Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 190

Search results for: intersection

190 A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information

Authors: Sang-Tae Ji, Jeong-Woo Park, Jun-Ho Park, Kwang-Woo Nam


This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.

Keywords: CCTV, GIS, ICT, Smart City, smart intersection

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189 The Importance of Development in Laboratory Diagnosis at the Intersection

Authors: Agus Sahri, Cahya Putra Dinata, Faishal Andhi Rokhman


Intersection is a critical area on a highway which is a place of conflict points and congestion due to the meeting of two or more roads. Conflicts that occur at the intersection include diverging, merging, weaving, and crossing. To deal with these conflicts, a crossing control system is needed, at a plot of intersection there are two control systems namely signal intersections and non-signalized intersections. The control system at a plot of intersection can affect the intersection performance. In Indonesia there are still many intersections with poor intersection performance. In analyzing the parameters to measure the performance of a plot of intersection in Indonesia, it is guided by the 1997 Indonesian Road Capacity Manual. For this reason, this study aims to develop laboratory diagnostics at plot intersections to analyze parameters that can affect the performance of an intersection. The research method used is research and development. The laboratory diagnosis includes anamnesis, differential diagnosis, inspection, diagnosis, prognosis, specimens, analysis and sample data analysts. It is expected that this research can encourage the development and application of laboratory diagnostics at a plot of intersection in Indonesia so that intersections can function optimally.

Keywords: intersection, the laboratory diagnostic, control systems, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
188 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola


Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
187 Pervious Concrete for Road Intersection Drainage

Authors: Ivana Barišić, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ines Barjaktarić


Road performance and traffic safety are highly influenced by improper water drainage system performance, particularly within intersection areas. So, the aim of the presented paper is the evaluation of pervious concrete made with two types and two aggregate fractions for potential utilization in intersection drainage areas. Although the studied pervious concrete mixtures achieved proper drainage but lower strength characteristics, this pervious concrete has a good potential for enhancing pavement drainage systems if it is embedded on limited intersection areas.

Keywords: drainage, intersection, pervious concrete, road

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186 Approximation of Intersection Curves of Two Parametric Surfaces

Authors: Misbah Irshad, Faiza Sarfraz


The problem of approximating surface to surface intersection is considered to be very important in computer aided geometric design and computer aided manufacturing. Although it is a complex problem to handle, its continuous need in the industry makes it an active topic in research. A technique for approximating intersection curves of two parametric surfaces is proposed, which extracts boundary points and turning points from a sequence of intersection points and interpolate them with the help of rational cubic spline functions. The proposed approach is demonstrated with the help of examples and analyzed by calculating error.

Keywords: approximation, parametric surface, spline function, surface intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
185 Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis for Safety at Road Crossing at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy


A clear understanding of pedestrian behaviour at road crossing at intersections is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at any intersection. Pedestrian road crossing behaviour is studied at Motijheel and Kakrail intersections where Motijheel intersection is a controlled roundabout, and Kakrail intersection is a signalized intersection. Around 60 people at each intersection were interviewed for a questionnaire survey and video recording at different time of a day was done for observation at each intersection. In case of Motijeel intersection, we got pedestrian road crossings were much higher than Kakrail intersection. It is because the number of workplaces here is higher than Kakrail. From questionnaire survey, it is found that 80% of pedestrians crosses at intersection to avail buses and their loading and unloading locations are at intersection, whereas at Kakrail intersection only 25% pedestrian crosses the road for buses as buses do not slow down here. At Motijheel intersection 25 to 40% of pedestrians choose to jump over the barricade for crossing instead of using overbridge for saving time and labour. On the other hand, the pedestrians using overbridge told that they use overbridge for safety. Moreover, pedestrian crosses at the same pace for both red and green interval with vehicle movement in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 km/h and gaps between vehicle were more than 4 m. Here pedestrian crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. In Kakrail intersection the road crossing situation can be classified into 4 categories. In case of red time, pedestrians do not wait to cross the road, and crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 5.4 to 7.4 km/h, and gaps between vehicle vary from 1.5 to 2 m, most of the pedestrians initially choose to wait and try to cross the road in group with crossing speed 2.7 to 3.5 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 10.8 to 18 km/h, and gaps between vehicles varies from 2 to 3 m most of the people waits and cross the road in group with crossing speed 3.5 to 5.4 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 25.2 to 32.4 km/h and gaps between vehicles vary from 4 to 6 m most of the pedestrians choose to wait until red time. In Kakrail intersection 87% of people said that they cross the road with risk and 60% of pedestrians told that it is risky to get on and off the bus at this intersection. Planned location of loading and unloading area for buses can improve the pedestrian road crossing behaviour at intersections.

