimulus properties

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