Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 864

Search results for: Mohammed Umar Abba

864 Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Mohammed Sale Abubakar, Kabir Omar, Mohammed Umar Abba

Abstract:

The effects of climate change continue to ravage globe upsetting or even overturning the entire communities in its wake. It is therefore on the front burner of most global issues affecting the world today. Hardly any field of endeavor has escaped the manifestation of its effects. The effects of climate change on agricultural productivity calls for intense study because of the nexus between agriculture, global food security and provision of employment for the teaming population in sub-saharan Africa. This paper examines current challenges of climate change on agricultural productivity in this region. This challenge indicated that both long and short-term change in climate bring unpleasant repercussion on agricultural productivity as they manifest in the vulnerability of industrial work force. The paper also focused on the impact of agriculture and bio-environmental engineering as a separate entity that will help to fight these major challenges facing humanity currently associated with negative effects of climate change such as scarcity of water, declining agricultural yields, desert encroachment, and damage of coastal structures. Finally, a suggestion was put forward as an effort that should be directed towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change on our environment.

Keywords: climate change mitigation, desert encroachment, environment, global food security, greenhouse gases (GHGs)

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863 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: abattoir, foetal loss, season, species

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862 Modeling Football Penalty Shootouts: How Improving Individual Performance Affects Team Performance and the Fairness of the ABAB Sequence

Authors: Pablo Enrique Sartor Del Giudice

Abstract:

Penalty shootouts often decide the outcome of important soccer matches. Although usually referred to as ”lotteries”, there is evidence that some national teams and clubs consistently perform better than others. The outcomes are therefore not explained just by mere luck, and therefore there are ways to improve the average performance of players, naturally at the expense of some sort of effort. In this article we study the payoff of player performance improvements in terms of the performance of the team as a whole. To do so we develop an analytical model with static individual performances, as well as Monte Carlo models that take into account the known influence of partial score and round number on individual performances. We find that within a range of usual values, the team performance improves above 70% faster than individual performances do. Using these models, we also estimate that the new ABBA penalty shootout ordering under test reduces almost all the known bias in favor of the first-shooting team under the current ABAB system.

Keywords: football, penalty shootouts, Montecarlo simulation, ABBA

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861 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area, environmental protection agency, solid waste management, waste disposal

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860 The Profitability Management Mechanism of Leather Industry-Based on the Activity-Based Benefit Approach

Authors: Mei-Fang Wu, Shu-Li Wang, Tsung-Yueh Lu, Feng-Tsung Cheng

Abstract:

Strengthening core competitiveness is the main goal of enterprises in a fierce competitive environment. Accurate cost information is a great help for managers in dealing with operation strategies. This paper establishes a profitability management mechanism that applies the Activity-Based Benefit approach (ABBA) to solve the profitability for each customer from the market. ABBA provides financial and non-financial information for the operation, but also indicates what resources have expired in the operational process. The customer profit management model shows the level of profitability of each customer for the company. The empirical data were gathered from a case company operating in the leather industry in Taiwan. The research findings indicate that 30% of customers create little profit for the company as a result of asking for over 5% of sales discounts. Those customers ask for sales discount because of color differences of leather products. This paper provides a customer’s profitability evaluation mechanism to help enterprises to greatly improve operating effectiveness and promote operational activity efficiency and overall operation profitability.

Keywords: activity-based benefit approach, customer profit analysis, leather industry, profitability management mechanism

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859 Dry Season Rice Production along Hadejia Valley Irrigation Scheme in Auyo Local Government Area in Jigawa State

Authors: Saifullahi Umar, Baba Mamman Yarima, Mohammed Bello Usman, Hassan Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted along with the Hadejia valley project irrigation under the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HRBDA) in Jigawa State. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 72 rice farmers operating along with the Hadejia Valley Irrigation Project. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive statistics and Farm budget technique. The result shows that 55% of the farmers were between 31-40 years of age, 66.01% were male, and the result also revealed that the total cost of cultivation of an acre of land for rice production during the dry season was N73,900 with input cost accounting for 63.59% of the total cost of production. The gross return was N332,500, with a net return of N258,600 per acre. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 3.449 indicates the strong performance of the dry season rice production. The leading constraints to dry season rice production were low access to quality extension services, low access to finance, poor quality fertilizers, and poor prices. The study, therefore, concludes that dry season rice production is a profitable enterprise in the study area hence, to productivity the farmers should be linked to effective extension service delivery institutions, expanding their access to productive sources of finances, the government should strengthen fertilizer quality control measures and comprehensive market linkages for the farmers.

Keywords: Auyo, dry season, Hadejia Valley, rice

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858 Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete

Authors: Abdulkarim Mohammed Iliyasu, Mahmud Abba Tahir

Abstract:

Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.

