Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 438

Search results for: deterioration

438 Tram Track Deterioration Modeling

Authors: Mohammad Yousefikia, Sara Moridpour, Ehsan Mazloumi

Abstract:

Perceiving track geometry deterioration decisively influences the optimization of track maintenance operations. The effective management of this deterioration and increasingly utilized system with limited financial resources is a significant challenge. This paper provides a review of degradation models relevant for railroad tracks. Furthermore, due to the lack of long term information on the condition development of tram infrastructures, presents the methodology which will be used to derive degradation models from the data of Melbourne tram network.

Keywords: deterioration modeling, asset management, railway, tram

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
437 Investigating Causes of Pavement Deterioration in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi Mohamed Eltayeb Zumrawi

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It is quite essential to investigate the causes of pavement deterioration in order to select the proper maintenance technique. The objective of this study was to identify factors cause deterioration of recently constructed roads in Khartoum state. A comprehensive literature concerning the factors of road deterioration, common road defects and their causes were reviewed. Three major road projects with different deterioration reasons were selected for this study. The investigation involved field survey and laboratory testing on those projects to examine the existing pavement conditions. The results revealed that the roads investigated experienced severe failures in the forms of cracks, potholes and rutting in the wheel path. The causes of those failures were found mainly linked to poor drainage, traffic overloading, expansive subgrade soils and the use of low quality materials in construction. Based on the results, recommendations were provided to help highway engineers in selecting the most effective repair techniques for specific kinds of distresses.

Keywords: pavement, deterioration, causes, failures

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
436 Review and Classification of the Indicators and Trends Used in Bridge Performance Modeling

Authors: S. Rezaei, Z. Mirzaei, M. Khalighi, J. Bahrami

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Bridges, as an essential part of road infrastructures, are affected by various deterioration mechanisms over time due to the changes in their performance. As changes in performance can have many negative impacts on society, it is essential to be able to evaluate and measure the performance of bridges throughout their life. This evaluation includes the development or the choice of the appropriate performance indicators, which, in turn, are measured based on the selection of appropriate models for the existing deterioration mechanism. The purpose of this article is a statistical study of indicators and deterioration mechanisms of bridges in order to discover further research capacities in bridges performance assessment. For this purpose, some of the most common indicators of bridge performance, including reliability, risk, vulnerability, robustness, and resilience, were selected. The researches performed on each index based on the desired deterioration mechanisms and hazards were comprehensively reviewed. In addition, the formulation of the indicators and their relationship with each other were studied. The research conducted on the mentioned indicators were classified from the point of view of deterministic or probabilistic method, the level of study (element level, object level, etc.), and the type of hazard and the deterioration mechanism of interest. For each of the indicators, a number of challenges and recommendations were presented according to the review of previous studies.

Keywords: bridge, deterioration mechanism, lifecycle, performance indicator

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435 Seismic Fragility for Sliding Failure of Weir Structure Considering the Process of Concrete Aging

Authors: HoYoung Son, Ki Young Kim, Woo Young Jung

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This study investigated the change of weir structure performances when durability of concrete, which is the main material of weir structure, decreased due to their aging by mean of seismic fragility analysis. In the analysis, it was assumed that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 10% in order to account for their aged deterioration. Additionally, the analysis of seismic fragility was based on Monte Carlo Simulation method combined with a 2D nonlinear finite element in ABAQUS platform with the consideration of deterioration of concrete. Finally, the comparison of seismic fragility of model pre- and post-deterioration was made to study the performance of weir. Results show that the probability of failure in moderate damage for deteriorated model was found to be larger than pre-deterioration model when peak ground acceleration (PGA) passed 0.4 g.

Keywords: weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging

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434 A Simulation-Optimization Approach to Control Production, Subcontracting and Maintenance Decisions for a Deteriorating Production System

Authors: Héctor Rivera-Gómez, Eva Selene Hernández-Gress, Oscar Montaño-Arango, Jose Ramon Corona-Armenta

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This research studies the joint production, maintenance and subcontracting control policy for an unreliable deteriorating manufacturing system. Production activities are controlled by a derivation of the Hedging Point Policy, and given that the system is subject to deterioration, it reduces progressively its capacity to satisfy product demand. Multiple deterioration effects are considered, reflected mainly in the quality of the parts produced and the reliability of the machine. Subcontracting is available as support to satisfy product demand; also overhaul maintenance can be conducted to reduce the effects of deterioration. The main objective of the research is to determine simultaneously the production, maintenance and subcontracting rate which minimize the total incurred cost. A stochastic dynamic programming model is developed and solved through a simulation-based approach composed of statistical analysis and optimization with the response surface methodology. The obtained results highlight the strong interactions between production, deterioration and quality which justify the development of an integrated model. A numerical example and a sensitivity analysis are presented to validate our results.

