Search results for: economics
478 Methodology of Islamic Economics: Scope and Prospects
Authors: Ahmad Abdulkadir Ibrahim
Abstract:Observation of the methodology of Islamic economics laid down for the methods and instruments of analysis and even some of its basic assumptions in the modern world; is a matter that is of paramount importance. There is a need to examine the implications of different suggested definitions of Islamic economics, exploring its scope and attempting to outline its methodology. This paper attempts to deal with the definition of Islamic economics, its methodology, and its scope. It will outline the main methodological problem by addressing the question of whether Islamic economics calls for a methodology of its own or as an expanded economics. It also aims at drawing the attention of economists in the modern world to the obligation and consideration of the methodology of Islamic economics. The methodology adopted in this research is library research through the consultation of relevant literature, which focuses on the thematic study of the subject matter. This is followed by an analysis and discussion of the contents of the materials used. It is concluded that there is a certain degree of inconsistency in the way assumptions are incorporated that perhaps are alien to Islamic economics. The paper also observed that there is a difference between Islamic economists and other (conventional) economists in the profession. An important conclusion is that Islamic economists need to rethink what economics is all about and whether we really have to create an alternative to economics in the form of Islamic economics or simply have an Islamic perspective of the same discipline.
Keywords: methodology, Islamic economics, conventional economics, Muslim economists, framework, knowledgeProcedia PDF Downloads 22
477 The Effect of Human Relation on Employee Performance at Faculty of Economics of Syiah Kuala University
Authors: Yurnalis Usman
Abstract:In an organization, institution or enterprise, human resource is very important aspect since many human skills cannot be replaced by technology tools even though technology has advanced rapidly now. The relationship among people is very necessary to create a subordinate and leader relation in the assumption that human beings are creatures who have feeling, desires, needs, aspirations and ideas differing from one another. This study on human relation was conducted at the Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, while the research object is associated with human relations and employee performance in Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH. To determine the extent of employee relations in Faculty of Economics with fellow employees or superiors, the employees are given some questions. The result shows that human relations influence the employee performance at Faculty of Economics UNSYIAH strongly.
Keywords: human relation, employee performance, communication, Syiah KualaProcedia PDF Downloads 207
476 Potential Determinants of Research Output: Comparing Economics and Business
Authors: Osiris Jorge Parcero, Néstor Gandelman, Flavia Roldán, Josef Montag
Abstract:This paper uses cross-country unbalanced panel data of up to 146 countries over the period 1996 to 2015 to be the first study to identify potential determinants of a country’s relative research output in Economics versus Business. More generally, it is also one of the first studies comparing Economics and Business. The results show that better policy-related data availability, higher income inequality, and lower ethnic fractionalization relatively favor economics. The findings are robust to two alternative fixed effects specifications, three alternative definitions of economics and business, two alternative measures of research output (publications and citations), and the inclusion of meaningful control variables. To the best of our knowledge, our paper is also the first to demonstrate the importance of policy-related data as drivers of economic research. Our regressions show that the availability of this type of data is the single most important factor associated with the prevalence of economics over business as a research domain. Thus, our work has policy implications, as the availability of policy-related data is partially under policy control. Moreover, it has implications for students, professionals, universities, university departments, and research-funding agencies that face choices between profiles oriented toward economics and those oriented toward business. Finally, the conclusions show potential lines for further research.
Keywords: research output, publication performance, bibliometrics, economics, business, policy-related dataProcedia PDF Downloads 64
475 Identity and Economics: The Economic Welfare and Behavior of Romani People in Turkey
Authors: Sinem Bagce, Ensar Yilmaz
Abstract:As a well-known fact, neoclassical economics excludes 'what is humanized' out of the literature for a long time. Rationality is defined in a very narrow context in the mainstream economics. Identity economics is one of the challenges raised against this tradition. The concept of 'identity' has been introduced to economics by Akerlof and Kranton (2000). The identity-based analysis mainly searches the links between economic welfare and decision of the actors in question related to ethnic, racial, gender and immigrant issues. This is more about discrimination and its repercussions on economic decisions of the relevant actors in a social sphere. In this article, we, in the context of identity economics, search the economic welfare and decisions of Romani people in Turkey. It is plainly observed that identity is clearly the major determinant for Romani people in economic and social life. They have their own distinctive rationality in making economic decisions. For a more scrutinized and academic analysis, we aim to trace their economic identity in their real social environment. This study is an extension of surveys conducted on Romani people in Turkey. Using data similar to SILC (Statistics for Income and Living Conditions) conducted on Romani people across the whole Turkey, we look for some questions about the income/welfare distribution among them, consumer preferences/habits, living conditions, occupations, education and as such. For this, by employing econometric and statistical analytical tools, we aim to obtain the answers for these questions. We think these analytic results will provide us to evaluate the links between their economic state and their identity more thoroughly. JEL Codes: D1, J 15, R23.
