Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 195

Search results for: desert encroachment

195 Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Mohammed Sale Abubakar, Kabir Omar, Mohammed Umar Abba

Abstract:

The effects of climate change continue to ravage globe upsetting or even overturning the entire communities in its wake. It is therefore on the front burner of most global issues affecting the world today. Hardly any field of endeavor has escaped the manifestation of its effects. The effects of climate change on agricultural productivity calls for intense study because of the nexus between agriculture, global food security and provision of employment for the teaming population in sub-saharan Africa. This paper examines current challenges of climate change on agricultural productivity in this region. This challenge indicated that both long and short-term change in climate bring unpleasant repercussion on agricultural productivity as they manifest in the vulnerability of industrial work force. The paper also focused on the impact of agriculture and bio-environmental engineering as a separate entity that will help to fight these major challenges facing humanity currently associated with negative effects of climate change such as scarcity of water, declining agricultural yields, desert encroachment, and damage of coastal structures. Finally, a suggestion was put forward as an effort that should be directed towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change on our environment.

Keywords: climate change mitigation, desert encroachment, environment, global food security, greenhouse gases (GHGs)

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194 Woody Plant Encroachment Effects on the Physical Properties of Vertic Soils in Bela-Bela, Limpopo Province

Authors: Rebone E. Mashapa, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Sandile S. Mthimkhulu

Abstract:

Woody plant encroachment, a land cover transformation that reduces grassland productivity may influence soil physical properties. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of woody plant encroachment on physical properties of vertic soils in a savanna grassland. In this study, we quantified and compared soil bulk density, aggregate stability and porosity in the top and subsoil of an open and woody encroached savanna grassland. The results revealed that soil bulk density increases, while porosity and mean weight diameter decreases with depth in both open and woody encroached grassland soil. Compared to open grassland, soil bulk density was 11% and 10% greater in the topsoil and subsoil, while porosity was 6% and 9% lower in the topsoil and subsoil of woody encroached grassland. Mean weight diameter, an indicator of soil aggregation increased by 38% only in the subsoil of encroached grasslands due to increasing clay content with depth. These results suggest that woody plant encroachment leads to compaction of vertic soils, which in turn reduces pore size distribution.

Keywords: soil depth, soil physical properties, vertic soils, woody plant encroachment

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193 Design with Nature: Vernacular Buildings Adaptation to Sand Landforms in Sahara Desert

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

Abstract:

The Sahara desert covers third of the total surface of Africa with a quarter of this area within the national boundaries of Algeria. Sand drift and deposition is considered one of the major factors of the desertification process in the area. It is estimated that a third of the world's hot arid lands are covered by aeolian sand deposits, forming extensive sand bedforms. The Gourrara region in the Grand Erg Occidental (west of Algerian Sahara) and the region of Souf in the Grand Erg Oriental (east of Algerian Sahara) have been chosen as case studies. These were significant cultural and trading centers for many centuries despite their remote location and their harsh desert environment particularly solar radiation and sand drift and deposition. The architecture of the sustained vernacular settlements in each of the two regions has unique design features for this environment. So do the irrigation systems used - palm groves and the foggara system for capturing and distributing groundwater. However, the ecological balance which enabled the Saharans to live with the desert has been upset. New buildings often use technology based on models imported or imposed from areas that climatically have little in common. These make the inhabitants live ‘in the desert’ rather than ‘with the desert’. This paper will describe the qualities of the vernacular architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness and adaptability to the region’s harsh desert environment in comparison with contemporary buildings. Developing design guides and approaches based on lessons from the traditional architecture is important to ensure sustained livelihoods of the inhabitants in these areas.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, desert architecture, hot climate, aeolian sand deposition

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192 Impact of Climate Variation on Natural Vegetations and Human Lives in Thar Desert, Pakistan

Authors: Sujo Meghwar, Zulfqar Ali laghari, Kanji Harijan, Muhib Ali Lagari, G. M. Mastoi, Ali Mohammad Rind

Abstract:

Thar Desert is the most populous Desert of the world. Climate variation in Thar Desert has induced an increase in the magnitude of drought. The variation in climate variation has caused a decrease in natural vegetations. Some plant species are eliminated forever. We have applied the SPI (standardized precipitation index) climate model to investigate the drought induced by climate change. We have gathered the anthropogenic response through a developed questionnaire. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 18. The met-data of two meteorological station elaborated by the time series has suggested an increase in temperature from 1-2.5 centigrade, the decrease in rain fall rainfall from 5-25% and reduction in humidity from 5-12 mm in the 20th century. The anthropogenic responses indicate high impact of climate change on human life and vegetations. Triangle data, we have collected, gives a new insight into the understanding of an association between climate change, drought and human activities.