Keywords: concrete, conductance, deterioration, freezing and thawing

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857 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko

Abstract:

A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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856 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

Abstract:

The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

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855 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Inuwa Kuta, Mohammed, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku, Kudu Dangana

Abstract:

The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: housing estate, assessment, solid waste, disposal, management

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854 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir

Abstract:

Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: conventional waste management, solid waste, waste stakeholders, developing countries

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853 Performance and Economics of Goats Fed Poultry Litter and Rumen Content

Authors: A. Mohammed, A. M. Umar, S. H. Adamu

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrients utilization using 20 entire males of Sahelian goats fed Rumen content (fore-stomach digest) and poultry litter waste (PLW) at various levels of inclusion. The experimental animals were randomly allocated to diet A (Control), B (10% each of FSD and PLW), C (6.67%PLW and 13.33 FSD) and D(13.33% PLW and 6.67% FDS) at the rate of five animals per treatment. After 90 days of feeding trial, It was observed that Diets D had best feed intake and body weight gain which might be due to the good palatability of PLW and less odour of FSD in the diet. Diet C had the least feed cost then followed by diet B and while diet A(control) was more expensive than other treatments. There was the significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in the cost of daily feed consumption. Treatment A had the highest value while treatment C recorded the lowest cost of daily feed consumption. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between all treatments in terms of Cost of feed kg/ live weight gain, where treatment B had the highest value while the lowest obtained in treatment D. However, it is recommended that more research trial should be carried out to ascertain the true value of incorporating poultry litter waste and fore-stomach digest.

Keywords: poultry litter, rumen content, weight gain, economics

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852 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: women, entrepreneurs, issues, challenges

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851 Analysing Social Media Coverage of Political Speeches in Relation to Discourse and Context

Authors: Yaser Mohammed Altameemi

Abstract:

This research looks at the representation of the social media for the Saudi Government decrees regarding the developmental projects of the Saudi 2030 vision. The paper analyses a television interview with the Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman who talks about the progress of the Saudi vision of 2030, and how the government had acted as response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview was on 28/4/2021. The paper analyses the tweets on Twitter that cover the interview for the purpose of investigating the development of concepts and meanings regarding the Saudi peoples’ orientations towards the Saudi projects. The data include all related tweets from the day of the interview and the following seven days after the interview. The finding of the collocation analysis suggests that nationalism notion is explicitly expressed by users in Twitter. The main finding of this paper suggests the importance of further analyses for the concordance lines. However, the collocation network suggests that there is a clear highlight for nationalism.

Keywords: social media, twitter, political interview, prince Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi vision 2030

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850 Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Umar, Mohammed Yau, Faruruwa M. Dahiru, Saed Garba

Abstract:

Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.

Keywords: Kano state, herbal medicines, registered, unregistered

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849 Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Use of Coping Strategies among Conflict Actors (Farmers and Herders) in Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Umar, B. F. Umar

Abstract:

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30 km from Yauri town. The study determines the socio-economic factors influencing the use of coping strategies among farmers and herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling was employed to select one hundred respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression analysis (LR) was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategies. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were individually significant and thus influenced the use of POCS by farmers. Annual income and production system influenced the use of POCS by herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be individually significant in influencing the use of EOCS among farmers. Specifically, years of occupation experience among the herders increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategies among herders. The use of SSCS among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends a need to adopt the strategy of community coping to cope with stress.

Keywords: farmers, herders, conflict, coping strategies

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848 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic, breast cancer, leukemia

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847 Orientational Pair Correlation Functions Modelling of the LiCl6H2O by the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo: Using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential

Authors: Mohammed Habchi, Sidi Mohammed Mesli, Rafik Benallal, Mohammed Kotbi

Abstract:

On the basis of four partial correlation functions and some geometric constraints obtained from neutron scattering experiments, a Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation has been performed in the study of the aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H2O at the glassy state. The obtained 3-dimensional model allows computing pair radial and orientational distribution functions in order to explore the structural features of the system. Unrealistic features appeared in some coordination peaks. To remedy to this, we use the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC), incorporating an additional energy constraint in addition to the usual constraints derived from experiments. The energy of the system is calculated using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential (EDIP). Ions effects is studied by comparing correlations between water molecules in the solution and in pure water at room temperature Our results show a good agreement between experimental and computed partial distribution functions (PDFs) as well as a significant improvement in orientational distribution curves.

