Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 354

Search results for: equity

354 A Critical Knowledge of Brand Equity in Thai Academic Works

Authors: Pongsiri Kamkankaew

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This paper experiments to consider brand equity thought in Thai academic works. This essay employs that the first emerging of brand equity in Thai academic works and the components of brand equity which explore the extent to the convoluted approach with other Thai social condition. In Thailand, brand equity is supposed to provide branding and brand management replacement. However, the commitment of brand equity imposes in its proposal for seemly application in Thai context – to develop the brand equity framework by the Thai social – culture and Thai utilization style which it is questionable whether the brand equity in western conception is useful for characterizing the brand equity in Thailand context. In this position, brand equity also aspects several major questions: How can western conception lead to apply in Thai business? How can diversification be given within Thai SMEs business running? Can corporate brand valuation approach adopt in real business doing? So this paper argues that Thai brand equity notion should reduce disturb over improvement of its self-restraint and business area. Instead, Thai academic who are interested in brand equity can harmonize different mature bodies of discipline and other investigative a frame of references to complete and open the recognizing of brand equity.

Keywords: Thai brand equity, knowledge critical, brand management, branding

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
353 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

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The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
352 Personal Income and the Social Confidence in Contemporary China: The Indirect Role of the Sense of Social Equity

Authors: Wenfen Bi, Zeng Lin

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As a developing country, China is badly in need of capital and talents to develop the socialist country with Chinese characteristics. However, a large proportion of high income people with know-how technique, wealth and management experience have immigrated or plan to immigrate to other countries. Of course, this phenomenon has attracted the attention from both the government and researchers. One explanation might be that these high-income people lack confidence in China’s social development. Based on the data on W city’s comprehensive social situation surveyed by center for the social survey research of Wuhan university (CSSR) in 2014, this paper employed the structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate whether personal income affects social confidence, via the mediating effect of the sense of social equity (sense of right equity and sense of distributive equity). Bootstrap mediation analysis revealed that after controlling Demographic variables, personal income had a significant negative influence on sense of right equity and in turn, sense of rights equity can significantly positively predict social confidence. While personal income had no significant effect on sense of distributive equity, and sense of distributive equity did not significantly affect macro social confidence. Also, the direct effects of personal income on social confidence became not significant. These findings revealed the inner mechanism of the relationship between the personal income and social confidence in contemporary China, which was caused by mediating effect of sense of rights equity. That is, the higher the personal income, the lower the sense of rights equity, the lower the social confidence. Thus, the boost of the social confidence, especially for the rich, does not only depend on the equitable distribution of material wealth, but also on the right equity and making people feel rights equally in common life.

Keywords: personal income, sense of right equity, sense of social equity, social confidence

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351 Business Challenges and Opportunities of Mobile Applications for Equity Trading in India

Authors: Helee Dave

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Globalization has helped in the growth and change of the Indian economy to a great extent. The purchasing power of Indians has increased. IT Infrastructure has considerably improved in India. There is an increase in the usage of smartphones. The smartphones facilitate all sorts of work now a day, from getting groceries to planning a tour; it is just one click away. Similar is the case with equity trading. The traders in equity market can now deal with their stocks through mobile applications eliminating the middle man. The traders do not have an option but to open a dematerialization account with the banks which are compulsory enough irrespective of their mode of transaction that is online or offline. Considering that India is a young country having more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and 65% of its population below the age of 35; this youth is comfortable with the usage of smartphones. The banking industry is also providing a virtual platform supporting equity market industry. Yet equity trading through online applications is at an infant stage. This paper primarily attempts to understand challenges and opportunities faced by equity trading through mobile apps in India.

Keywords: BPO, business process outsourcing, de-materialization account, equity, ITES, information technology enabled services

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
350 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

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The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, disclosure, implied cost of equity

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349 The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Business Success of Malaysian SMEs: The Mediating Role of Innovation and Brand Equity

Authors: Azmi Umar, Rohana Ngah

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The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship of entrepreneurial competencies on business success in the context of Malaysian SMEs. In the recent study, when the business environment is hostile and dynamic, the entrepreneurial competencies are identified as the most important factor in business success. Entrepreneurial competencies are also connected directly to business performance. Beside entrepreneurial competencies, the entrepreneurs should also be competent to create an innovation and brand equity for business growth. The innovation and brand equity contributed to competitive advantages that lead to business growth and success. This paper adopts the Resource Based Theory (RBT) which emphasize that entrepreneurial competencies, innovation and brand equity are valuable and intangible resources that lead towards the success of business; and Brand Equity Creation Process Model (BECPM). A quantitative methodology was used to collect the data from owner/managers of Malaysian SMEs. Data were analyzed by using SPSS and SEM software. Hence, findings of the present study would be essential for owner/managers and strategy makers to enhance the entrepreneurial competencies; innovation and brand equity of SMEs in Malaysia towards global competition.