Keywords: crossing speed, pedestrian behaviour, road crossing, use of overbridge

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184 PLO-AIM: Potential-Based Lane Organization in Autonomous Intersection Management

Authors: Berk Ecer, Ebru Akcapinar Sezer


Traditional management models of intersections, such as no-light intersections or signalized intersection, are not the most effective way of passing the intersections if the vehicles are intelligent. To this end, Dresner and Stone proposed a new intersection control model called Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM). In the AIM simulation, they were examining the problem from a multi-agent perspective, demonstrating that intelligent intersection control can be made more efficient than existing control mechanisms. In this study, autonomous intersection management has been investigated. We extended their works and added a potential-based lane organization layer. In order to distribute vehicles evenly to each lane, this layer triggers vehicles to analyze near lanes, and they change their lane if other lanes have an advantage. We can observe this behavior in real life, such as drivers, change their lane by considering their intuitions. Basic intuition on selecting the correct lane for traffic is selecting a less crowded lane in order to reduce delay. We model that behavior without any change in the AIM workflow. Experiment results show us that intersection performance is directly connected with the vehicle distribution in lanes of roads of intersections. We see the advantage of handling lane management with a potential approach in performance metrics such as average delay of intersection and average travel time. Therefore, lane management and intersection management are problems that need to be handled together. This study shows us that the lane through which vehicles enter the intersection is an effective parameter for intersection management. Our study draws attention to this parameter and suggested a solution for it. We observed that the regulation of AIM inputs, which are vehicles in lanes, was as effective as contributing to aim intersection management. PLO-AIM model outperforms AIM in evaluation metrics such as average delay of intersection and average travel time for reasonable traffic rates, which is in between 600 vehicle/hour per lane to 1300 vehicle/hour per lane. The proposed model reduced the average travel time reduced in between %0.2 - %17.3 and reduced the average delay of intersection in between %1.6 - %17.1 for 4-lane and 6-lane scenarios.

Keywords: AIM project, autonomous intersection management, lane organization, potential-based approach

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183 Single Fly Over as a Solution to Congestion of Intersection Junction: Case Study of Jalan Jatingaleh Semarang

Authors: Rachmat Mudiyono, Siti Sumiati


In the next few years, traffic will happen most of the time. This was triggered by the growing rate of vehicles againts the road capacity which is not balance. All the time the congestion in the city of Semarang has been occured at peak hours. Congestion also occured in between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road Jatingaleh because of a plot intersection (Kesatrian intersection, PLN intersection and Jatingaleh intersection) with the Toll Road. Jatingaleh is located in the southern city of Semarang which is a central meeting point between the upper and lower Semarang where the vehicle flows in through a combination of local current and regional traffic, and the flow of vehicles coming in and out from highway. The main cause of the problems that occurred in the area of Jatingaleh is due to the numbers of vehicles movement that occurs at the intersections. With the above issues, it is necessary to analyse the existing conditions and look into some solutions. Before carrying out an analysis of field surveys at peak hours for example morning (06:00 to 08:00 am) and for the afternoon (04:00 to 06:00 pm)should be conducted, then the number of vehicles is counted manually with “short-breakcounting” according to types of vehicles. From the analysis we found that the degree of saturation (DS) is 1.61 between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road during the morning peak hours and 1.56 during the afternoon peak hours. This means that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow. One of the solutions for the congestion that occurs at the intersection of Jatingaleh is to apply the efficiency of the intersection that is not in a plot with a Fly over, Underpass and the combination of Fly Over-Underpass. Base on the flow reduction calculation with 3 comparative modeling it shows that the Fly Over is the most technically efficient to be applied in this research.

