Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 202

Search results for: poultry

202 Food Traceability System: Current State and Future Needs of the Nigerian Poultry and Poultry Product Supply Chain

Authors: Hadiza Kabir Bako, Munir Abba Dandago

Abstract:

The fright of food-borne diseases as a result of animal health across the globe is creating the need for origin confirmation, safety of food and method of identification of food produce within the supply chain. In this paper, we investigated two commercial and one backyard poultry farm; live poultry, poultry meat and egg. We propose various implementation options for the poultry traceability system with respect to trace and track, and food recall and withdrawal requirements. With the intention that farmers, Investors or Regulatory agencies would find it useful for the Nigerian poultry sector and we highlight the future needs and challenges that lie ahead in the two most significant system of poultry production in Nigeria: the commercial poultry and backyard breeding.

Keywords: farm, food safety, food traceability, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
201 Modeling and Simulation for Infection Processes of Bird Flu within a Poultry Farm

Authors: Tertia Delia Nova, Masaji Watanabge

Abstract:

Infection of bird flu within a poultry farm involves hosts, virus, and medium. Intrusion of bird flu into a poultry farm divides the population into two groups; healthy and susceptible chickens and infected chickens. A healthy and susceptible bird is infected to become an infected bird. Bird flu viruses spread among chickens through medium such as air and droppings, and increase in hosts. A model for an infection process of bird flu within a poultry farm is described, numerical techniques are illustrated, and numerical results are introduced.

Keywords: bird flu, poultry farm, model for an infection process, flu viruses

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
200 Effects of Nut Quality and Yield by Raising Poultry in Chestnut Tree Plantation

Authors: Yunmi Park, Mahn-Jo Kim

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The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of raising poultry in environment-friendly producing area to fruit quality and crop within chestnut tree yield. This study was conducted on chestnut tree cultivation sites raising poultry at intervals of five to ten days for three years in the mountainous area which was located in the middle corner of Chungcheongbuk-do province, Korea. The quality of chestnut fruit and the control effects of harmful insects have been investigated between the sites raising poultry and control sites for three years. As a result, the harvest yielded were two to five kilograms higher in the chestnut tree cultivation sites raising poultry compared with the control site without poultry. Also, for the purposes of determining the price when selling, the ratio of the biggest fruit is higher by 3% to 14% in the chestnut tree cultivation sites raising poultry. In order to investigate the effects of pest control through raising poultry, the ratio of harmful insect species to treatment sites was relatively low compared to control site. The appreciable result is that the control effect of larvae of the chestnut leaf-cut weevil was higher in the position where raising the poultry of 4 to 5 weeks compared to the position where raising the poultry of 12 weeks. This study found that the spread of poultry in the cultivation of chestnut trees increased the fruit quality by improving the size of fruits and lowering the dosage of harmful insect, chestnut leaf-cut weevil. Also, the eco-friendly chicken produced by these mountainous regions is expected to contribute to enhancing the incomes of the farmers by differentiating themselves from existing products.

Keywords: chestnut tree, environment-friendly, fruit quality, raising poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
199 Risk Measurement and Management Strategies in Poultry Farm Enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Donatus Otuiheoma Ohajianya, Augusta Onyekachi Unamba

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This study analyzed risk among poultry farm enterprises in Imo State of Nigeria. Specifically, it examined sources of risks, the major risks associated with poultry farm enterprise, and the risk-reducing strategies among the poultry farm enterprises in the study area. Primary data collected in 2015 with validated questionnaire from 120 proportionately and randomly selected poultry farm enterprises were used for the study. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and W-Statistic that was validated with Pearson Criterion (X2). The results showed that major risk sources affecting poultry farm enterprises were production, marketing, financial and political in that order. The results found a W-Statistic value of 0.789, which was verified by Pearson Criterion to obtain X2-Calculated value of 4.65 which is lower that X2-Critical value of 11.07 at 5% significant level. The risk-reducing strategies were found to be diversification, savings, co-operative marketing, borrowing, and insurance. It was recommended that government and donor agencies should make policies aimed at encouraging poultry farm enterprises adopt the highlighted risk-reducing strategies in risk management to improve their productivity and farm income.