Keywords: entrepreneurial competencies, innovation, brand equity, business success, SMEs

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348 Comparative Evaluation of Equity Indicators in the Matikiw Community-Based Forest Management Project in Pakil, Laguna and the Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan Community-Based Forest Management Project in Famy, Laguna

Authors: Katherine Arquio

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Community-based Forest Management (CBFM) is one of the integrative programs that slowly turned the course of forest management from traditional corporate to community-based practice resulting to people empowerment. As such, one of its goals is to promote socio-economic welfare among the people in the community in which social equity is included. This study aims to look at the equity aspect of the program, particularly if there are equity differences between two CBFM sites- Matikiw in Pakil, Laguna and Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan in Famy, Laguna. Equity indicators were identified first, since these will be the basis of the questions that will be asked on the survey, after this, the survey proper was conducted, and finally, the analysis. Two tailed t-test was used as statistical tool since the difference between the two sites is the focus of the study. Statistical analysis was done through the use of STATA program, a statistical software. There were 32 indicators identified and results showed that, out of these indicators, only 13 were found significantly different between the two. The 13 indicators were significantly observed only in Matikiw; the other 19 indicators were commonly observed in both areas and are conducive as equity indicators for the CBFM program.

Keywords: social equity, CBFM, social forestry, equity indicators

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347 The Valuation of Equity Book Value and Net Income of Financial Firms in Times of Financial Crisis

Authors: Sami Adwan, Alaa Alhaj Ismail, Claudia Girardone

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This paper examines the changes in the value relevance of book value of equity and net income of financial firms over the crisis period. It also examines how these changes vary with three variables, namely, fair value exposure, ownership concentration, and regulatory capital ratios. Using a sample of financial firms operating in the European Economic Area over 2005-2011, our findings suggest that the value relevance of book value of equity increases while that of net income decreases during the financial crisis. We find that more exposure to fair value accounting mitigates the impact of the crisis on the value relevance of book value of equity and net income. We also find that more concentrated ownership appears to have a mitigating impact on the changes in the value relevance of both book value of equity and net income in times of financial crisis. Finally, we find evidence that the level of regulatory capital ratios tends to have an attenuating effect on the changes in the value relevance of net income (but not book value of equity) in times of financial crisis.

Keywords: value relevance, financial crisis, financial firms, fair value, ownership concentration, regulatory capital

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346 Fair Value Accounting and Evolution of the Ohlson Model

Authors: Mohamed Zaher Bouaziz

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Our study examines the Ohlson Model, which links a company's market value to its equity and net earnings, in the context of the evolution of the Canadian accounting model, characterized by more extensive use of fair value and a broader measure of performance after IFRS adoption. Our hypothesis is that if equity is reported at its fair value, this valuation is closely linked to market capitalization, so the weight of earnings weakens or even disappears in the Ohlson Model. Drawing on Canada's adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), our results support our hypothesis that equity appears to include most of the relevant information for investors, while earnings have become less important. However, the predictive power of earnings does not disappear.

Keywords: fair value accounting, Ohlson model, IFRS adoption, value-relevance of equity and earnings

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
345 Influential Health Care System Rankings Can Conceal Maximal Inequities: A Simulation Study