Keywords: subcontracting, optimal control, deterioration, simulation, production planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
433 Influence of Transportation Mode to the Deterioration Rate: Case Study of Food Transport by Ship

Authors: Danijela Tuljak-Suban, Valter Suban

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Food as perishable goods represents a specific and sensitive part in the supply chain theory, since changing of its physical or chemical characteristics considerably influences the approach to stock management. The most delicate phase of this process is transportation, where it becomes difficult to ensure stability conditions that limit the deterioration, since the value of the deterioration rate could be easily influenced by the transportation mode. Fuzzy definition of variables allows taking into account these variations. Furthermore an appropriate choice of the defuzzification method permits to adapt results, as much as possible, to real conditions. In the article will be applied the those methods to the relationship between the deterioration rate of perishable goods and transportation by ship, with the aim: (a) to minimize the total costs function, defined as the sum of the ordering cost, holding cost, disposing cost and transportation costs, and (b) to improve supply chain sustainability by reducing the environmental impact and waste disposal costs.

Keywords: perishable goods, fuzzy reasoning, transport by ship, supply chain sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
432 Optimal Maintenance Policy for a Three-Unit System

Authors: A. Abbou, V. Makis, N. Salari

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We study the condition-based maintenance (CBM) problem of a system subject to stochastic deterioration. The system is composed of three units (or modules): (i) Module 1 deterioration follows a Markov process with two operational states and one failure state. The operational states are partially observable through periodic condition monitoring. (ii) Module 2 deterioration follows a Gamma process with a known failure threshold. The deterioration level of this module is fully observable through periodic inspections. (iii) Only the operating age information is available of Module 3. The lifetime of this module has a general distribution. A CBM policy prescribes when to initiate a maintenance intervention and which modules to repair during intervention. Our objective is to determine the optimal CBM policy minimizing the long-run expected average cost of operating the system. This is achieved by formulating a Markov decision process (MDP) and developing the value iteration algorithm for solving the MDP. We provide numerical examples illustrating the cost-effectiveness of the optimal CBM policy through a comparison with heuristic policies commonly found in the literature.

Keywords: reliability, maintenance optimization, Markov decision process, heuristics

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431 Deterioration Prediction of Pavement Load Bearing Capacity from FWD Data

Authors: Kotaro Sasai, Daijiro Mizutani, Kiyoyuki Kaito

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Expressways in Japan have been built in an accelerating manner since the 1960s with the aid of rapid economic growth. About 40 percent in length of expressways in Japan is now 30 years and older and has become superannuated. Time-related deterioration has therefore reached to a degree that administrators, from a standpoint of operation and maintenance, are forced to take prompt measures on a large scale aiming at repairing inner damage deep in pavements. These measures have already been performed for bridge management in Japan and are also expected to be embodied for pavement management. Thus, planning methods for the measures are increasingly demanded. Deterioration of layers around road surface such as surface course and binder course is brought about at the early stages of whole pavement deterioration process, around 10 to 30 years after construction. These layers have been repaired primarily because inner damage usually becomes significant after outer damage, and because surveys for measuring inner damage such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) survey and open-cut survey are costly and time-consuming process, which has made it difficult for administrators to focus on inner damage as much as they have been supposed to. As expressways today have serious time-related deterioration within them deriving from the long time span since they started to be used, it is obvious the idea of repairing layers deep in pavements such as base course and subgrade must be taken into consideration when planning maintenance on a large scale. This sort of maintenance requires precisely predicting degrees of deterioration as well as grasping the present situations of pavements. Methods for predicting deterioration are determined to be either mechanical or statistical. While few mechanical models have been presented, as far as the authors know of, previous studies have presented statistical methods for predicting deterioration in pavements. One describes deterioration process by estimating Markov deterioration hazard model, while another study illustrates it by estimating Proportional deterioration hazard model. Both of the studies analyze deflection data obtained from FWD surveys and present statistical methods for predicting deterioration process of layers around road surface. However, layers of base course and subgrade remain unanalyzed. In this study, data collected from FWD surveys are analyzed to predict deterioration process of layers deep in pavements in addition to surface layers by a means of estimating a deterioration hazard model using continuous indexes. This model can prevent the loss of information of data when setting rating categories in Markov deterioration hazard model when evaluating degrees of deterioration in roadbeds and subgrades. As a result of portraying continuous indexes, the model can predict deterioration in each layer of pavements and evaluate it quantitatively. Additionally, as the model can also depict probability distribution of the indexes at an arbitrary point and establish a risk control level arbitrarily, it is expected that this study will provide knowledge like life cycle cost and informative content during decision making process referring to where to do maintenance on as well as when.