Keywords: single fly over, congestion, intersection, interchange

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182 Automated Tracking and Statistics of Vehicles at the Signalized Intersection

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu1


Intersection is the place where vehicles and pedestrians must pass through, turn and evacuate. Obtaining the motion data of vehicles near the intersection is of great significance for transportation research. Since there are usually many targets and there are more conflicts between targets, this makes it difficult to obtain vehicle motion parameters in traffic videos of intersections. According to the characteristics of traffic videos, this paper applies video technology to realize the automated track, count and trajectory extraction of vehicles to collect traffic data by roadside surveillance cameras installed near the intersections. Based on the video recognition method, the vehicles in each lane near the intersection are tracked with extracting trajectory and counted respectively in various degrees of occlusion and visibility. The performances are compared with current recognized CPU-based algorithms of real-time tracking-by-detection. The speed of the presented system is higher than the others and the system has a better real-time performance. The accuracy of direction has reached about 94.99% on average, and the accuracy of classification and statistics has reached about 75.12% on average.

Keywords: tracking and statistics, vehicle, signalized intersection, motion parameter, trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
181 Cellular Automata Model for Car Accidents at a Signalized Intersection

Authors: Rachid Marzoug, Noureddine Lakouari, Beatriz Castillo Téllez, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Gerardo Alberto Mejía Pérez


This paper developed a two-lane cellular automata model to explain the relationship between car accidents at a signalized intersection and traffic-related parameters. It is found that the increase of the lane-changing probability P𝒸ₕ𝓰 increases the risk of accidents, besides, the inflow α and the probability of accidents Pₐ𝒸 exhibit a nonlinear relationship. Furthermore, depending on the inflow, Pₐ𝒸 exhibits three different phases. The transition from phase I to phase II is of first (second) order when P𝒸ₕ𝓰=0 (P𝒸ₕ𝓰>0). However, the system exhibits a second (first) order transition from phase II to phase III when P𝒸ₕ𝓰=0 (P𝒸ₕ𝓰>0). In addition, when the inflow is not very high, the green light length of one road should be increased to improve road safety. Finally, simulation results show that the traffic at the intersection is safer adopting symmetric lane-changing rules than asymmetric ones.

Keywords: two-lane intersection, accidents, fatality risk, lane-changing, phase transition

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180 Reducing Crash Risk at Intersections with Safety Improvements

Authors: Upal Barua


Crash risk at intersections is a critical safety issue. This paper examines the effectiveness of removing an existing off-set at an intersection by realignment, in reducing crashes. Empirical Bayes method was applied to conduct a before-and-after study to assess the effect of this safety improvement. The Transportation Safety Improvement Program in Austin Transportation Department completed several safety improvement projects at high crash intersections with a view to reducing crashes. One of the common safety improvement techniques applied was the realignment of intersection approaches removing an existing off-set. This paper illustrates how this safety improvement technique is applied at a high crash intersection from inception to completion. This paper also highlights the significant crash reductions achieved from this safety improvement technique applying Empirical Bayes method in a before-and-after study. The result showed that realignment of intersection approaches removing an existing off-set can reduce crashes by 53%. This paper also features the state of the art techniques applied in planning, engineering, designing and construction of this safety improvement, key factors driving the success, and lessons learned in the process.