Keywords: risk, measurement, management, poultry farm, Imo State

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
198 Poultry Manure-Inhabiting Mite Fauna from Punjab Province, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

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Household poultry, including chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, are affected by parasitic lice and mites. The dermanyssid mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae) are the most important parasites of poultry because they act as vectors of many pathogens of poultry and workers. Mesostigmatic mite fauna was poorly identified from Pakistan, only one species was reported before in 1971. Surveys were conducted in 2014 - 2015 to investigate the mite fauna from poultry cages in seven locations in Punjab Province, Turkey. A total of seventy-one samples were collected on cardboard and by direct litter collection. Mites were collected directly from the cardboard and 100 g samples of the litter were processed through a Berlese funnel. The collected mites were prepared for identification by using Hoyer’s medium. A total of twenty-two species belonging to the Dermanyssidae, Parasitidae, Cheyletidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae and Uropodidae were identified with two new species.

Keywords: poultry cages, Acari, mesostigmatic mites, Pakistan

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197 Evaluation of Risk and the Beneficial Effects of Synthesized Nano Silver-Based Disinfectant on Poultry Mortality and Health

Authors: Indrajeet Kumar, Jayanta Bhattacharya

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This study was evaluated for the potential use of nanosilver (nAg) as a disinfectant and antimicrobial growth promoter supplement for the poultry. The experiments were conducted in the Kangsabati river basin region, in West Medinipur district, West Bengal, India for six months. Two poultry farms were adopted for the experiment. The rural economy of this region from Jhargram to Barkola is heavily dependent on contract poultry farming. The water samples were collected from the water source of poultry farm which has been used for poultry drinking purpose. The bacteriological analysis of water sample revealed that the total bacterial count (total coliform and E. coli) were higher than the acceptable standards. The bacterial loads badly affected the growth performance and health of the poultry. For disinfection, a number of chemical compounds (like formaldehyde, calcium hypochloride, sodium hypochloride, and sodium bicarbonate) have been used in typical commercial formulations. However, the effects of all these chemical compounds have not been significant over time. As a part of our research-to-market initiative, we used nanosilver (nAg) formulation as a disinfectant. The nAg formulation was synthesized by hydrothermal technique and characterized by UV-visible, TEM, SEM, and EDX. The obtained results revealed that the mortality rate of poultry was reduced due to nAg formulation compared to the mortality rate of the negative control. Moreover, the income of the farmer family was increased by 10-20% due to less mortality and better health of the poultry.

Keywords: farm water, nanosilver, field application, and poultry performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
196 Survey of Campylobacter Contamination in Poultry Meat and By-Products in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Ali Bagherpour, Masoud Soltanialvar

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Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis which are generally transmitted through foods of animal origin. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in poultry meat and by products in the city of Dezful in Iran. Since April 2012 to July 2013, a total of 400 samples including meat (n = 100), liver (n = 100), gizzard (n = 100), and poultry heart (n = 100), were randomly collected from Dezful industrial poultry abattoir and were experimented in order to investigate presence of Campylobacter species. According to culture test, 251 samples out of 400 samples under study (69%) were contaminated with Campylobacter species. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter species was observed in poultry's liver (78.3%) and then in gizzard (75.8%), heart (65%) and meat (56.7%). The most common isolated Campylobacter were C. jejuni (90.9%) and the rest were C. coli (9.1%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of Campylobacter species between the meat samples taken in the summer (86.7%). The results of this study indicate the importance of edible offal of poultries as the potential source of Campylobacter infections.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, poultry, meat, products

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
195 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

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Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: poultry manure, tillage, soil chemical properties, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
194 Socio-Economic Effects of Micro-Credit on Small-Scale Poultry Farmers’ Livelihood in Ado Odo-Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, W. O. Oyediran, A. M. Omoare