Keywords: deterioration hazard model, falling weight deflectometer, inner damage, load bearing capacity, pavement

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430 Modified Weibull Approach for Bridge Deterioration Modelling

Authors: Niroshan K. Walgama Wellalage, Tieling Zhang, Richard Dwight

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State-based Markov deterioration models (SMDM) sometimes fail to find accurate transition probability matrix (TPM) values, and hence lead to invalid future condition prediction or incorrect average deterioration rates mainly due to drawbacks of existing nonlinear optimization-based algorithms and/or subjective function types used for regression analysis. Furthermore, a set of separate functions for each condition state with age cannot be directly derived by using Markov model for a given bridge element group, which however is of interest to industrial partners. This paper presents a new approach for generating Homogeneous SMDM model output, namely, the Modified Weibull approach, which consists of a set of appropriate functions to describe the percentage condition prediction of bridge elements in each state. These functions are combined with Bayesian approach and Metropolis Hasting Algorithm (MHA) based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation technique for quantifying the uncertainty in model parameter estimates. In this study, factors contributing to rail bridge deterioration were identified. The inspection data for 1,000 Australian railway bridges over 15 years were reviewed and filtered accordingly based on the real operational experience. Network level deterioration model for a typical bridge element group was developed using the proposed Modified Weibull approach. The condition state predictions obtained from this method were validated using statistical hypothesis tests with a test data set. Results show that the proposed model is able to not only predict the conditions in network-level accurately but also capture the model uncertainties with given confidence interval.

Keywords: bridge deterioration modelling, modified weibull approach, MCMC, metropolis-hasting algorithm, bayesian approach, Markov deterioration models

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429 Ground-Structure Interaction Analysis of Aged Tunnels

Authors: Behrang Dadfar, Hossein Bidhendi, Jimmy Susetyo, John Paul Abbatangelo

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Finding structural demand under various conditions that a structure may experience during its service life is an important step towards structural life-cycle analysis. In this paper, structural demand for the precast concrete tunnel lining (PCTL) segments of Toronto’s 60-year-old subway tunnels is investigated. Numerical modelling was conducted using FLAC3D, a finite difference-based software capable of simulating ground-structure interaction and ground material’s flow in three dimensions. The specific structural details of the segmental tunnel lining, such as the convex shape of the PCTL segments at radial joints and the PCTL segment pockets, were considered in the numerical modelling. Also, the model was developed in a way to accommodate the flexibility required for the simulation of various deterioration scenarios, shapes, and patterns that have been observed over more than 20 years. The soil behavior was simulated by using plastic-hardening constitutive model of FLAC3D. The effect of the depth of the tunnel, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as well as the patterns of deterioration of the segments were studied. The structural capacity under various deterioration patterns and the existing loading conditions was evaluated using axial-flexural interaction curves that were developed for each deterioration pattern. The results were used to provide recommendations for the next phase of tunnel lining rehabilitation program.

Keywords: precast concrete tunnel lining, ground-structure interaction, numerical modelling, deterioration, tunnels

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428 Seismic Fragility of Weir Structure Considering Aging Degradation of Concrete Material

Authors: HoYoung Son, DongHoon Shin, WooYoung Jung

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This study presented the seismic fragility framework of concrete weir structure subjected to strong seismic ground motions and in particular, concrete aging condition of the weir structure was taken into account in this study. In order to understand the influence of concrete aging on the weir structure, by using probabilistic risk assessment, the analytical seismic fragility of the weir structure was derived for pre- and post-deterioration of concrete. The performance of concrete weir structure after five years was assumed for the concrete aging or deterioration, and according to after five years’ condition, the elastic modulus was simply reduced about one–tenth compared with initial condition of weir structures. A 2D nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering the deterioration of concrete in weir structures using ABAQUS platform, a commercial structural analysis program. Simplified concrete degradation was resulted in the increase of almost 45% of the probability of failure at Limit State 3, in comparison to initial construction stage, by analyzing the seismic fragility.