Keywords: identity economics, Romani people, discrimination, social identity and preferencesProcedia PDF Downloads 143
474 Economics and Management Information Systems: Institute of Management and Technology Enugu a Case Study
Authors: Cletus Agbowo
Abstract:Standard principles, rules, regulations, norms and guides are necessities in practice especially in the Economics and management information system Institute of management of and technology (IMT) Enugu a case sturdy as presented by the presenter. Without mincing words, the fundamental bottle neck of management is economics, how to select to engage merger productivity resources to achieve uncountable objectives without tears. Management information system inevitably become bound up in organizational politics because the influence access to a key resource – namely information. Economics and management information can effect who does what to whom, when, where and how in an organization. In great institutions like the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu a case study many new information systems require changes in personnel, individual routines that can be painful for those involved and require retraining and additional effort may or may not be compensated. In a nut shell, because management information system potentially change an organization’s structure, culture, business processes, and strategy, there is often considerable resistance to them when they are introduced. The case study have many schools, departments, divisions and units which needs research on economics and management information systems. A system can be defined as a set of interrelated components and / or elements, which reacts with input to produce output. A department in an organization is a system. The researcher is faced to itemize the practical challenges encountered and solution adopted by the Institute Management and Enugu state government.
Keywords: economics, information, management, productivity, regulationsProcedia PDF Downloads 320
473 Yield, Economics and ICBR of Different IPM Modules in Bt Cotton in Maharashtra
Authors: N. K. Bhute, B. B. Bhosle, D. G. More, B. V. Bhede
Abstract:The field experiments were conducted during kharif season of the year 2007-08 at the experimental farm of the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Studies on evaluation of different IPM modules for Bt cotton in relation to yield economics and ICBR revealed that MAU and CICR IPM modules proved superior. It was, however, on par with chemical control. Considering the ICBR and safety to natural enemies, an inference can be drawn that Bt cotton with IPM module is the most ideal combination. Besides reduction in insecticide use, it is also expected to ensure favourable ecological and economic returns in contrast to the adverse effects due to conventional insecticides. The IPM approach, which takes care of varying pest situation, appears to be essential for gaining higher advantage from Bt cotton.
Keywords: yield, economics, ICBR, IPM Modules, Bt cottonProcedia PDF Downloads 205
472 The Coauthorship Network Analysis of the Norwegian School of Economics
Authors: Ivan Belik, Kurt Jornsten
Abstract:We construct the coauthorship network based on the scientific collaboration between the faculty members at the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) and based on their international academic publication experience. The network structure is based on the NHH faculties’ publications recognized by the ISI Web of Science for the period 1950 – Spring, 2014. The given network covers the publication activities of the NHH faculty members (over six departments) based on the information retrieved from the ISI Web of Science in Spring, 2014. In this paper we analyse the constructed coauthorship network in different aspects of the theory of social networks analysis.
Keywords: coauthorship networks, social networks analysis, Norwegian School of Economics, ISIProcedia PDF Downloads 347
471 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics
Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh
Abstract:Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.
Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validityProcedia PDF Downloads 208
470 Settlements of Disputes in the Context of Islamic (Sharia) Economics in Indonesia and Egypt: A Comparative Analysis
Authors: Gemala Dewi, Wirdyaningsih, Farida Prihatini
Abstract:The development of sharia business activities at present has solidified its societal mark and has crossed influence between several nations. In the practice, there may be disputes, breaches and other forms of conflict that occurred along the way. In the meantime, alternative settlements of disputes are utilized differently between nations in the context of their political, social, economic, legal and infrastructural (technology and transportation) scope. Besides the various conditions, there is a common driving factor, which is a consequence of the need for businesses to settle conflicts in an efficient and cost-efficient manner. This factor is paired symbiotically with the limitations of the court and legal processes. Knowing this, Indonesia and Egypt represent countries that have similar social, political, economic and legal conditions. This academic research establishes a normative analysis that looks and compares the rules that regulate the prospects and challenges in the regards of dispute settlements in reference to sharia economics in Indonesia and Egypt. This work recommends that sharia economics dispute settlement is significant to be incorporated in both Indonesian and Egyptian legal systems.
Keywords: sharia economics, dispute resolution, Indonesia, EgyptProcedia PDF Downloads 202
469 A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations
Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli
Abstract:This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.
Keywords: econophysics, electric field, financial system, Gauss law, global financial crisisProcedia PDF Downloads 189
468 Challenges of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Algerian Universities
Authors: Khedidja Benaicha Mati
Abstract:The present research tries to highlight a very crucial issue which exists at the level of the faculty of Economics and Management at Chlef university. This issue is represented by the challenges and difficulties which face the teaching / learning process in the faculty on the part of the language teachers, the learners, and the administration staff, including mainly the absence of an agreed syllabus, lack of teaching materials, teachers’ qualifications and training, timing, coefficient, and lack of motivation and interest amongst students. All these negative factors make teaching and learning EFL rather ambiguous, ineffective and unsatisfactory. The students at the faculty of Economics and Management are looking for acquiring not only GE but also technical English to respond efficiently to the ongoing changes at the various levels most notably economy, business, technology, and sciences. Therefore, there is a need of ESP programmes which would focus on developing the communicative competence of the learners in their specific field of study or work. The aim of the present research is to explore the ways of improving the actual situation of teaching English in the faculty of Economics and to make the English courses more purposive, fulfilling and satisfactory. The sample population focused on second and third-year students of Economics from different specialties mainly commercial sciences, insurance and banking, accountancy, and management. This is done through a questionnaire which inquires students about their learning weaknesses, difficulties and challenges they encounter, and their expectations of the subject matter.
Keywords: faculty of economics and management, challenges, teaching/ learning process, EFL, GE, ESP, English courses, communicative competenceProcedia PDF Downloads 456
467 Value from Environmental and Cultural Perspectives or Two Sides of the Same Coin
Authors: Vilem Paril, Dominika Tothova
Abstract:This paper discusses the value theory in cultural heritage and the value theory in environmental economics. Two economic views of the value theory are compared within the field of cultural heritage maintenance and within the field of the environment. The main aims are to find common features in these two differently structured theories under the layer of differently defined terms as well as really differing features of these two approaches, to clear the confusion which stems from different terminology as in fact these terms capture the same aspects of reality and to show possible inspiration these two perspectives can offer one another. Another aim is to present these two value systems in one value framework. First, important moments of the value theory from the economic perspective are presented, leading to the marginal revolution of (not only) the Austrian School. Then the theory of value within cultural heritage and environmental economics are explored. Finally, individual approaches are compared and their potential mutual inspiration searched for.
Keywords: cultural heritage, environmental economics, existence value, value theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 260
466 Evaluation of Digital Marketing Strategies by Behavioral Economics
Authors: Sajjad Esmaeili Aghdam
Abstract:Economics typically conceptualizes individual behavior as the consequence of external states, for example, budgets and prices (or respective beliefs) and choices. As the main goal, we focus on the influence of a range of Behavioral Economics factors on Strategies of Digital Marketing, evaluation of strategies and deformation of it into highly prospective marketing strategies. The different forms of behavioral prospects all lead to the succeeding two main results. First, the steadiness of the economic dynamics in a currency union be contingent fatefully on the level of economic incorporation. More economic incorporation leads to more steady economic dynamics. Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is “all casual communications focused at consumers through Internet-based technology connected to the usage or characteristics of specific properties and services or their venders.” eWOM can take many methods, the most significant one being online analyses. Writing this paper, 72 articles have been gathered, focusing on the title and the aim of the article from research search engines like Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed. Recent research in strategic management and marketing proposes that markets should not be viewed as a given and deterministic setting, exogenous to the firm. Instead, firms are progressively abstracted as dynamic inventors of market prospects. The use of new technologies touches all spheres of the modern lifestyle. Social and economic life becomes unbearable without fast, applicable, first-class and fitting material. Psychology and economics (together known as behavioral economics) are two protruding disciplines underlying many theories in marketing. The wide marketing works papers consumers’ none balanced behavior even though behavioral biases might not continuously be steadily called or officially labeled.