Authors: Samuel Reisman

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Background: Comparative rankings are increasingly used to evaluate health care systems. These rankings combine discrete attribute rankings into a composite overall ranking. Health care equity is a component of overall rankings, but excelling in other categories can counterbalance low inequity grades. Highly ranked inequitable health care would commend systems that disregard human rights. We simulated the ranking of a maximally inequitable health care system using a published, influential ranking methodology. Methods: We used The Commonwealth Fund’s ranking of eleven health care systems to simulate the rank of a maximally inequitable system. Eighty performance indicators were simulated, assuming maximal ineptitude in equity benchmarks. Maximal rankings in all non-equity subcategories were assumed. Subsequent stepwise simulations lowered all non-equity rank positions by one. Results: The maximally non-equitable health care system ranked first overall. Three subsequent stepwise simulations, lowering non-equity rankings by one, each resulted in an overall ranking within the top three. Discussion: Our results demonstrate that grossly inequitable health care systems can rank highly in comparative health care system rankings. These findings challenge the validity of ranking methodologies that subsume equity under broader benchmarks. We advocate limiting maximum overall rankings of health care systems to their individual equity rankings. Such limits are logical given the insignificance of health care system improvements to those lacking adequate health care.

Keywords: global health, health equity, healthcare systems, international health

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
344 Financial Market Turmoil and Performance of Islamic Equity Indices

Authors: Abul Shamsuddin

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The Islamic stock market indices are constructed by screening out stocks that are incompatible with Islam’s prohibition of interest and certain lines of business. This study examines the effects of Islamic screening on the risk-return characteristics of Islamic vis-a-vis mainstream equity portfolios. We use data on Dow Jones Islamic market indices and FTSE Global Islamic indices over 1993-2013. We observe that Islamic equity indices outperform their mainstream counterparts in both raw and risk-adjusted returns. In addition, Islamic equity indices are more resilient to turbulence in international markets than that of their mainstream counterparts. The findings are robust across a variety of portfolio performance measures.

Keywords: Dow Jones Islamic market index, FTSE global Islamic index, ethical investment, finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
343 Whether Asset Growth is Systematic Risk: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Thitima Chaiyakul

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The number of previous literature regarding to the effect of asset growth and equity returns is small. Furthermore, those literature are mainly focus in the developed markets. According to my knowledge, there is no published paper examining the effect of asset growth and equity returns in the Stock Exchange of Thailand in different industry groups. The main objective in this research is the testing the effect of asset growth to equity returns in different industry groups. This study employs the data of the listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand during January 1996 and December 2014. The data of financial industry are exclude from this study due to the different meaning of accounting terms. The results show the supported evidence that the asset growth positively affects the equity returns at a statistically significance level of at least 5% in Agro& Food Industry, Industrials, and Services Industry Groups. These results are inconsistent with the previous research testing in developed markets. Nevertheless, the statistically significances of the effect of asset growth to equity returns appear in some cases. In summary, the asset growth is a non-systematic risk and it is a mispricing factor.

Keywords: asset growth, asset pricing, equity returns, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
342 Informational Efficiency and Integration: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Shariah Equity Market

Authors: Sania Ashraf

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The paper focuses on the prevalence of informational efficiency and integration of GCC Shariah Equity market for the period of 01st January 2010 to 31st June 2015 with daily equity returns of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The study employs traditional as well as the modern approach of tracing out the efficiency and integration in the return series. From the results of efficiency it was observed that the market lacked efficiency in terms of its past information. The results of integration test clearly indicates that there was a long memory in the returns of GCC Shariah during the study period. Hence it was concluded and proved that the returns of all GCC Equity Shariah were not informationally efficient but fractionally integrated during the study period.

Keywords: efficiency, Fama, GCC shariah, hurst exponent, integration, serial correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
341 The Impact of Voluntary Disclosure Level on the Cost of Equity Capital in Tunisian's Listed Firms

Authors: Nouha Ben Salah, Mohamed Ali Omri

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This paper treats the association between disclosure level and the cost of equity capital in Tunisian’slisted firms. This relation is tested by using two models. The first is used for testing this relation directly by regressing firm specific estimates of cost of equity capital on market beta, firm size and a measure of disclosure level. The second model is used for testing this relation by introducing information asymmetry as mediator variable. This model is suggested by Baron and Kenny (1986) to demonstrate the role of mediator variable in general. Based on a sample of 21 non-financial Tunisian’s listed firms over a period from 2000 to 2004, the results prove that greater disclosure is associated with a lower cost of equity capital. However, the results of indirect relationship indicate a significant positive association between the level of voluntary disclosure and information asymmetry and a significant negative association between information asymmetry and cost of equity capital in contradiction with our previsions. Perhaps this result is due to the biases of measure of information asymmetry.