Keywords: Thar desert, human impact, vegetations, temperature, rainfall, humidity

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191 Variation in Water Utilization of Typical Desert Shrubs in a Desert-Oasis Ecotone

Authors: Hai Zhou, Wenzhi Zhao

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development in desert ecosystems. In order to understand how desert shrubs cope with variation in water sources over time, it is important to understand plant–water relations in desert-oasis ecotone. We selected the typical desert shrubs: Nitraria sibirica, Calligonum mongolicum and Haloxylon ammodendron of 5-, 10-, 20- and 40-year old as the research species, to study the seasonal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation in the desert-oasis ecotone of Linze, Northwestern China. We examined stable isotopic ratios of oxygen (δ18O) in stem water of desert shrubs as well as in precipitation, groundwater, and soil water in different soil layers and seasons to determine water sources for the shrubs. We found that the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year old showed significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ18O value of stem water and water sources. However, the C. mongolicum and 20- and 40-year H. ammodendron main water sources were from deep soil water and groundwater, and less response to precipitation pulse. After 22.4 mm precipitation, the contribution of shallow soil water (0-50cm) to the use of N. sibirica increased from 6.7% to 36.5%; the C. mongolicum rarely use precipitation that were about 58.29% and 23.51%, absorbed from the deep soil water and groundwater; the contribution of precipitation to use of H. ammodendron had significantly differences among the four ages. The H. ammodendron of 5- and 10-year old about 86.3% and 42.5% water sources absorbed from the shallow soil water after precipitation. However, the contribution to 20- and 40-year old plant was less than 15%. So, the precipitation was one of the main water sources for desert shrubs, but the species showed different water utilization. We conclude that the main water source of the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year was soil water recharged by precipitation, but the deeply rooted H. ammodendron of 20‐ and 40‐year‐old and the C. mongolicum have the ability to exploit a deep and reliable water source.

Keywords: water use pattern, water resource, stable isotope, seasonal change, precipitation pulse

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190 Sustainable Desert Traditional Architecture of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hisham Mortada

Abstract:

For thousands of years mud houses have represented the practical wisdom and spirituality of people, particularly those of desert regions, who learned how to use local materials to build homes that fitted the environmental and cultural conditions which they lived in. As a case study, the central region of Saudi Arabia exhibits a tradition of earth architecture that is unique in style, culture and sustainability. Aiming to contribute towards the local debate of the suitability of the traditional mud architecture for today’s lifestyle of Saudis, this paper explores the sustainable nature of the traditional adobe architecture of this hot arid region from environmental, social and technical points of view.

Keywords: desert architecture, alternative materials, Saudi Arabia, arid climate, green architecture

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189 Viability of Irrigation Water Conservation Practices in the Low Desert of California

Authors: Ali Montazar

Abstract:

California and the Colorado River Basin are facing increasing uncertainty concerning water supplies. The Colorado River is the main source of irrigation water in the low desert of California. Currently, due to an increasing water-use competition and long-term drought at the Colorado River Basin, efficient use of irrigation water is one of the highest conservation priorities in the region. This study aims to present some of current irrigation technologies and management approaches in the low desert and assess the viability and potential of these water management practices. The results of several field experiments are used to assess five water conservation practices of sub-surface drip irrigation, automated surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, tail-water recovery system, and deficit irrigation strategy. The preliminary results of several ongoing studies at commercial fields are presented, particularly researches in alfalfa, sugar beets, kliengrass, sunflower, and spinach fields. The findings indicate that all these practices have significant potential to conserve water (an average of 1 ac-ft/ac) and enhance the efficiency of water use (15-25%). Further work is needed to better understand the feasibility of each of these applications and to help maintain profitable and sustainable agricultural production system in the low desert as water and labor costs, and environmental issues increase.