Keywords: behavioral economics, digital marketing, marketing strategy, high impact strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 93
465 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context
Authors: V. Charaia
Abstract:This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?
Keywords: conflict economics, investments, trade, remittancesProcedia PDF Downloads 167
464 Analysis of Energy Flows as An Approach for The Formation of Monitoring System in the Sustainable Regional Development
Authors: Inese Trusina, Elita Jermolajeva
Abstract:Global challenges require a transition from the existing linear economic model to a model that will consider nature as a life support system for the developmenton the way to social well-being in the frame of the ecological economics paradigm. The article presentsbasic definitions for the development of formalized description of sustainabledevelopment monitoring. It provides examples of calculating the parameters of monitoring for the Baltic Sea region countries and their primary interpretation.
Keywords: sustainability, development, power, ecological economics, regional economic, monitoringProcedia PDF Downloads 58
463 Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria
Authors: Alice Morenike Olagunju, Olufemi A. Fakolade, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Oriyomi Rabiu
Abstract:The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.
Keywords: attitude towards agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwest Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, high-flyers pre-service teachersProcedia PDF Downloads 182
462 Energy Policy and Interactions with Politics and Economics
Authors: A. Beril Tugrul
Abstract:Demand on production and thereby the global need of energy is growing continuously. Each country has different trends on energy demand and supply according to their geopolitical and geographical locations, underground reserves, weather conditions and level of industrialization. Conventional energy resources such as oil, gas and coal –in other words fossil resources- remain dominant on primary energy supply in spite of causing of environmental problems. Energy supply and demand securities are essential within the energy importing and exporting countries. This concept affected all sectors, but especially impressed on political aspects of the countries and also global economic views.
Keywords: energy policy, energy economics, energy strategy, global trends, petro-dollar recyclingProcedia PDF Downloads 406
461 Student Attribute and the Effectiveness of Classroom Response System in Teaching Economics
Authors: Raymond Li
Abstract:In this project a web-based classroom response system (CRS) was used in the teaching an intermediate level economics course. This system allows the instructor to post a question on the screen and students to answer questions using their own electronic mobile devices. The questions and the results summarizing student responses can be shown to students simultaneously and the instructor can make timely feedback to students in class. CRS gives students a chance to respond to the instructor’s question privately, encouraging students who might not typically speak up in class to express their thoughts and opinions. There is a vast literature on the advantages and challenges of using CRS. However, empirical evidence on the student attributes that increase the effectiveness of CRS in improving student learning outcomes is sparse. The purpose of this project is to (1) find out if the use of CRS is beneficial to students taking economics, and (2) discover key student attributes that will likely make CRS more effective. Students’ performance in examinations and an end-of-semester questionnaire were used to assess the effectiveness of CRS in this project. Comparing the examination scores of the CRS treatment group and control group, the treatment group performed considerably better and statistically significant differences were found basing on paired t-tests on the differences. According to the questionnaire results, around 75% of the students in the treatment group generally agreed that CRS allowed them to express their views more freely. We also observed that students who prefer to use instant messaging rather than making conversations are generally more positive towards CRS. The use of CRS also benefits the instructor – students’ rating of the instructor in the teaching evaluation was significantly higher for the CRS treatment group.