Keywords: LiCl6H2O, glassy state, RMC, HRMC

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846 Perceived Physical Exercise Benefits among Staff of Tertiary Institutions in Adamawa State

Authors: Salihu Mohammed Umar

Abstract:

Perceived physical exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa State was investigated as a basis for formulating proper exercise intervention strategies. The study utilized descriptive survey design. The purpose of the study was to determine perceived exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire adapted from Exercise Benefit/Barrier Scale (EBBS) developed by Sechrist, Walker and Pender (1985) which was validated by five experts. Three hundred and thirty (330) copies of the questionnaire were distributed among study participants in six institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state. The scale comprised two components; Benefits and Barriers dimensions. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were posed. The instrument had a four response forced-choice Likert-type format with responses ranging from 4 = strongly agree (SA), 3 = Agree (A), 2 = Disagree (D) and 1 = Strongly Disagree (SD). The findings of the study revealed that both male and female staff in institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state perceived exercise as highly beneficial. However, male staff had higher perceived benefits score than their female counterparts. (Male: x̄ = 95.02. SD = 3.08) > female: x̄ = 94.04, SD = 4.35. There was also no significant difference in perceived exercise barriers between staff and students of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state. Based on the finding of the study, it was concluded that staff of tertiary institutions perceived exercise as highly beneficial. It was recommended that since staff of institutions of higher learning in Adamawa State irrespective of gender and religious affiliations have basic knowledge of perceived benefits of exercise, there is the need to explore programmes that will enable staff across the sub-groups to overcome barriers that could discourage physical exercise participation.

Keywords: perception, physical exercise, staff, benefits

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845 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

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844 Single Fly Over as a Solution to Congestion of Intersection Junction: Case Study of Jalan Jatingaleh Semarang

Authors: Rachmat Mudiyono, Siti Sumiati

Abstract:

In the next few years, traffic will happen most of the time. This was triggered by the growing rate of vehicles againts the road capacity which is not balance. All the time the congestion in the city of Semarang has been occured at peak hours. Congestion also occured in between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road Jatingaleh because of a plot intersection (Kesatrian intersection, PLN intersection and Jatingaleh intersection) with the Toll Road. Jatingaleh is located in the southern city of Semarang which is a central meeting point between the upper and lower Semarang where the vehicle flows in through a combination of local current and regional traffic, and the flow of vehicles coming in and out from highway. The main cause of the problems that occurred in the area of Jatingaleh is due to the numbers of vehicles movement that occurs at the intersections. With the above issues, it is necessary to analyse the existing conditions and look into some solutions. Before carrying out an analysis of field surveys at peak hours for example morning (06:00 to 08:00 am) and for the afternoon (04:00 to 06:00 pm)should be conducted, then the number of vehicles is counted manually with “short-breakcounting” according to types of vehicles. From the analysis we found that the degree of saturation (DS) is 1.61 between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road during the morning peak hours and 1.56 during the afternoon peak hours. This means that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow. One of the solutions for the congestion that occurs at the intersection of Jatingaleh is to apply the efficiency of the intersection that is not in a plot with a Fly over, Underpass and the combination of Fly Over-Underpass. Base on the flow reduction calculation with 3 comparative modeling it shows that the Fly Over is the most technically efficient to be applied in this research.

Keywords: single fly over, congestion, intersection, interchange

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843 Islamic Social Security: A Discourse

Authors: Safiyya A. Abba, Shehu U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper deals with Islamic social security: a discourse explores the meaning and nature of Islamic social security system. The paper reviews the social security framework and operations during the early period. The paper further identifies the instruments of Islamic social security discusses its principles and objectives. The paper discovers that Islamic social security is a personification of a comprehensive welfare approach in view of its varied instruments that are deeply rooted in the Islamic law, unique principles and realistic and achievable objectives. Furthermore, the Islamic social security system has far reaching socioeconomic implications; social justice, cohesion, equity, a catalyst for poverty eradication, income redistribution, economic growth and development.

Keywords: Islamic social security, basic needs, zakat, socioeconomic justice, equity

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842 Food Traceability System: Current State and Future Needs of the Nigerian Poultry and Poultry Product Supply Chain

Authors: Hadiza Kabir Bako, Munir Abba Dandago

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The fright of food-borne diseases as a result of animal health across the globe is creating the need for origin confirmation, safety of food and method of identification of food produce within the supply chain. In this paper, we investigated two commercial and one backyard poultry farm; live poultry, poultry meat and egg. We propose various implementation options for the poultry traceability system with respect to trace and track, and food recall and withdrawal requirements. With the intention that farmers, Investors or Regulatory agencies would find it useful for the Nigerian poultry sector and we highlight the future needs and challenges that lie ahead in the two most significant system of poultry production in Nigeria: the commercial poultry and backyard breeding.