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This study examined the socio-economic effects of micro-credit on small scale poultry farmers’ livelihood in Ado Odo-Ota Local Government area of Ogun State. Purposive sampling method was used to select eighty (80) small scale poultry farmers that benefited in micro credit. Interview guide was used to obtain information on the respondents’ socio-economic characteristic, sources of micro-credit and the effects of micro-credit on their livelihood. The results revealed that most of the respondents (77.50 %) were males while half (40.00%) of the respondents were between the ages of 31-40 years. A high proportion (72.50%) of the respondents had formal education. The major sources of micro credit to small scale poultry farmers were cooperative society (47.50%) and personal savings (20.00%). The findings also revealed that micro-credit had positive effect on the assets and livelihoods of small scale poultry farmers’ livelihood. Results of t-test analysis showed a significant difference between the effects before and after micro-credit on small-scale poultry farmers’ Livelihood at p < 0.05. The study recommends that formal lending institution should be given necessary support by government to enable poultry farmers have access to credit facilities in the study area.

Keywords: micro-credit, effects, livelihood, poultry farmers, socio-economic, small scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
193 Healthy Feeding and Drinking Troughs for Profitable Intensive Deep-Litter Poultry Farming

Authors: Godwin Ojochogu Adejo, Evelyn UnekwuOjo Adejo, Sunday UnenwOjo Adejo

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The mainstream contemporary approach to controlling the impact of diseases among poultry birds rely largely on curative measures through the administration of drugs to infected birds. Most times as observed in the deep liter poultry farming system, entire flocks including uninfected birds receive the treatment they do not need. As such, unguarded use of chemical drugs and antibiotics has led to wastage and accumulation of chemical residues in poultry products with associated health hazards to humans. However, wanton and frequent drug usage in poultry is avoidable if feeding and drinking equipment are designed to curb infection transmission among birds. Using toxicological assays as guide and with efficiency and simplicity in view, two newly field-tested and recently patented equipments called 'healthy liquid drinking trough (HDT)' and 'healthy feeding trough (HFT)' that systematically eliminate contamination of the feeding and drinking channels, thereby, curbing wide-spread infection and transmission of diseases in the (intensive) deep litter poultry farming system were designed. Upon combined usage, they automatically and drastically reduced both the amount and frequency of antibiotics use in poultry by over > 50%. Additionally, they conferred optimization of feed and water utilization/elimination of wastage by > 80%, reduced labour by > 70%, reduced production cost by about 15%, and reduced chemical residues in poultry meat or eggs by > 85%. These new and cheap technologies which require no energy input are likely to elevate safety of poultry products for consumers' health, increase marketability locally and for export, and increase output and profit especially among poultry farmers and poor people who keep poultry or inevitably utilize poultry products in developing countries.

Keywords: healthy, trough, toxicological, assay-guided, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
192 The Influence of Cage versus Floor Pen Management of Broilers

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalifa

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There has been an interest in raising poultry in environmentally controlled cages rather than on floor, because poultry raised on floor are more susceptible to environmental stress including pathogens and heat stress. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of managerial environmental conditions on body weight gain of Cobb 500 broiler breed. Broilers were raised in cages and on floor in two separate rooms. Body weight at different ages of the broilers was monitored. It was found that body weight at slaughter age (5weeks) for boilers raised in batteries were significantly higher than those raised on the floor.

Keywords: broilers, cages, floor, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
191 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

Authors: Mohammad Khosravi, Ali Kiani, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang

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Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.