Keywords: cost of equity capital, voluntary disclosure, information asymmetry, and Tunisian’s listed non-financial firms

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340 From Social Equity to Spatial Equity in Urban Space: Precedent Study Approach

Authors: Dorsa Pourmojib, Marc J. Boutin

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Urban space is used everyday by a diverse range of urban dwellers, each with different expectations. In this space, opportunities and resources are not distributed equitably among urban dwellers, despite the importance of inclusivity. In addition, some marginalized groups may not be considered. These include people with low incomes, immigrants from diverse cultures, various age groups, and those with special needs. To this end, this research aims to enhance social equity in urban space by bridging the gap between social equity and spatial equity in the urban context. This gap in the knowledge base related to urban design may be present for several reasons; lack of studies on relationship between social equity and spatial equity in urban open space, lack of practical design strategies for promoting social equity in urban open space, lack of proper site analysis in terms of context and users of the site both for designing new urban open spaces and developing the existing ones, and lack of researchers that are designers and finally it could be related to priorities of the city’s policies in addressing such issues, since it is time, money and energy consuming. The main objective of this project is addressing the aforementioned gap in the knowledge by exploring the relationship between social equity and spatial equity in urban open space. Answering the main question of this research is a promising step to this end; 'What are the considerations towards providing social equity through the design of urban elements that offer spatial equity?' To answer the main question of this research there are several secondary questions which should be addressed. Such as; how can the characteristics of social equity be translated to spatial equity? What are the diverse user’s needs and which of their needs are not considered in that site? What are the specific elements in the site which should be designed in order to promote social equity? What is the current situation of social and spatial equity in the proposed site? To answer the research questions and achieve the proposed objectives, a three-step methodology has been implemented. Firstly, a comprehensive research framework based on the available literature has been presented. Afterwards, three different urban spaces have been analyzed in terms of specific key research questions as the precedent studies; Naqsh-e Jahan Square (Iran), Superkilen Park (Denmark) and Campo Dei Fiori (Italy). In this regard, a proper gap analysis of the current situation and the proposed situation of these sites has been conducted. Finally, by combining the extracted design considerations from the precedent studies and the literature review, practical design strategies have been introduced as a result of this research. The presented guidelines enable the designers to create socially equitable urban spaces. To conclude, this research proposes a spatial approach to social inclusion and equity in urban space by presenting a practical framework and criteria for translating social equity to spatial equity in urban areas.

Keywords: inclusive urban design, social equity, social inclusion, spatial equity

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339 Stock Characteristics and Herding Formation: Evidence from the United States Equity Market

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Fang-Jyun Su

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This paper explores whether stock characteristics influence the herding formation among investors in the US equity market. To extend the research scope of the existing literature, this paper further examines the role that stock risk characteristics play in the US equity market, and the way they influence investors’ decision-making. First, empirical results show that whether general stocks or high-risk stocks, there are no herding behaviors among the investors in the US equity market during the whole research period or during four great events. Moreover, stock characteristics have great influence on investors’ trading decisions. Finally, there is a bidirectional lead-lag relationship of the herding formation between high-risk stocks and low-risk stocks, but the influence of high-risk stocks on the low-risk stocks is stronger than that of low-risk stocks on the high-risk stocks.

Keywords: stock characteristics, herding formation, investment decision, US equity market, lead-lag relationship

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338 Social Media Marketing Efforts and Hospital Brand Equity: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Abrar R. Al-Hasan

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Despite the widespread use of social media by consumers and marketers, empirical research investigating their economic value in the healthcare industry still lags. This study explores the impact of the use of social media marketing efforts on a hospital's brand equity and, ultimately, consumer response. Using social media data from Twitter and Facebook, along with an online and offline survey methodology, data is analyzed using logistic regression models. A random sample of (728) residents of the Kuwaiti population is used. The results of this study found that social media marketing efforts (SMME) in terms of use and validation lead to higher hospital brand equity and in turn, patient loyalty and patient visit. The study highlights the impact of SMME on hospital brand equity and patient response. Healthcare organizations should guide their marketing efforts to better manage this new way of marketing and communicating with patients to enhance their consumer loyalty and financial performance.