Keywords: crash risk, intersection, off-set, safety improvement technique, before-and-after study, empirical Bayes method

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179 Derivation of a Risk-Based Level of Service Index for Surface Street Network Using Reliability Analysis

Authors: Chang-Jen Lan


Current Level of Service (LOS) index adopted in Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) for signalized intersections on surface streets is based on the intersection average delay. The delay thresholds for defining LOS grades are subjective and is unrelated to critical traffic condition. For example, an intersection delay of 80 sec per vehicle for failing LOS grade F does not necessarily correspond to the intersection capacity. Also, a specific measure of average delay may result from delay minimization, delay equality, or other meaningful optimization criteria. To that end, a reliability version of the intersection critical degree of saturation (v/c) as the LOS index is introduced. Traditionally, the level of saturation at a signalized intersection is defined as the ratio of critical volume sum (per lane) to the average saturation flow (per lane) during all available effective green time within a cycle. The critical sum is the sum of the maximal conflicting movement-pair volumes in northbound-southbound and eastbound/westbound right of ways. In this study, both movement volume and saturation flow are assumed log-normal distributions. Because, when the conditions of central limit theorem obtain, multiplication of the independent, positive random variables tends to result in a log-normal distributed outcome in the limit, the critical degree of saturation is expected to be a log-normal distribution as well. Derivation of the risk index predictive limits is complex due to the maximum and absolute value operators, as well as the ratio of random variables. A fairly accurate functional form for the predictive limit at a user-specified significant level is yielded. The predictive limit is then compared with the designated LOS thresholds for the intersection critical degree of saturation (denoted as X

Keywords: reliability analysis, level of service, intersection critical degree of saturation, risk based index

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178 Estimation of Delay Due to Loading–Unloading of Passengers by Buses and Reduction of Number of Lanes at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy, A. Uddin


One of the significant reasons that increase the delay time in the intersections at heterogeneous traffic condition is a sudden reduction of the capacity of the roads. In this study, the delay for this sudden capacity reduction is estimated. Two intersections at Dhaka city were brought in to thestudy, i.e., Kakrail intersection, and SAARC Foara intersection. At Kakrail intersection, the sudden reduction of capacity in the roads is seen at three downstream legs of the intersection, which are because of slowing down or stopping of buses for loading and unloading of passengers. At SAARC Foara intersection, sudden reduction of capacity was seen at two downstream legs. At one leg, it was due to loading and unloading of buses, and at another leg, it was for both loading and unloading of buses and reduction of the number of lanes. With these considerations, the delay due to intentional stoppage or slowing down of buses and reduction of the number of lanes for these two intersections are estimated. Here the delay was calculated by two approaches. The first approach came from the concept of shock waves in traffic streams. Here the delay was calculated by determining the flow, density, and speed before and after the sudden capacity reduction. The second approach came from the deterministic analysis of queues. Here the delay is calculated by determining the volume, capacity and reduced capacity of the road. After determining the delay from these two approaches, the results were compared. For this study, the video of each of the two intersections was recorded for one hour at the evening peak. Necessary geometric data were also taken to determine speed, flow, and density, etc. parameters. The delay was calculated for one hour with one-hour data at both intersections. In case of Kakrail intersection, the per hour delay for Kakrail circle leg was 5.79, and 7.15 minutes, for Shantinagar cross intersection leg they were 13.02 and 15.65 minutes, and for Paltan T intersection leg, they were 3 and 1.3 minutes for 1st and 2nd approaches respectively. In the case of SAARC Foara intersection, the delay at Shahbag leg was only due to intentional stopping or slowing down of busses, which were 3.2 and 3 minutes respectively for both approaches. For the Karwan Bazar leg, the delays for buses by both approaches were 5 and 7.5 minutes respectively, and for reduction of the number of lanes, the delays for both approaches were 2 and 1.78 minutes respectively. Measuring the delay per hour for the Kakrail leg at Kakrail circle, it is seen that, with consideration of the first approach of delay estimation, the intentional stoppage and lowering of speed by buses contribute to 26.24% of total delay at Kakrail circle. If the loading and unloading of buses at intersection is made forbidden near intersection, and any other measures for loading and unloading of passengers are established far enough from the intersections, then the delay at intersections can be reduced at significant scale, and the performance of the intersections can be enhanced.