Keywords: antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components, phytic acid, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
190 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager

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In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
189 Optimal Selling Prices for Small Sized Poultry Farmers

Authors: Hidefumi Kawakatsu, Dong Li, Kosuke Kato

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In Japan, meat-type chickens are mainly classified into three categories: (1) Broilers, (2) Branded chickens, and (3) Jidori (Free-range local traditional pedigree chickens). The Jidori chickens are certified by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, whilst, for the Branded chickens, there is no regulation with respect to their breed (genotype) or methods for rearing them. It is, therefore, relatively easy for poultry farmers to introduce Branded than Jidori chickens. The Branded chickens are normally fed a low-calorie diet with ingredients such as herbs, which lengthens their breeding period (compared with that of the Broilers) and increases their market value. In the field of inventory management, fast-growing animals such as broilers are categorised as ameliorating items. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous studies that have explicitly considered smaller sized poultry farmers with limited breeding areas. This study develops an inventory model for a small sized poultry farmer that produces both the Broilers (Product 1) and the Branded chickens (Product 2) with different amelioration rates. The poultry farmer’s total profit per unit of time is formulated as a function of selling prices by using a price-dependent demand function. The existence of a unique optimal selling price for each product, which maximises the total profit, established. It has also been confirmed through numerical examples that, when the breeding area is fixed, the total profit could increase if the poultry farmer reduced the product quantity of Product 1 to introduce Product 2.

Keywords: amelioration, deterioration, small sized poultry farmers, optimal price

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
188 Rodents Control in Poultry Production; Harnessing Conflicting Animal Welfare Interests in Developing Countries

Authors: O. M. Alabi, F. A. Aderemi, M. O. Ayoola

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An aspect of biosecurity measures to ensure good welfare for chickens is rodents’ control. Rats and mice are rodents commonly found in poultry houses in most of the African countries. More than 20,000 species of rat have been identified in Africa among which are; Black house rats (Rattus rattus), East African mole rat (Tachyorcytes splendens), Naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), Zambian mole rat (Fukomys mechowii), African grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), Nigerian mole rat (Cryptomys foxi), Target rat (Stochomys longicaudatus) and West African Shaggy rat (Dasymis rufulus). Apart from being destructive, rats and mice are voracious in that they compete with chickens for feed and water thereby causing economical losses to the farmer, they are also vectors to many pathogens of poultry diseases such as Salmonellosis, colibacillosis, ascaridiasis, coryza, pasteurellosis and mycoplasmosis. As bad as these rodents are to the poultry farmers, they are good sources of animal protein to local hunters and other farmers in most African countries. Rat is considered a delicacy in Nigeria and many other African countries hence the need to investigate into how the rats species will not go into extinction. Rodents are usually controlled by poultry farmers with the use of rodenticides which can either be anticoagulant or stomach poison, and with the use of baits. However, elimination of rats and mice is being considered as callous act against these species of animal and their natural existence as human food also. This paper therefore suggests that sanitation methods such as feed removal from rats and mice, controlling feed and water spillage, proper disposal of waste eggs, dead birds and garbage, keeping the surroundings of the poultry clean; rodent proofing by making it difficult for rodents to enter the poultry houses are some of the humane ways of controlling rodents in poultry production to avoid improving the welfare of a particular animal at the expense of the other.

Keywords: management, poultry, rodents, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
187 Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

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To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, compost quality, organic ammendment, poultry manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
186 Isolation and Identification of Candida Species from Poultry Feed in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Authors: Lina F. Hussein, Asia A. M. Saadullah

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This study aimed to isolate and identify Candida species that contaminate poultry feeds in Duhok province. Using differential media and CHROMO agar as selective media, a total of sixty samples of poultry feeds were collected and analyzed to isolate and classify Candida species. In this analysis, a total of 189 Candida isolates were found from sixty samples. Germ tube tests, inoculation on commercially available CHROMagar, and chlamydospore formation were performed on these isolates. The most common Candida identified was Candida krusei (44.95%), followed by Candida tropicalis (21.72%), Candida glabrata. (17.68%), and Candida albicans (15.66%). Particularly useful for quickly identifying common yeast species is CHROM agar. Its ability, together with the capacity to track mixed Candida spp. cultures lead to enhanced and in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratories, streamline the workflow, also in low-resource conditions.