Keywords: weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging

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427 Estimating Bridge Deterioration for Small Data Sets Using Regression and Markov Models

Authors: Yina F. Muñoz, Alexander Paz, Hanns De La Fuente-Mella, Joaquin V. Fariña, Guilherme M. Sales

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The primary approach for estimating bridge deterioration uses Markov-chain models and regression analysis. Traditional Markov models have problems in estimating the required transition probabilities when a small sample size is used. Often, reliable bridge data have not been taken over large periods, thus large data sets may not be available. This study presents an important change to the traditional approach by using the Small Data Method to estimate transition probabilities. The results illustrate that the Small Data Method and traditional approach both provide similar estimates; however, the former method provides results that are more conservative. That is, Small Data Method provided slightly lower than expected bridge condition ratings compared with the traditional approach. Considering that bridges are critical infrastructures, the Small Data Method, which uses more information and provides more conservative estimates, may be more appropriate when the available sample size is small. In addition, regression analysis was used to calculate bridge deterioration. Condition ratings were determined for bridge groups, and the best regression model was selected for each group. The results obtained were very similar to those obtained when using Markov chains; however, it is desirable to use more data for better results.

Keywords: concrete bridges, deterioration, Markov chains, probability matrix

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426 Degradation Model for UK Railway Drainage System

Authors: Yiqi Wu, Simon Tait, Andrew Nichols

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Management of UK railway drainage assets is challenging due to the large amounts of historical assets with long asset life cycles. A major concern for asset managers is to maintain the required performance economically and efficiently while complying with the relevant regulation and legislation. As the majority of the drainage assets are buried underground and are often difficult or costly to examine, it is important for asset managers to understand and model the degradation process in order to foresee the upcoming reduction in asset performance and conduct proactive maintenance accordingly. In this research, a Markov chain approach is used to model the deterioration process of rail drainage assets. The study is based on historical condition scores and characteristics of drainage assets across the whole railway network in England, Scotland, and Wales. The model is used to examine the effect of various characteristics on the probabilities of degradation, for example, the regional difference in probabilities of degradation, and how material and shape can influence the deterioration process for chambers, channels, and pipes.

Keywords: deterioration, degradation, markov models, probability, railway drainage

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425 Risk Assessment of Flood Defences by Utilising Condition Grade Based Probabilistic Approach

Authors: M. Bahari Mehrabani, Hua-Peng Chen

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Management and maintenance of coastal defence structures during the expected life cycle have become a real challenge for decision makers and engineers. Accurate evaluation of the current condition and future performance of flood defence structures is essential for effective practical maintenance strategies on the basis of available field inspection data. Moreover, as coastal defence structures age, it becomes more challenging to implement maintenance and management plans to avoid structural failure. Therefore, condition inspection data are essential for assessing damage and forecasting deterioration of ageing flood defence structures in order to keep the structures in an acceptable condition. The inspection data for flood defence structures are often collected using discrete visual condition rating schemes. In order to evaluate future condition of the structure, a probabilistic deterioration model needs to be utilised. However, existing deterioration models may not provide a reliable prediction of performance deterioration for a long period due to uncertainties. To tackle the limitation, a time-dependent condition-based model associated with a transition probability needs to be developed on the basis of condition grade scheme for flood defences. This paper presents a probabilistic method for predicting future performance deterioration of coastal flood defence structures based on condition grading inspection data and deterioration curves estimated by expert judgement. In condition-based deterioration modelling, the main task is to estimate transition probability matrices. The deterioration process of the structure related to the transition states is modelled according to Markov chain process, and a reliability-based approach is used to estimate the probability of structural failure. Visual inspection data according to the United Kingdom Condition Assessment Manual are used to obtain the initial condition grade curve of the coastal flood defences. The initial curves then modified in order to develop transition probabilities through non-linear regression based optimisation algorithms. The Monte Carlo simulations are then used to evaluate the future performance of the structure on the basis of the estimated transition probabilities. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method under no-maintenance and medium-maintenance scenarios. Results show that the proposed method can provide an effective predictive model for various situations in terms of available condition grading data. The proposed model also provides useful information on time-dependent probability of failure in coastal flood defences.