Keywords: delay, deterministic queue analysis, shock wave, passenger loading-unloading

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177 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu


In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

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176 Human-Induced Vibration and Degree of Human Comfortability Analysis of Intersection Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Yaowen Sheng, Jiuxian Liu


In order to analyze the pedestrian bridge dynamic characteristics and degree of comfortability, the finite element method and live load time history method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge. The example bridge’s dynamic characteristics and degree of human comfortability need to be analyzed. The project background is a three-way intersection. The intersection has three side blocks. An intersection bridge is designed to help people cross the streets. The finite element model of the bridge is established by the Midas/Civil software, and the analysis of the model is done. The strength, stiffness, and stability checks are also completed. Apart from the static analysis of the bridge, the dynamic analysis of the bridge is also completed to avoid the problems resulted from vibrations. The results show that the pedestrian bridge has different dynamic characteristics compared to other normal bridges. The degree of human comfortability satisfies the requirements of Chinese and British specifications. The live load time history method can be used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, steel box girder, human-induced vibration, finite element analysis, degree of human comfortability

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175 Performance Evaluation of Various Displaced Left Turn Intersection Designs

Authors: Hatem Abou-Senna, Essam Radwan


With increasing traffic and limited resources, accommodating left-turning traffic has been a challenge for traffic engineers as they seek balance between intersection capacity and safety; these are two conflicting goals in the operation of a signalized intersection that are mitigated through signal phasing techniques. Hence, to increase the left-turn capacity and reduce the delay at the intersections, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) moves forward with a vision of optimizing intersection control using innovative intersection designs through the Transportation Systems Management & Operations (TSM&O) program. These alternative designs successfully eliminate the left-turn phase, which otherwise reduces the conventional intersection’s (CI) efficiency considerably, and divide the intersection into smaller networks that would operate in a one-way fashion. This study focused on the Crossover Displaced Left-turn intersections (XDL), also known as Continuous Flow Intersections (CFI). The XDL concept is best suited for intersections with moderate to high overall traffic volumes, especially those with very high or unbalanced left turn volumes. There is little guidance on determining whether partial XDL intersections are adequate to mitigate the overall intersection condition or full XDL is always required. The primary objective of this paper was to evaluate the overall intersection performance in the case of different partial XDL designs compared to a full XDL. The XDL alternative was investigated for 4 different scenarios; partial XDL on the east-west approaches, partial XDL on the north-south approaches, partial XDL on the north and east approaches and full XDL on all 4 approaches. Also, the impact of increasing volume on the intersection performance was considered by modeling the unbalanced volumes with 10% increment resulting in 5 different traffic scenarios. The study intersection, located in Orlando Florida, is experiencing recurring congestion in the PM peak hour and is operating near capacity with volume to a capacity ratio closer to 1.00 due to the presence of two heavy conflicting movements; southbound and westbound. The results showed that a partial EN XDL alternative proved to be effective and compared favorably to a full XDL alternative followed by the partial EW XDL alternative. The analysis also showed that Full, EW and EN XDL alternatives outperformed the NS XDL and the CI alternatives with respect to the throughput, delay and queue lengths. Significant throughput improvements were remarkable at the higher volume level with percent increase in capacity of 25%. The percent reduction in delay for the critical movements in the XDL scenarios compared to the CI scenario ranged from 30-45%. Similarly, queue lengths showed percent reduction in the XDL scenarios ranging from 25-40%. The analysis revealed how partial XDL design can improve the overall intersection performance at various demands, reduce the costs associated with full XDL and proved to outperform the conventional intersection. However, partial XDL serving low volumes or only one of the critical movements while other critical movements are operating near or above capacity do not provide significant benefits when compared to the conventional intersection.

Keywords: continuous flow intersections, crossover displaced left-turn, microscopic traffic simulation, transportation system management and operations, VISSIM simulation model

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174 Autonomous Landing of UAV on Moving Platform: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mortez Alijani, Anas Osman


Recently, the popularity of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has skyrocketed amidst the unprecedented events and the global pandemic, as they play a key role in both the security and health sectors, through surveillance, taking test samples, transportation of crucial goods and spreading awareness among civilians. However, the process of designing and producing such aerial robots is suppressed by the internal and external constraints that pose serious challenges. Landing is one of the key operations during flight, especially, the autonomous landing of UAVs on a moving platform is a scientifically complex engineering problem. Typically having a successful automatic landing of UAV on a moving platform requires accurate localization of landing, fast trajectory planning, and robust control planning. To achieve these goals, the information about the autonomous landing process such as the intersection point, the position of platform/UAV and inclination angle are more necessary. In this study, the mathematical approach to this problem in the X-Y axis based on the inclination angle and position of UAV in the landing process have been presented. The experimental results depict the accurate position of the UAV, intersection between UAV and moving platform and inclination angle in the landing process, allowing prediction of the intersection point.