Keywords: CHROMO agar, poultry feed, Duhok, Candida species, identification

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185 Screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria from Bangladeshi Indigenous Poultry for Their Potential Use as Probiotics

Authors: K. B. M. Islam, Syeeda Shiraj-Um-Mahmuda, Afroj Jahan, A. A. Bhuiyan

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In Bangladesh, the use of imported probiotics in poultry is gradually being increased. But surprisingly, no probiotic bacteria have been isolated yet in Bangladesh despite the existence of scavenging native poultry as potential source that is seemingly more resistant to GIT infection as well as other diseases. Therefore, the study was undertaken to isolate, identify and characterize the potential probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains from Bangladeshi indigenous poultry, and to evaluate their suitability to use in poultry industry. Crop and cecal samples from 61 healthy indigenous birds were used to isolate potential probiotics strains following conventional cultural methods. A total of 216 isolates were identified following physical, biochemical and molecular methods that belonged to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. An auto-aggregation test was performed for 180 and 136 isolated lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains, respectively. Twelve lactobacilli isolates and 7 bifidobacteria isolates were selected because of their convenient aggregation. In vitro tests including antibacterial activity, resistance to low pH, hemolytic activities etc. were performed for evaluation of probiotic potential of each strain. Under the in vitro conditions and with respects to the probiotic traits, three lactobacilli; LS16, LS45, LS133 and two bifidobacteria, BS21 and BS90 were found to be potential probiotic strains. Thus, they are proposed to be evaluated for their in vivo probiotic properties. If the proposed strains are found suitable as the probiotics to be used in commercial poultry industry, it is expected that the local probiotics would be more beneficial and would save the huge amount of money that Bangladesh spends every year for the importation of such materials from abroad.

Keywords: Bangladeshi poultry, gut microbiota, lactic acid bacteria, scavenging chicken, GIT health

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
184 Effects of Tillage and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Yam Performance on Alfisol in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adeleye Ebenezer Omotayo

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The main effects of tillage, poultry manure and interaction effects of tillage-poultry manure combinations on soil characteristics and yam yield were investigated in a factorial experiment involving four tillage techniques namely (ploughing (p), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and poultry manure at two levels 0 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 arranged in split-plot design. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute Package. Soil moisture content, bulk density and total porosity were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage techniques. Manually heaped and ridged plots had the lowest soil bulk density, moisture content and highest total porosity. The soil total N, exchangeable Mg, k, base saturation and CEC were better enhanced in manually tilled plots. Soil nutrients status declined at the end of the second cropping for all the tillage techniques in the order PH>P>MH>MR. Yam tuber yields were better enhanced in manually tilled plots than mechanically tilled plots. Poultry manure application reduced soil bulk density, temperature, increased total porosity and soil moisture content. It also improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity. It also increased yam tuber yield significantly. Tillage techniques plots amended with poultry manure enhanced yam tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that yam production on alfisol in Southwest Nigeria requires loose soil structure for tuber development and that the use of poultry manure in combination with tillage is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure, improve soil organic matter status, nutrient availability and high yam tuber yield. Also, it will help to reduce the possible deleterious effects of tillage on soil properties and yam performance.

Keywords: ploughing, poultry manure, yam, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
183 A Prospective Study on the Pattern of Antibiotics Use and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Its Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy

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Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
182 Concentration of Some Hazardous Metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) in Egg Samples Analysed from Poultry Farms Located near Automechanics Workshops, Industrial Areas and Roadsides in Kano and Kaduna

Authors: M. I. Mohammed, A. M. Sani, A. S. Bayero

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The aim of this work is to study the effect of farm site location by determining the levels of hazardous metals in poultry eggs samples collected near auto mechanics, industrial areas and roadsides in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the analysis of the metals. The mean concentration ranges of the metals analysed in egg white and egg yolk were Pb: 0.05-0.10mgkg⁻¹, Ni: 0.10-0.30mgkg⁻¹ and Cd: not detected -0.03mgkg⁻¹. It was concluded that farm site locations has very low significant effect on the concentration of hazardous metals level.