Keywords: brand equity, healthcare marketing, patient visit, social media, SMME

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
337 Equity and Accessibility for Inclusion: A Study of the Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

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The education of people with disabilities remains one of the major concern of policymakers, advocacy groups and researchers. In Ghana, as in many other countries, there is a policy commitment for the educational inclusion of people with disabilities, including in the context of higher education. This qualitative research investigates how students with disabilities experience equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study also investigates factors that influence equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study draws on the views of students with disabilities, on lecturer insight and organisational and national policy documents. The findings specifies that the quality of students with disabilities lived experiences are affected by the physical environment, infrastructure facilities and lack of academic and non-academic information. The study highlights the need for the university to ensure equity in making the university accessible for all students in order to ensure retention and participation of students with disabilities; failure to make the university accessible for students with disabilities compromises the ability of this group of students to realise their academic potentials.

Keywords: accessibility, educational inclusion, equity, students with disabilities

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336 Intersections and Consequences of the Epistemology and Methodology used in Equity-Related Chemistry Education Research

Authors: Vanessa R. Ralph, Kathryn N. Hosbein, Megan Y. Deshaye, Paulette Vincent-Ruz

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The language of the statement “persistent achievement gaps between demographic groups” communicates much about the philosophies inherent to the author. In this synthesis of two flagship journals of Chemistry Education Research: Chemistry Education Research and Practice and the Journal of Chemical Education, the use and investigation of equity was examined by the language, epistemology, and methodologies of the researchers. Findings include a considerable increase in the use and investigation of equity in these journals following the years 2012 and 2020. While an increase in consciousness of equity was apparent, epistemologies were stagnated. The majority reflects a deficit-oriented perspective wherein deficits are attributed to students as a “lack of achievement” inherent to specific “demographic groups” and minimized as “gaps” rather than systemic inequities. The lack of epistemological progress may be the result of reading and citing literature within discipline-based education research, failing to acknowledge the efforts propagated for decades by equity theory advancement in disciplines of sociology and psychology. To envision liberated educational systems across the globe, one must first contend with the biases within.

Keywords: liberating education research, philosophy of research, synthesis, review

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335 Forecasting Equity Premium Out-of-Sample with Sophisticated Regression Training Techniques

Authors: Jonathan Iworiso

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Forecasting the equity premium out-of-sample is a major concern to researchers in finance and emerging markets. The quest for a superior model that can forecast the equity premium with significant economic gains has resulted in several controversies on the choice of variables and suitable techniques among scholars. This research focuses mainly on the application of Regression Training (RT) techniques to forecast monthly equity premium out-of-sample recursively with an expanding window method. A broad category of sophisticated regression models involving model complexity was employed. The RT models include Ridge, Forward-Backward (FOBA) Ridge, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), Relaxed LASSO, Elastic Net, and Least Angle Regression were trained and used to forecast the equity premium out-of-sample. In this study, the empirical investigation of the RT models demonstrates significant evidence of equity premium predictability both statistically and economically relative to the benchmark historical average, delivering significant utility gains. They seek to provide meaningful economic information on mean-variance portfolio investment for investors who are timing the market to earn future gains at minimal risk. Thus, the forecasting models appeared to guarantee an investor in a market setting who optimally reallocates a monthly portfolio between equities and risk-free treasury bills using equity premium forecasts at minimal risk.

Keywords: regression training, out-of-sample forecasts, expanding window, statistical predictability, economic significance, utility gains

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334 Performance, Need and Discriminatory Allegiance of Employees as Awarding Criteria of Distributive Justice

Authors: B. Gangloff, L. Mayoral, A. Rezrazi

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Three types of salary distribution are usually proposed by the theorists of distributive justice: Equality, equity and need. Their influence has been studied, taking into consideration (in terms of equity) the performance of the employees and their degree of allegiance/rebellion in what regards discriminatory hierarchical orders, by taking into account the reasons of such allegiance/rebellion (allegiance out of conviction, legalism or opportunism/ethical rebellion). Conducted in Argentina, the study has confronted 480 students (240 male and 240 female) with a practical case in which they had to advise a manager of a real estate agency on the allocation of a bonus amongst his employees. The latter were characterized according to their respective performance, one of them being further defined as being (or not) in a financial need and as having complied (or not) with a discriminatory hierarchical order regarding foreigners. The results show that the distribution of the bonus only follows the rules of equity and need: The employees more efficient, allegiant or in need, are rewarded more than the others. It is also noteworthy that the allegiant employees are rewarded in the same way, regardless of the reason for their allegiance, and that the employee who refuses to adopt a discriminatory conduct is penalized.