Keywords: education technology, classroom response system, student attributes, economics educationProcedia PDF Downloads 73
460 The Importance of Effectively Communicating Science and Economics to the Public (Layman)
Authors: Puran Prasad Adhikari
Abstract:Considering the fact that when we are able to communicate science and economics effectively to broader nonprofessional audiences, it promotes a great understanding of its wider relevance to society and encourages more informed and confident decision-making at all levels, from the government to communities to individuals. The study has been conducted. This study is aimed to examine the understanding of the general public of economics and the basic sciences functioning in our surroundings in our day-to-day life. Data was gathered through historical documents related to science communication and through interviews with the public. The statistical result shows that there is a great lack of knowledge in the general public about the basic sciences and how economics impacts their life daily. The difficulties faced by the public include the view that these things can only be understood by professionals and it is beyond their capacity to grasp these concepts, the use of technical words and jargon by the professionals, and the lack of the medium to understand even if they want to learn it. The result further indicates that the lack of this basic knowledge also leads to bad decision-making, which causes frustration and anxiety. The result shows the great correlation between the confidence level of a person and the knowledge of basic science and economics. The factor behind this was the right decision-making capacity of the individual, which boosts the happy hormones of the individual. So indirectly, we found the correlation between mental health and the understanding of science and economics. The public wants to have a basic understanding and concepts of these topics, but they complain that there is no effective medium through which they can gain the understanding; the medium which is available is full of jargon and technical terms directed to professional and highly educated which they consider is beyond their reach. So, communicating the basic concepts to the general public is of great importance in the 21st century for the overall progress of society. The professional one can make this possible by considering the level of public understanding and making the communication and the programs comprehensible to the layman. Various means can be used to make this successful and effective, e.g., cartoon guide books, Q&A with the layman, animations use, and daily life examples. This study’s implication will help educators of high-level institutions and policymakers improve general public [layman] access to comprehensible knowledge.
Keywords: layman, comprehensible, decision making, frustration, confidenceProcedia PDF Downloads 18
459 Aggregate Fluctuations and the Global Network of Input-Output Linkages
Authors: Alexander Hempfing
Abstract:The desire to understand business cycle fluctuations, trade interdependencies and co-movement has a long tradition in economic thinking. From input-output economics to business cycle theory, researchers aimed to find appropriate answers from an empirical as well as a theoretical perspective. This paper empirically analyses how the production structure of the global economy and several states developed over time, what their distributional properties are and if there are network specific metrics that allow identifying structurally important nodes, on a global, national and sectoral scale. For this, the World Input-Output Database was used, and different statistical methods were applied. Empirical evidence is provided that the importance of the Eastern hemisphere in the global production network has increased significantly between 2000 and 2014. Moreover, it was possible to show that the sectoral eigenvector centrality indices on a global level are power-law distributed, providing evidence that specific national sectors exist which are more critical to the world economy than others while serving as a hub within the global production network. However, further findings suggest, that global production cannot be characterized as a scale-free network.
Keywords: economic integration, industrial organization, input-output economics, network economics, production networksProcedia PDF Downloads 109
458 Computer Assisted Instructions for a Better Achievement in and Attitude towards Agricultural Economics
Authors: Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Alice M. Olagunju
Abstract:This study determined the effects of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Academic Self-Concepts (ASC) on pre-service teachers’ achievement in AE concepts in CoE in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Two hundred and thirty-two intact 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to three groups (D&PM, 77, TM, 73 and control, 82). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE achievement test (r=0.76), pre-service teachers’ ASC Scale (r=0.81); instructional guides for tutorial (r=0.76), drill and practice (r=0.81) and conventional lecture modes (r=0.83), and teacher performance assessment sheet were used for data collection. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and Scheffe post-hoc at 0.05 level of significance. The participants were 55.6% female with mean age of 20.8 years. Treatment had significant main effects on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(2,207)=60.52; η²=0.21; p < 0.05). Participants in D&PM (x̄ =27.83) had the best achievement compared to those in TM (x̄ =25.41) and control (x̄ =18.64) groups. ASC had significant main effect on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(1,207)=22.011; η²=0.166; p < 0.05). Participants with high ASC (x̄ =27.52) had better achievement compared to those with low ASC (x̄ =22.37). The drill and practice and tutorial instructional modes enhanced students’ achievement in Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, the two instructional modes should be adopted for improved learning outcomes in agricultural economics concepts among pre-service teachers.