Keywords: albumen, Egg, hazardous metals, poultry farms

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
181 Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases

Authors: H. Al-Khalaifa, A. Al-Nasser

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The viewpoint towards the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of a vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.

Keywords: drugs, parasitology, poultry, vaccines

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
180 Biosecurity Control Systems in Two Phases for Poultry Farms

Authors: M. Peña Aguilar Juan, E. Nava Galván Claudia, Pastrana Palma Alberto

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In this work was developed and implemented a thermal fogging disinfection system to counteract pathogens from poultry feces in agribusiness farms, to reduce mortality rates and increase biosafety in them. The control system consists of two phases for the conditioning of the farm during the sanitary break. In the first phase, viral and bacterial inactivation was performed by treating the stool dry cleaning, along with the development of a specialized product that foster the generation of temperatures above 55 °C in less than 24 hr, for virus inactivation. In the second phase, a process for disinfection by fogging was implemented, along with the development of a specialized disinfectant that guarantee no risk for the operators’ health or birds. As a result of this process, it was possible to minimize the level of mortality of chickens on farms from 12% to 5.49%, representing a reduction of 6.51% in the death rate, through the formula applied to the treatment of poultry litter based on oxidising agents used as antiseptics, hydrogen peroxide solutions, glacial acetic acid and EDTA in order to act on bacteria, viruses, micro bacteria and spores.

Keywords: innovation, triple helix, poultry farms, biosecurity

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
179 Assessment of Vocational Rehabilitation of Visually Impaired Persons in Poultry Farming at Blind Center, Ogbomoso

Authors: Modupe C. Alasa

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One of the major parameters for ensuring a country’s economic growth and development is the extent to which the citizens are involved in agriculture. The general objective of this study is to determine the assessment of vocational rehabilitation of visually impaired persons in poultry farming at blind center, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A total number of 70 students will be selected randomly through the use of structured questionnaire out of the total number of students which is 120. Data will be collected from the farmers’ personal characteristics and other specific objectives related to the work. The results will be analyzed with the use of simple statistical tools as frequency, percentage, means and standard deviations. Conclusion and recommendations will be suggested based on result findings of the study.

Keywords: assessment, impair, poultry, rehabilitation, vocational

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
178 Analysis of Farm Management Skills in Broiler Poultry Producers in Botswana

Authors: Som Pal Baliyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze farm management skills in broiler poultryproducers in Botswana. The study adopted a descriptive and correlation research design. The population of the study was the poultry farm operators who had been in broiler poultry farming at least for two years. Based on the information from literature, a questionnaire was constructed for data collection on seven areas of farm management skills namely; planning skills, accounting and financial management skills, production management skills, product procurement and marketing skills, decision making skills, risk management skills, and specific technical skills. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were accomplished by a panel of experts and by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, respectively. Data were collected through a survey of 60 randomly sampled poultry farm operators in Botswana. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical tools whereby the level of farm management skills were determined by calculating means and standard deviations of the management skills among the broiler producers. The level of farm management skills in broilers producers was discussed. All the seven farm management skills were ranked based on their calculated means. The specific technical skills and risk management skills were the highest and the lowest ranked farm management skills, respectively.Findings revealed that the broiler producers had skills above the average level only in specific technical skills whereas the skill levels in the remaining six farm management skills under study were found below the average level. This prevailing low level of farm management skills can be justified asthe cause of failure or poor performance of the broiler poultry farms in Botswana. Therefore, in order to improve the efficiency and productivityin broiler production in the country, it was recommended that the broiler poultry producers should be adequately trained in areas of planning skills, financial management skills, production management skills, product procurement and marketing skills, decision making skills and risk management skills.