Keywords: condition grading, flood defense, performance assessment, stochastic deterioration modelling

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424 Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves

Authors: Gregory Kelly, Gary Chai, Sittampalam Manoharan, Deborah Delaney

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A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.

Keywords: conceptual, pavement structural number, pavement structural deterioration curve, pavement management system

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423 Modeling of Crack Growth in Railway Axles under Static Loading

Authors: Zellagui Redouane, Bellaouar Ahmed, Lachi Mohammed

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The railway axles are the essential parts in the bogie of train, and its failure creates a big problem in the railway transport; during the work of this parts we noticed a premature deterioration. The aim has been presented a predictive model allowing the identification of the probable causes that are the cause of these premature deterioration. The results are employed for predicting fatigue crack growth in the railway axle, Also we want to present the variation value of stress intensity factor in different positions of elliptical crack tip. The modeling of axle in performed by the SOLID WORKS software and imported into ANSYS.

Keywords: crack growth, static load, railway axle, lifetime

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
422 Identifying Model to Predict Deterioration of Water Mains Using Robust Analysis

Authors: Go Bong Choi, Shin Je Lee, Sung Jin Yoo, Gibaek Lee, Jong Min Lee

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In South Korea, it is difficult to obtain data for statistical pipe assessment. In this paper, to address these issues, we find that various statistical model presented before is how data mixed with noise and are whether apply in South Korea. Three major type of model is studied and if data is presented in the paper, we add noise to data, which affects how model response changes. Moreover, we generate data from model in paper and analyse effect of noise. From this we can find robustness and applicability in Korea of each model.

Keywords: proportional hazard model, survival model, water main deterioration, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
421 Developing Performance Model for Road Side Elements Receiving Periodic Maintenance

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed, Tallat A. Ali

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Inadequate maintenance programs and funds allocated for highway networks in the developed countries have led to fast deterioration of road side elements. Therefore, this research focuses on developing a performance model for road side elements periodic maintenance activities. Road side elements that receive periodic maintenance include; earthen shoulder, road signs and traffic markings. Using the level of service concept, the developed model can determine the optimal periodic maintenance intervals for those elements based on a selected level of service suitable with the available periodic maintenance budget. Data related to time periods for progressive deterioration stages for the chosen elements were collected. Ten maintenance experts in Aswan, Sohag and Assiut cities were interviewed for that purpose. Time in months related to 10%, 25%, 40%, 50%, 75%, 90% and 100% deterioration of each road side element was estimated based on the experts opinion. Least square regression analysis has shown that a power function represents the best fit for earthen shoulders edge drop-off and damage of road signs with time. It was also evident that, the progressive dirtiness of road signs could be represented by a quadratic function an a linear function could represent the paint degradation nature of both traffic markings and road signs. Actual measurements of earthen shoulder edge drop-off agree considerably with the developed model.

Keywords: deterioration, level of service, periodic maintenance, performance model, road side element

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420 A Semi-Markov Chain-Based Model for the Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges in Quebec

Authors: Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Mohamed Marzouk, Tarek Zayed

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Infrastructure systems are crucial to every aspect of life on Earth. Existing Infrastructure is subjected to degradation while the demands are growing for a better infrastructure system in response to the high standards of safety, health, population growth, and environmental protection. Bridges play a crucial role in urban transportation networks. Moreover, they are subjected to high level of deterioration because of the variable traffic loading, extreme weather conditions, cycles of freeze and thaw, etc. The development of Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) has become a fundamental imperative nowadays especially in the large transportation networks due to the huge variance between the need for maintenance actions, and the available funds to perform such actions. Deterioration models represent a very important aspect for the effective use of BMSs. This paper presents a probabilistic time-based model that is capable of predicting the condition ratings of the concrete bridge decks along its service life. The deterioration process of the concrete bridge decks is modeled using semi-Markov process. One of the main challenges of the Markov Chain Decision Process (MCDP) is the construction of the transition probability matrix. Yet, the proposed model overcomes this issue by modeling the sojourn times based on some probability density functions. The sojourn times of each condition state are fitted to probability density functions based on some goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared test. The parameters of the probability density functions are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The condition ratings obtained from the Ministry of Transportation in Quebec (MTQ) are utilized as a database to construct the deterioration model. Finally, a comparison is conducted between the Markov Chain and semi-Markov chain to select the most feasible prediction model.