Keywords: achievement in agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, drill and practice instructional mode, tutorial instructional modeProcedia PDF Downloads 126
457 Beyond the Economics of Food: Household Food Strategies in Clusters of the Umkhanyakude District Municipality
Authors: Mduduzi Nhlozi
Abstract:Food insecurity continues to persist in rural areas of South Africa today. A number of factors can be attributed to this including declining rural economies, rising unemployment, natural disasters such as drought as well as shifting cultural norms, values, traditions and beliefs. This paper explores mechanisms used by rural households to achieve food security in the midst of various threats and risks to their livelihoods. The study used semi-structured questionnaire to collect information on lived experiences of households in their quest to access and ensure availability of food. The paper finds that households use a number of food strategies namely economy-related, culture-related and rite-of-passage related strategies to achieve food security. The thrust of argument in the paper is that there is a need for food security studies to move beyond the orthodox, economic analytic framework, towards new institutional economics, focusing on local governance and socio-cultural systems supporting households to achieve food security. It advocates for localised food security plans to be developed by local municipalities to improve food security status for rural households.
Keywords: household, food insecurity, food strategies, new institutional economics, umkhanyakudeProcedia PDF Downloads 52
456 Ecological and Economical Indicators of Successful Community Based Forest Management: A Case of Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal
Authors: Bikram Jung Kunwar, Pralhad Kunwor
Abstract:The Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) approach is often glorified as the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries. However, how the approach has been understood by the local user households, who implement it is remained unanswered for many planners, policy makers, and sometimes researcher as well. The study attempts to assess the understanding of ecology and economics of CBFM in Nepal, where community forest program has been implemented since the 1970s. In order to understand the impacts of the program, eight criteria and sixteen indicators for ecological conservation and similarly same number of criteria and indicators for socio-economic impacts of the program were designed and compared between before and after the program implementation. The community forestry program has positive effects in forest ecology conservation and at the same time rural livelihood improvement of local people. The study revealed that collective understanding of forest ecology and economics leads the CBFM approach towards the sustainability of the program in a win-win situation. The recommendations of the study are expected to be useful to natural resource managers, planners, and policy makers.
Keywords: community, forest management, ecology, economics, NepalProcedia PDF Downloads 315
455 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator
Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda
Abstract:The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.
Keywords: poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, Monte Carlo simulations, sampleProcedia PDF Downloads 355
454 Final Costs of Civil Claims
Authors: Behnam Habibi Dargah
Abstract:The economics of cost-benefit theory seeks to monitor claims and determine their final price. The cost of litigation is important because it is a measure of the efficiency of the justice system. From an economic point of view, the cost of litigation is considered to be the point of equilibrium of litigation, whereby litigation is regarded as a high-risk investment and is initiated when the costs are less than the probable and expected benefits. Costs are economically separated into private and social costs. Private cost includes material (direct and indirect) and spiritual costs. The social costs of litigation are also subsidized-centric due to the public and governmental nature of litigation and cover both types of bureaucratic bureaucracy and the costs of judicial misconduct. Macroeconomic policy in the economics of justice is the reverse engineering of controlling the social costs of litigation by employing selective litigation and working on the judicial culture to achieve rationality in the monopoly system. Procedures for controlling and managing court costs are also circumscribed to economic patterns in the field. Rational cost allocation model and cost transfer model. The rational allocation model deals with cost-tolerance systems, and the transfer model also considers three models of transferability, including legal, judicial and contractual transferability, which will be described and explored in the present article in a comparative manner.