Keywords: distributive justice, equity, performance, allegiance, ethics

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333 Analysing the Benefit of Real-Time Digital Translation for ESL Learners in a Post-secondary Canadian Classroom

Authors: Jordan Shuler

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The goal of this study is to determine whether real-time language translation benefits ESL learners by contributing to overall equity in the classroom. Equity will be measured quantitatively through assessment performance and qualitatively through student survey. Two separate sections of students studying the same course will receive identical curriculum: one group, the control, will be taught in English and the other group in English with real-time translation into the students' first languages. The professor will use Microsoft Translator during lectures, in-class discussions, and Q&A time. The college is committed to finding new ways of teaching and learning, as outlined in Strategy 2022. If this research finds a positive relationship between language translation and student academic success, the technology will surely be encouraged for adoption by all George Brown College faculty. With greater acceptance, this technology could influence equity and pedagogy in the larger educational community.

Keywords: ESL learners, equity, innovative teaching strategies, language translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
332 Brand Equity Tourism Destinations: An Application in Wine Regions Comparing Visitors' and Managers' Perspectives

Authors: M. Gomez, A. Molina

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The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares was used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policy makers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and, thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.

Keywords: brand equity, managers, visitors, wine tourism

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331 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics

Authors: Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim, Sharmila Karim

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A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models such as the Black–Scholes model had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models were found focusing more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than empirical testing. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which comprises stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and illustrate the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.

Keywords: Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model, hybrid models, stochastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
330 A Comparison of Brands Equity between Samsung and Apple in the View of Students of Management Science Faculty, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somsak Klaysung

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This study aims to investigate the comparison of brands equity between Samsung and Apple from students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The research method will using quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires distributed to communication of arts students in the faculty of management science of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University for 100 samples by purposive sampling method. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic is t-test for hypothesis testing. The results showed that brands equity between Apple and Samsung brand have the ability to recognize brand from the customer by perceived value of the uniqueness of brand and recall when in a situation that must be purchased (Salience), which is the lowest level in branding and consumers can recognize the capacity of the product (Judgment) and opinions about the quality and reliability when it comes to mobile phones Apple and Samsung brand are not different.

Keywords: Apple and Samsung brand, brand equity, judgment, performance, resonance, salience

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
329 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang

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Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

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328 Investigating the Effect of Brand Equity on Competitive Advantage in the Banking Industry

Authors: Rohollah Asadian Kohestani, Nazanin Sedghi

Abstract:

As the number of banks and financial institutions working in Iran has been significantly increased, the attracting and retaining customers and encouraging them to continually use the modern banking services have been important and vital issues. Therefore, there would be a serious competition without a deep perception of consumers and fitness of banking services with their needs in the current economic conditions of Iran. It should be noted that concepts such as 'brand equity' is defined based on the view of consumers; however, it is also focused by shareholders, competitors and other beneficiaries of a firm in addition to bank and its consumers. This study examines the impact of brand equity on the competitive advantage in the banking industry as intensive competition between brands of different banks leads to pay more attention to the brands. This research is based on the Aaker’s model examining the impact of four dimensions of brand equity on the competitive advantage of private banks in Behshahr city. Moreover, conducting an applied research and data analysis has been carried out by a descriptive method. Data collection was done using literature review and questionnaire. A 'simple random' methodology was selected for sampling staff of banks while sampling methodology to select consumers of banks was the distribution of questionnaire between staff and consumers of five private banks including Tejarat, Mellat, Refah K., Ghavamin and, Tose’e Ta’avon banks. Results show that there is a significant relationship between brand equity and their competitive advantage. In this research, software of SPSS 16 and LISREL 8.5, as well as different methods of descriptive inferential statistics for analyzing data and test hypotheses, were employed.