Keywords: bridge management system, bridge decks, deterioration model, Semi-Markov chain, sojourn times, maximum likelihood estimation

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419 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facade Design: A Diachronic Analysis of a Case Study in Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran

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In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. This is especially important in locations that are currently in a deteriorated or critical state. However, less research examines how deterioration happens and its effect on the heritage locations’ character and socio-economic functions. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. Constructed in 1906 by Baron Empain, Korba was designed to have a unique architectural character intended to stimulate social and economic life in the then newly designed desert oasis. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration over the years, and this resulted in the corrosion in the social life of its streets. Previous research proposed a framework that connected six street-level façade design parameters to the social interactions on streets and sidewalks, namely: complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, enclosure, ground-floor use, and physical comfort. This research builds on this framework to study the changes in Korba’s buildings’ architectural features through a diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Street of Korba. We select two distinct periods, the present (2021) and the original state of the building (1906). Specifically, architectural features of the street level are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We Used descriptive analysis; the paper then connects the physical deterioration with potential deterioration in the social life on the streets and sidewalks of Korba and underscores the critical physical changes that are likely causing such decline. We find that the parameters that have decreased enough over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort. The results verify that the street has overgone deterioration in their overall socialization levels and that the physical deterioration can indeed be used as a predictor of social interaction decline in urban areas. The findings propose a process by which revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potentials.

Keywords: architectural character, conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, Korba, permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality

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418 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi

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Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

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417 Health Monitoring of Concrete Assets in Refinery

Authors: Girish M. Bhatia

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Most of the important structures in refinery complex are RCC Structures for which in-depth structural monitoring and inspection is required for incessant service. Reinforced concrete structures can be under threat from a combination of insidious challenges due to environmental conditions, including temperature and humidity that lead to accelerated deterioration mechanisms like carbonation, as well as marine exposure, above and below ground structures can experience ingress from aggressive ground waters carrying chlorides and sulphates leading to unexpected deterioration that threaten the integrity of a vital structural asset. By application of health monitoring techniques like corrosion monitoring with help of sensor probes, visual inspection of high rise structures with help of drones, it is possible to establish an early warning at the onset of these destructive processes.

Keywords: concrete structures, corrosion sensors, drones, health monitoring

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416 Teacher's Health: Evaluation of the Health Status of Portuguese and Spanish Teachers

Authors: Liberata Borralho, Saúl N. de Jesus, Adelinda Candeias, Victória Fernández-Puig

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In the last decades, we have witnessed a deterioration in the health of teachers worldwide, reflecting the constant social, political and economic changes. The quality of teaching and the success of students depends on the health status of the teachers, which justifies the importance of periodically evaluating their health. With this purpose, the Teacher’s Health Questionnaire was applied to 15.394 teachers teaching in Portugal and Spain (6.208 Spanish and 9.186 Portuguese) of primary and secondary education (3.482 men, 11.911 women). This questionnaire is specific and includes both the main risks of the teaching profession and the manifestations of teacher well-being, according to the definition recommended by the World Health Organization. A descriptive analysis of the results was carried out, including a study of the dimensions and the differences according to some sociodemographic and professional variables, from an analysis of variance ANOVA, applying the Bonferroni correction. Cluster analysis (K-means) allowed us to obtain cutoff scores to assess health status. The results allow concluding that Portuguese teachers perceive a poor well-being in the performance of their professional activity and that more than half present manifestations in the various dimensions of health deterioration, highlighting the exhaustion and cognitive disorders. In turn, Spanish teachers demonstrate a high level of well-being, being the musculoskeletal dimensions and cognitive disorders the main manifestations of deterioration of health.