Keywords: cost of litigation, economics of litigation, private cost, social cost, cost of litigationProcedia PDF Downloads 62
453 The Development of Small and Medium Enterprise Entrepreneurs’ Potential Based on Sufficiency Economics Philosophy
Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Witthaya Mekhum
Abstract:This research analyses the factors affecting the success and develops a guideline for self- reliance planning of the entrepreneurs for effective implementation. Samples in this study included 42 awarded winners from the 2nd Sufficiency Economics Philosophy (SEP) National Contest arranged by Office of the Royal Development Projects Board. The results revealed 4 main factors affecting the success as follows: 1) there is a need to encourage unity and cooperation in the enterprise in conducting development plan. 2) The entrepreneur must be a knowledge seeker and lead by example on SEP life. 3) The entrepreneur must be able to apply traditional local wisdom with his present experience and knowledge in defining product identity. 4) The entrepreneur should provide career training for the staffs to develop their competencies. The guideline for self-reliance planning consisted of 4 aspects: 1) Human resource development: the enterprise should develop its staffs especially on integrity, honesty, and public minded. 2) Local community development: there should be a clear target for the local community development. 3) Local community economic development: by encouraging additional incomes through experience sharing. 4) Enterprise development planning: by arranging monthly meeting to conduct the development plan including analysing problems and synthesizing data.
Keywords: potential development, SME entrepreneurs, sufficiency economics philosophy, finance, managementProcedia PDF Downloads 255
452 Economic Viability of Using Guar Gum as a Viscofier in Water Based Drilling Fluids
Authors: Devesh Motwani, Amey Kashyap
Abstract:Interest in cost effective drilling has increased substantially in the past years. Economics associated with drilling fluids is needed to be considered seriously for lesser cost per foot in planning and drilling of a wellbore and the various environmental concerns imposed by international communities related with the constituents of the drilling fluid. Viscofier such as Guar Gum is a high molecular weight polysaccharide from Guar plants, is used to increase viscosity in water-based and brine-based drilling fluids thus enabling more efficient cleaning of the bore. Other applications of this Viscofier are to reduce fluid loss by giving a better colloidal solution, decrease fluid friction and so minimising power requirements and used in hydraulic fracturing to increase the recovery of oil and gas. Guar gum is also used as a surfactant, synthetic polymer and defoamer. This paper presents experimental results to verifying the properties of guar gum as a viscofier and filtrate retainer as well as observing the impact of different quantities of guar gum and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in a standard sample of water based bentonite mud solution. This is in attempt to make a drilling fluid which contains half of the quantity of drilling mud used and yet is equally viscous to the standardised mud sample. Thus we can see that mud economics will be greatly affected by this approach. However guar gum is thermally stable till 60-65°C thus limited to be used in drilling shallow wells and for a wider thermal range, suitable chrome free additives are required.
Keywords: economics, guargum, viscofier, CMC, thermal stabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 380
451 A Study on the Optimal Placement and Control Scheme for Multi Terminal HVDC in Korea
Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Ju Sik Kwak, Seung Wan Kim
Abstract:This paper deals about economics and control of optimal placement of multi-terminal HVDC in Korea. Currently, No.1 and 2 HVDC are installed in Jeju and Mainland, Dangjin Godeok HVDC starts operation in 2020. Jeju No.3 HVDC also starts operation in 2022. HVDC systems in Korea are expanding. Also, super grid projects with China, Japan, and Russia are under consideration. In this situation, it is necessary to study how to install optimal HVDC in Korea and how to control it. After initializing the Optical Polwer Flow (OPF) procudure using lossless economic dispatch, grobal iteration will be set. And then, this will be formed as the Lagrangian function and linearizied. We will also analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode for optimal operating conditions of voltage and current complex HVDC in Korea.
Keywords: economics, HVDC, multi terminal, optimalProcedia PDF Downloads 56
450 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship
Authors: Kwong Yeung
Abstract:Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.
Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economicsProcedia PDF Downloads 481
449 The Importance of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Health Care Economics
Authors: Mutaz Shurahabeel Ahmed Ombada
Abstract:This paper investigates potential health and financial settlement of health information technology, this paper evaluates health care with the use of IT and other associated industries. It assesses prospective savings and costs of extensive acceptance of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS), models significant to health as well as safety remuneration, and conclude that efficient EMRS execution and networking could ultimately save more than US $55 billion annually through recuperating health care effectiveness and that Health Information Technology -enabled prevention and administration of chronic disease could eventually double those savings while rising health and other social remuneration. On the contrary, this is improbable to be realized without related to significant modifications to the health care system.
Keywords: electronic medical record systems, health care economics, EMRSProcedia PDF Downloads 498