Keywords: autonomous landing, inclination angle, unmanned aerial vehicles, moving platform, X-Y axis, intersection point

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173 Quantifying the Impact of Intermittent Signal Priority given to BRT on Ridership and Climate-A Case Study of Ahmadabad

Authors: Smita Chaudhary


Traffic in India are observed uncontrolled, and are characterized by chaotic (not follows the lane discipline) traffic situation. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has emerged as a viable option to enhance transportation capacity and provide increased levels of mobility and accessibility. At present in Ahmadabad there are as many intersections which face the congestion and delay at signalized intersection due to transit (BRT) lanes. Most of the intersection in spite of being signalized is operated manually due to the conflict between BRT buses and heterogeneous traffic. Though BRTS in Ahmadabad has an exclusive lane of its own but with this comes certain limitations which Ahmadabad is facing right now. At many intersections in Ahmadabad due to these conflicts, interference, and congestion both heterogeneous traffic as well as transit buses suffer traffic delays of remarkable 3-4 minutes at each intersection which has a become an issue of great concern. There is no provision of BRT bus priority due to which existing signals have their least role to play in managing the traffic that ultimately call for manual operation. There is an immense decrement in the daily ridership of BRTS because people are finding this transit mode no more time saving in their routine, there is an immense fall in ridership ultimately leading to increased number of private vehicles, idling of vehicles at intersection cause air and noise pollution. In order to bring back these commuters’ transit facilities need to be improvised. Classified volume count survey, travel time delay survey was conducted and revised signal design was done for whole study stretch having three intersections and one roundabout, later one intersection was simulated in order to see the effect of giving priority to BRT on side street queue length and travel time for heterogeneous traffic. This paper aims at suggesting the recommendations in signal cycle, introduction of intermittent priority for transit buses, simulation of intersection in study stretch with proposed signal cycle using VISSIM in order to make this transit amenity feasible and attracting for commuters in Ahmadabad.

Keywords: BRT, priority, Ridership, Signal, VISSIM

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172 The Intersection/Union Region Computation for Drosophila Brain Images Using Encoding Schemes Based on Multi-Core CPUs

Authors: Ming-Yang Guo, Cheng-Xian Wu, Wei-Xiang Chen, Chun-Yuan Lin, Yen-Jen Lin, Ann-Shyn Chiang


With more and more Drosophila Driver and Neuron images, it is an important work to find the similarity relationships among them as the functional inference. There is a general problem that how to find a Drosophila Driver image, which can cover a set of Drosophila Driver/Neuron images. In order to solve this problem, the intersection/union region for a set of images should be computed at first, then a comparison work is used to calculate the similarities between the region and other images. In this paper, three encoding schemes, namely Integer, Boolean, Decimal, are proposed to encode each image as a one-dimensional structure. Then, the intersection/union region from these images can be computed by using the compare operations, Boolean operators and lookup table method. Finally, the comparison work is done as the union region computation, and the similarity score can be calculated by the definition of Tanimoto coefficient. The above methods for the region computation are also implemented in the multi-core CPUs environment with the OpenMP. From the experimental results, in the encoding phase, the performance by the Boolean scheme is the best than that by others; in the region computation phase, the performance by Decimal is the best when the number of images is large. The speedup ratio can achieve 12 based on 16 CPUs. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology under the grant MOST 106-2221-E-182-070.

Keywords: Drosophila driver image, Drosophila neuron images, intersection/union computation, parallel processing, OpenMP

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171 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections

Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.

Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle composition

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170 Multi-Objective Optimization of Intersections

Authors: Xiang Li, Jian-Qiao Sun


As the crucial component of city traffic network, intersections have significant impacts on urban traffic performance. Despite of the rapid development in transportation systems, increasing traffic volumes result in severe congestions especially at intersections in urban areas. Effective regulation of vehicle flows at intersections has always been an important issue in the traffic control system. This study presents a multi-objective optimization method at intersections with cellular automata to achieve better traffic performance. Vehicle conflicts and pedestrian interference are considered. Three categories of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy consumption and road safety. The left-turn signal type, signal timing and lane assignment are optimized for different traffic flows. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved with the cell mapping method. The optimization results show the conflicting nature of different traffic performance. The influence of different traffic variables on the intersection performance is investigated. It is observed that the proposed optimization method is effective in regulating the traffic at the intersection to meet multiple objectives. Transportation efficiency can be usually improved by the permissive left-turn signal, which sacrifices safety. Right-turn traffic suffers significantly when the right-turn lanes are shared with the through vehicles. The effect of vehicle flow on the intersection performance is significant. The display pattern of the optimization results can be changed remarkably by the traffic volume variation. Pedestrians have strong interference with the traffic system.

Keywords: cellular automata, intersection, multi-objective optimization, traffic system

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169 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim


Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

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168 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, statistical moments, indexing, similarity distance, histograms intersection

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167 Real-Time Multi-Vehicle Tracking Application at Intersections Based on Feature Selection in Combination with Color Attribution

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu


In multi-vehicle tracking, based on feature selection, the tracking system efficiently tracks vehicles in a video with minimal error in combination with color attribution, which focuses on presenting a simple and fast, yet accurate and robust solution to the problem such as inaccurately and untimely responses of statistics-based adaptive traffic control system in the intersection scenario. In this study, a real-time tracking system is proposed for multi-vehicle tracking in the intersection scene. Considering the complexity and application feasibility of the algorithm, in the object detection step, the detection result provided by virtual loops were post-processed and then used as the input for the tracker. For the tracker, lightweight methods were designed to extract and select features and incorporate them into the adaptive color tracking (ACT) framework. And the approbatory online feature selection algorithms are integrated on the mature ACT system with good compatibility. The proposed feature selection methods and multi-vehicle tracking method are evaluated on KITTI datasets and show efficient vehicle tracking performance when compared to the other state-of-the-art approaches in the same category. And the system performs excellently on the video sequences recorded at the intersection. Furthermore, the presented vehicle tracking system is suitable for surveillance applications.

Keywords: real-time, multi-vehicle tracking, feature selection, color attribution

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166 The Evaluation of Signal Timing Optimization and Implement of Transit Signal Priority in Intersections and Their Effect on Delay Reduction

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ramezani, Shahriyar Afandizadeh


Since the intersections play a crucial role in traffic delay, it is significant to evaluate them precisely. In this paper, three critical intersections in Tehran (Capital of Iran) had been simulated. The main purpose of this paper was to optimize the public transit delay. The simulation had three different phase in three intersections of Tehran. The first phase was about the current condition of intersection; the second phase was about optimized signal timing and the last phase was about prioritized public transit access. The Aimsun software was used to simulate all phases, and the Synchro software was used to optimization of signals as well. The result showed that the implement of optimization and prioritizing system would reduce about 50% of delay for public transit.

Keywords: transit signal priority, intersection optimization, public transit, simulation

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165 Effects of Non-Motorized Vehicles on a Selected Intersection in Dhaka City for Non Lane Based Heterogeneous Traffic Using VISSIM 5.3