Keywords: job prevention, occupational health, teacher’s health, teachers work risks, teacher’s well-being

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415 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe

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This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system

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414 Inventory Decisions for Perishable Products with Age and Stock Dependent Demand Rate

Authors: Maher Agi, Hardik Soni

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This paper presents a deterministic model for optimized control of the inventory of a perishable product subject to both physical deterioration and degradation of its freshness condition. The demand for the product depends on its current inventory level and freshness condition. Our model allows for any positive amount of end of cycle inventory. Some useful conditions that characterize the optimal solution of the model are derived and an algorithm is presented for finding the optimal values of the price, the inventory cycle, the end of cycle inventory level and the order quantity. Numerical examples are then given. Our work shows how the product freshness in conjunction with the inventory deterioration affects the inventory management decisions.

Keywords: inventory management, lot sizing, perishable products, deteriorating inventory, age-dependent demand, stock-dependent demand

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413 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim

Abstract:

Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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412 Impact of Chronic Pollution on the Taj Mahal, India

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi, Sai Vinod Boddu

Abstract:

Pollution has been a major problem that has haunted India for years. Large amounts of industrial, automobile and domestic waste have resulted in heavy contamination of air, land and water. The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, has been and continues to be India’s symbol of a rich history around the globe. Over the years, the beauty of Taj Mahal has also suffered from increasing pollution. Its shiny white exterior has started to turn yellow because of air pollution and acid rain. Illegal factories and uncontrolled construction have played a major role in worsening its condition. Rapid population growth in the city (Agra) meant more water requirement which has led to ground water deterioration under the historical monument making its wooden foundations dry and weak. Despite various measures by the state and central government, there hasn’t been any satisfactory result. This paper aims at studying the various causes and their impacts affecting the Taj Mahal and method that could slow down its deterioration.

Keywords: pollution, Taj Mahal, India, management

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411 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources

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410 Effect of Environmental Stress Factors on the Degradation of Display Glass

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Hyun-A Kim, Sunmook Lee

Abstract:

The effects of environmental stress factors such as storage conditions on the deterioration phenomenon and the characteristic of the display glass were studied. In order to investigate the effect of chemical stress on the glass during the period of storage, the respective components of commercial glass were first identified by XRF (X-ray fluorescence). The glass was exposed in the acid, alkali, neutral environment for about one month. Thin film formed on the glass surface was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared). The degree of corrosion and the rate of deterioration of each sample were confirmed by measuring the concentrations of silicon, calcium and chromium with ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry). The optical properties of the glass surface were confirmed by SEM (Scanning electron microscope) before and after the treatment. Acknowledgement—The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant Number: 10076817)

Keywords: corrosion, degradation test, display glass, environmental stress factor

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409 Development of Structural Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavement Using Traffic Speed Deflectometer Data

Authors: Sittampalam Manoharan, Gary Chai, Sanaul Chowdhury, Andrew Golding

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to present a simplified approach to develop the structural deterioration model using traffic speed deflectometer data for flexible pavements. Maintaining assets to meet functional performance is not economical or sustainable in the long terms, and it would end up needing much more investments for road agencies and extra costs for road users. Performance models have to be included for structural and functional predicting capabilities, in order to assess the needs, and the time frame of those needs. As such structural modelling plays a vital role in the prediction of pavement performance. A structural condition is important for the prediction of remaining life and overall health of a road network and also major influence on the valuation of road pavement. Therefore, the structural deterioration model is a critical input into pavement management system for predicting pavement rehabilitation needs accurately. The Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) is a vehicle-mounted Doppler laser system that is capable of continuously measuring the structural bearing capacity of a pavement whilst moving at traffic speeds. The device’s high accuracy, high speed, and continuous deflection profiles are useful for network-level applications such as predicting road rehabilitations needs and remaining structural service life. The methodology adopted in this model by utilizing time series TSD maximum deflection (D0) data in conjunction with rutting, rutting progression, pavement age, subgrade strength and equivalent standard axle (ESA) data. Then, regression analyses were undertaken to establish a correlation equation of structural deterioration as a function of rutting, pavement age, seal age and equivalent standard axle (ESA). This study developed a simple structural deterioration model which will enable to incorporate available TSD structural data in pavement management system for developing network-level pavement investment strategies. Therefore, the available funding can be used effectively to minimize the whole –of- life cost of the road asset and also improve pavement performance. This study will contribute to narrowing the knowledge gap in structural data usage in network level investment analysis and provide a simple methodology to use structural data effectively in investment decision-making process for road agencies to manage aging road assets.

Keywords: adjusted structural number (SNP), maximum deflection (D0), equant standard axle (ESA), traffic speed deflectometer (TSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 55