Keywords: farm, food safety, food traceability, poultry

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841 Studies on the Histomorphometry of the Digestive Tract and Associated Digestive Glands in Ostrich (Struthio camelus) with Gender and Progressing Age in Pakistan

Authors: Zaima Umar, Anas S. Qureshi, Adeel Sarfraz, Saqib Umar, Talha Umar, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Ostrich has been a good source of food and income for people across the world. To get a better understanding of health and health-related problems, the knowledge of its digestive system is of utmost importance. The present study was conducted to determine the morphological and histometrical variations in the digestive system and associated glands of ostrich (Struthio camelus) as regard to the gender and progressive age. A total of 40 apparently healthy ostriches of both genders and two progressive age groups; young one (less than two year, group A); and adult (2-15 years, group B) in equal number were used in this study. Digestive organs including tongue, esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, small and large intestines and associated glands like liver and pancreas were collected immediately after slaughtering the birds. The organs of the digestive system and associated glands of each group were studied grossly and histologically. Grossly colour, shape consistency, weight and various dimensions (length, width, and circumference) of organs of the digestive tract and associated glands were recorded. The mean (± SEM) of all gross anatomical parameters in group A were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) different from that of group B. For microscopic studies, 1-2 cm tissue samples of organs of the digestive system and associated glands were taken. The tissue was marked and fixed in the neutral buffer formaldehyde solution for histological studies. After fixation, the sections of 5-7 µm were cut and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain. All the layers (epithelium, lamina propria, lamina muscularis, submucosa and tunica muscularis) were measured (µm) with the help of automated computer software Image J®. The results of this study provide valuable information on the gender and age-related histological and histometrical variations in the digestive organs of ostrich (Struthio camelus). The microscopic studies of different parts of the digestive system revealed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) among the two groups. The esophagus was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed similar histological structures. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the thickness of different tunics of the gastrointestinal tract in adult birds (up to 15 years) as compared with young ones (less than two years). Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a gradual but consistent growth in the observed digestive organs mimicking that of other poultry species and may be helpful in determining the growth pattern in this bird. However, there is a need to record the changes at closer time intervals.

Keywords: ostrich, digestive system, histomorphometry, grossly

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840 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
839 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

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838 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

Abstract:

Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
837 Morphological Features Fusion for Identifying INBREAST-Database Masses Using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nadia el Atlas, Mohammed el Aroussi, Mohammed Wahbi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel technique of mass characterization based on robust features-fusion is presented. The proposed method consists of mainly four stages: (a) the first phase involves segmenting the masses using edge information’s. (b) The second phase is to calculate and fuse the most relevant morphological features. (c) The last phase is the classification step which allows us to classify the images into benign and malignant masses. In this step we have implemented Support Vectors Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which were evaluated with the following performance criteria: confusion matrix, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic ROC, and error histogram. The effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated by a recently developed database: INBREAST database. The fusion of the most appropriate morphological features provided very good results. The SVM gives accuracy to within 64.3%. Whereas the ANN classifier gives better results with an accuracy of 97.5%.

Keywords: breast cancer, mammography, CAD system, features, fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
836 An Analysis of the Influence of Employee Readiness for Change on TQM Implementation

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Khalil Al-Hyari, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid, Ramadane Djbarni, Mohammed Hamdan

Abstract:

While employee readiness for change (ERFC) is recognised as critical for total quality management (TQM) implementation, there is a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the relationship between ERFC dimensions and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of the influences of ERFC components on TQM implementation. The empirical data for this study was drawn from a survey of 400 middle and senior managers of Jordanian firms. The analysis of the collected data, which was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling technique, revealed that three of the ERFC components, namely personally beneficial, change self-efficacy and management support are the most supportive ERFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between ERFCs and TQM implementation.

Keywords: total quality management, employee readiness for change, manufacturing organisations, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
835 On the Performance of Improvised Generalized M-Estimator in the Presence of High Leverage Collinearity Enhancing Observations

Authors: Habshah Midi, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Sohel Rana

Abstract:

Multicollinearity occurs when two or more independent variables in a multiple linear regression model are highly correlated. The ridge regression is the commonly used method to rectify this problem. However, the ridge regression cannot handle the problem of multicollinearity which is caused by high leverage collinearity enhancing observation (HLCEO). Since high leverage points (HLPs) are responsible for inducing multicollinearity, the effect of HLPs needs to be reduced by using Generalized M estimator. The existing GM6 estimator is based on the Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) which tends to swamp some low leverage points. Hence an improvised GM (MGM) estimator is presented to improve the precision of the GM6 estimator. Numerical example and simulation study are presented to show how HLPs can cause multicollinearity. The numerical results show that our MGM estimator is the most efficient method compared to some existing methods.

Keywords: identification, high leverage points, multicollinearity, GM-estimator, DRGP, DFFITS

Procedia PDF Downloads 161