Keywords: poultry production, broiler production, management skills, levels of skills

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177 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

Abstract:

We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: biochar, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction, fixed bed, fluidized bed

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176 Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Collected from Poultry Farms Located in Riyadh, KSA by Multiplex-PCR

Authors: Moussa I. Mohamed, Turki, K. A. Al-Faraj, Abdullah A. Al-Arfaj, Ashgan M. Hessain

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to detect the incidences of Salmonella enterica from different poultry farms located in Egypt on molecular basis. During the summer of 2012, a total of 1800 cloacal swabs were collected from poultry farms located I Cairo, Egypt to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella enteric. Moreover, a total of 300 samples of poultry and poultry products were collected from different retail establishment markets in Cairo, Egypt including, 150 local whole frozen chickens, 50 imported whole frozen chickens, 100 local chicken cut samples. The highest rate of isolation 8% was obtained from imported frozen chickens and local chicken cuts, followed by local frozen chickens 6.66% and finally rectal swabs from apparently health chickens 6.4 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were most frequent among the total Salmonella isolates. Multiplex-PCR for the rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis from field samples especially after pre-enrichment on Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective broth (PCR-RV), revealed the same positive samples. Therefore PCR-RV technique is rabid, time saving and applicable to detect Salmonella serovars directly from chicken samples. Moreover, detecting Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis by this assay was carried out within 2 days opposed to 5–6 d by the bacteriological and serological methods.

Keywords: Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis enrichment, multiplex-PCR

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175 Efficacy of Plant and Mushroom Based Bio-Products against the Red Poultry Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer) are economically deleterious parasite of hens in poultry industry in all over the world. Due to lack of proper control managements and result of poor application of commercial products, D. gallinae get resistance and severe infestation in poultry birds. Laboratory experiment was planned for the control of D. gallinae by using different mushroom and plant extracts. We used control treatment (100 ml distilled water) and nine treatments (10 gr Lentinula adobas, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus aryngii with 100 ml methanol, 1% and 2% Neemazal, 1.5% Gamma-T-ol, Echinacea Leaf , 1.5% Fungatol with neem spray and Methanol) with five replication having five mites each. Data collected after 12 and 24 hours every day till mites found dead in every treatment. The significant differences among the mean values were compared with the DUNCAN multiple range test. The efficacy (%) of each treatment was determined with the Abbott formula. All statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS Version 12 program. Lentinula edodes (80%), Ganoderma lucidum (76%) and Fungatol+Neem spray (1.5%) (80%) were significant against D. gallinae within 3 days.

Keywords: mushroom extracts, plant extracts, D. gallinae, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
174 Performance and Economics of Goats Fed Poultry Litter and Rumen Content

Authors: A. Mohammed, A. M. Umar, S. H. Adamu

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrients utilization using 20 entire males of Sahelian goats fed Rumen content (fore-stomach digest) and poultry litter waste (PLW) at various levels of inclusion. The experimental animals were randomly allocated to diet A (Control), B (10% each of FSD and PLW), C (6.67%PLW and 13.33 FSD) and D(13.33% PLW and 6.67% FDS) at the rate of five animals per treatment. After 90 days of feeding trial, It was observed that Diets D had best feed intake and body weight gain which might be due to the good palatability of PLW and less odour of FSD in the diet. Diet C had the least feed cost then followed by diet B and while diet A(control) was more expensive than other treatments. There was the significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in the cost of daily feed consumption. Treatment A had the highest value while treatment C recorded the lowest cost of daily feed consumption. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between all treatments in terms of Cost of feed kg/ live weight gain, where treatment B had the highest value while the lowest obtained in treatment D. However, it is recommended that more research trial should be carried out to ascertain the true value of incorporating poultry litter waste and fore-stomach digest.

Keywords: poultry litter, rumen content, weight gain, economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
173 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees

Abstract:

The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: salmonella, zoonosis, food, transmission, eggs

Procedia PDF Downloads 602