Keywords: brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand equity, competitive advantage

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327 Sustainable Adaptation: Social Equity and Local-Level Climate Adaptation Planning in U.S. Cities

Authors: Duran Fiack, Jeremy Cumberbatch, Michael Sutherland, Nadine Zerphey

Abstract:

Civic leaders have increasingly relied upon local climate adaptation plans to identify vulnerabilities, prioritize goals, and implement actions in order to prepare cities for the present and projected effects of global climate change. The concept of sustainability is central to these efforts, as climate adaptation discussions are often framed within the context of economic resilience, environmental protection, and the distribution of climate change impacts across various socioeconomic groups. For urban centers, the climate change issue presents unique challenges for each of these dimensions; however, its potential impacts on marginalized populations are extensive. This study draws from the ‘just sustainabilities’ framework to perform a qualitative analysis of climate adaptation plans prepared by 22 of the 100 largest U.S. cities and examine whether, and to what extent, such initiatives prioritize social equity improvements. Past research has found that the integration of sustainability in urban policy and planning often produces outcomes that favor environmental and economic objectives over social equity improvements. We find that social equity is a particularly prominent theme in local-level climate adaptation efforts, relative to environmental quality and economic development. The findings contribute to the literature on climate adaptation and sustainability within the urban context and offer practical insight for local-level stakeholders concerning potential obstacles and opportunities for the integration of social equity initiatives into climate adaptation planning. Given the likelihood that climate changes will continue to impose unique challenges for marginalized communities in urban areas, advancing our understanding of how social equity concerns are integrated into adaptation efforts is likely to become an increasingly critical area of inquiry.

Keywords: climate adaptation plan, climate change, social equity, sustainability

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326 Equity in Public Health: Perception from the Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Program for HIV- Patients in India

Authors: Koko Wangjam, Naresh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The concern for most public health policies and decision- makers is the equitable distribution of health care resource of the nation. Also, in public health care system, the primary aim is assuaging the burden of the disease. Objective: This paper captures and evaluates some important theories in equity in health with its relevance with the ART program in India. Methodology: The paper is exploratory and descriptive study based on secondary data. The sources of secondary data are published official reports from NACO (National AIDS Control Organisation), United Nations AIDS Program (UNAIDS), World Health Organisation (WHO) etc. Observation: The roll-out of the ART program in 2004 by the Govt. of India made a paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS scenario in the country. Conclusion: There are many theoretical injunctions in most of the principles and approaches in existing theories of health equity. The enervation of HIV infection by taking ART drugs had helped in curbing the prevalence and the fact that it is provided at free of cost has proven this program to be an epitome in distributive justice in public health.

Keywords: art program, burden of the disease, health equity, hiv/aids

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325 Examining the Role of Brand Equity and Explore the Influence of Consumers' Brand Relationship Quality

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin , Tsai Lin Hsu, Shui Lien Chen

Abstract:

This article extends the relation between company’s employee and customers in market. According to the previous researches, most researchers analyzed and focused on customers’ brand perception. In the recently, some scholars star to explore the brand management from company viewpoint. The aim of this study is to explore whether consumers perception would be affected by the firm brand. This research would like to examine the relationship between individual consumers and corporate brands in the business-to-consumers sector. First, the study develops a framework that the connection with consumer and company. Second, this article uses three dimensions, brand knowledge, brand commitment, and brand equity to measure employees’ loyalty of brand and applies brand relationship quality to gauge the level of brand’s importance in consumer’s mind. This paper uses SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 to test consumers’ minds toward the brand equity which the company provides. There are totally 862 valid questionnaires returned, and 431 participants are consumers; the other 431 participants are employees. Those questionnaires are one-by-one to consumer and employee so those are 431 pairs questionnaires. Based on 431 pairs of consumers and company’s employees, analyzed results show that brand knowledge and brand commitment play important roles influencing brand equity. The results also demonstrate the extra-role brand equity positively impact on the brand relationship quality of consumers. In addition, the findings reveal that the company can improve brand relationship quality of consumers by enhancing extra-role brand equity. There is a sufficient evidence denote that brand relationship quality not only shows about the brand of customers’ thought but also implies company how to build the brand to impress on consumers. These findings provide the degree of the brand in consumers’ cognition. The brand-owner employee can reference the conclusion to creative new strategic to the next time or can be one of the company’s competitive advantages. Those results and conclusions are contributed to management practice and future.

Keywords: brand knowledge, brand commitment, brand equity, brand relationship quality

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