Authors: A. C. Dey, H. M. Ahsan


Heterogeneous traffic composed of both motorized and non-motorized vehicles that are a common feature of urban Bangladeshi roads. Popular non-motorized vehicles include rickshaws, rickshaw-van, and bicycle. These modes performed an important role in moving people and goods in the absence of a dependable mass transport system. However, rickshaws play a major role in meeting the demand for door-to-door public transport services to the city dwellers. But there is no separate lane for non-motorized vehicles in this city. Non-motorized vehicles generally occupy the outermost or curb-side lanes, however, at intersections non-motorized vehicles get mixed with the motorized vehicles. That’s why the conventional models fail to analyze the situation completely. Microscopic traffic simulation software VISSIM 5.3, itself a lane base software but default behavioral parameters [such as driving behavior, lateral distances, overtaking tendency, CCO=0.4m, CC1=1.5s] are modified for calibrating a model to analyze the effects of non-motorized traffic at an intersection (Mirpur-10) in a non-lane based mixed traffic condition. It is seen from field data that NMV occupies an average 20% of the total number of vehicles almost all the link roads. Due to the large share of non-motorized vehicles, capacity significantly drop. After analyzing simulation raw data, significant variation is noticed. Such as the average vehicular speed is reduced by 25% and the number of vehicles decreased by 30% only for the presence of NMV. Also the variation of lateral occupancy and queue delay time increase by 2.37% and 33.75% respectively. Thus results clearly show the negative effects of non-motorized vehicles on capacity at an intersection. So special management technics or restriction of NMV at major intersections may be an effective solution to improve this existing critical condition.

Keywords: lateral occupancy, non lane based intersection, nmv, queue delay time, VISSIM 5.3

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164 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan


A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: uniquely restricted matching, interval graph, matching, induced matching, witness counting

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163 Traffic Noise Study at Intersection in Bangalore: A Case Study

Authors: Shiva Kumar G.


The present study is to know the level of noises emanated from vehicles in intersections located in urban areas using Sound Level Meter and the possibility of reducing noise levels through traffic flow optimization. The main objective is to study traffic noise level of the Intersections located at on-going metro construction activities and which are away from metro construction activities. To compare traffic noise level between stop phase, go phase and drive phase at the Intersections. To study the effect of traffic noise level of directional movement of traffic and variation in noise level during day and night times. The range of Noise level observed at intersections is between 60 to 105 decibel. The noise level of stop and drive phases were minimum and almost same where go phase had maximum noise level. By comparing noise level of directional movement of traffic, it has been noticed that Vijayanagar intersection has no significant difference in their noise level and all other intersection has a significant difference in their noise level. By comparing noise level of stop, go and drive phase it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level during peak hours compared to off-peak hour. By comparing noise level between Metro and Non-Metro construction activity intersections it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level. By comparing noise level during day and night times, significant differences in noise level were observed at all intersections.

Keywords: noise, metro and non-metro intersections, traffic flow optimization, stop-go and drive phase

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162 A Source Point Distribution Scheme for Wave-Body Interaction Problem

Authors: Aichun Feng, Zhi-Min Chen, Jing Tang Xing


A two-dimensional linear wave-body interaction problem can be solved using a desingularized integral method by placing free surface Rankine sources over calm water surface and satisfying boundary conditions at prescribed collocation points on the calm water surface. A new free-surface Rankine source distribution scheme, determined by the intersection points of free surface and body surface, is developed to reduce numerical computation cost. Associated with this, a new treatment is given to the intersection point. The present scheme results are in good agreement with traditional numerical results and measurements.

Keywords: source point distribution, panel method, Rankine source, desingularized algorithm

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161 Difference between Riding a Bicycle on a Sidewalk or in the Street by Usual Traveling Means

Authors: Ai Fujii, Kan Shimazaki


Bicycle users must ride on the street according the law in Japan, but in practice, many bicycle users ride on the sidewalk. Drivers generally feel that bicycles riding in the street are in the way. In contrast, pedestrians generally feel that bicycles riding on the sidewalk are in the way. That seems to make sense. What, then, is the difference between riding a bicycle on the sidewalk or in the street by usual traveling means. We made 3D computer graphics models of pedestrians, a car, and a bicycle at an intersection. The bicycle was positioned to choose between advancing to the sidewalk or the street after a few seconds. We then made a 2D stimulus picture by changing the point of view of the 3DCG model pictures. Attitudes were surveyed using this 2D stimulus picture, and we compared attitudes between three groups, people traveling by car, on foot, or by bicycle. Here we report the survey result.

Keywords: bicycle, sidewalk, pedestrians, driver, intersection, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 75