Keywords: automated surface irrigation, deficit irrigation, low desert of California, sprinkler irrigation, sub-surface drip irrigation, tail-water recovery system

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188 The Feasibility of Using Green Architecture in the Desert Areas and Its Effectiveness

Authors: Abdulah Hamads Alatiah

Abstract:

The green architecture represents the essence of the sustainability process and the fundamental rule in the desert areas' reconstruction seeking to maintain the environmental balance. This study is based on the analytical descriptive approach, to extract the objectives of green architecture in the desert areas, and reveal the most important principles that contribute to highlight its economic, social, and environmental importance, in addition to standing on the most important technical standards that can be relied upon to deal with its environmental problems. The green architecture aims: making use of the alternative energy, reducing the conventional energy consumption, addressing its negative effects, adapting to the climate, innovation in design, providing the individuals' welfare and rationalizing the use of the available resources to maintain its environmental sustainability.

Keywords: green architecture, the warm-dry climate, natural lighting, environmental quality, renewable energy, weather changes

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187 Sustainable Traditional Urban Design of the Old City of Ghadames

Authors: Hazem Bunkheila

Abstract:

Ghadames is an oasis on the edge of the Sahara Desert in southwestern Libya at the border with Algeria and Tunisia. It is the oldest oasis in the world that provides a fascinating example of traditional urban in the desert environment. The urban of the small city is considered a genuine adaptation to the harsh desert climate. The historic city of Ghadames remained unaffected by the rapid after oil changes. That makes it a good field to study sustainable, vernacular, earth architecture and urban design. The aim of this paper is to investigate the urban structure, concept, and fabric of the old oasis. The research also surveys the environmental considerations in the city that shades the sustainable features in this traditional residential area. In addition, the paper addresses the modern applications in the new city of Ghadams and sides of success and failure compared to the traditional urban fabric.

Keywords: dessert climate design, Ghadames, sustainable urban design, traditional urban design

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186 Effect of Climatic Change on the Life Activities of Schistocerca graria from Thar Desert, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Ahmed Ali Samejo, Riffat Sultana

Abstract:

Pakistan has the sandy Thar Desert in the eastern area, which share border line with India and has exotic fauna and flora, the livelihood of native people rely on livestock and rain fed cultivated fields. The climate of Thar Desert is very harsh and stressful due to frequent drought and very little rainfall, which may occur during monsoon season in the months of July to October and temperature is high, and wind speed also increases in April to June. Schistocerca gregaria is a destructive pest of vegetation from Mauritania to the border line of Pakistan and India. Sometimes they produce swarms which consume all plant where ever they land down and cause the loss in agro-economy of the world. During the recent study, we observed that vegetation was not unique throughout the Thar Desert in the year 2015, because the first spell of rainfall showered over all areas of the Thar Desert in July. However, the second and third spell of rain was confined to village Mahandre jo par and surroundings from August to October. Consequently, vegetation and cultivated crops grew up specially bajra crop (Pennistum glaucum). The climate of Mahandre jo par and surroundings became favorable for S.gregaria, and remaining areas of Thar Desert went hostile. Therefore desert locust attracted to the pleasant area (Mahandre jo par and surroundings) and gradually concentrated, increased reproductive activities, but did not gregarize due to the harvest of bajra crop and the onset of the winter season with an immediate decrease in temperature. An outbreak was near to come into existence, and thereupon conditions become stressful for hoppers to continue further development. Afore mentioned was one reason behind hurdle to the outbreak, another reason might be that migration and concentration of desert locust took place at the end of the season, so climate becomes unfavorable for hoppers, due to dryness of vegetation. Soils also become dry, because rainfall was not showered in end of the season, that’s why eggs that were deposited in late summer were desiccated. This data might be proved fruitful to forecast any outbreak update in future.

Keywords: agro-economy, destructive pest, climate, outbreak, vegetation

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185 Saudi Arabia Border Security Informatics: Challenges of a Harsh Environment

Authors: Syed Ahsan, Saleh Alshomrani, Ishtiaq Rasool, Ali Hassan

Abstract:

In this oral presentation, we will provide an overview of the technical and semantic architecture of a desert border security and critical infrastructure protection security system. Modern border security systems are designed to reduce the dependability and intrusion of human operators. To achieve this, different types of sensors are use along with video surveillance technologies. Application of these technologies in a harsh desert environment of Saudi Arabia poses unique challenges. Environmental and geographical factors including high temperatures, desert storms, temperature variations and remoteness adversely affect the reliability of surveillance systems. To successfully implement a reliable, effective system in a harsh desert environment, the following must be achieved: i) Selection of technology including sensors, video cameras, and communication infrastructure that suit desert environments. ii) Reduced power consumption and efficient usage of equipment to increase the battery life of the equipment. iii) A reliable and robust communication network with efficient usage of bandwidth. Also, to reduce the expert bottleneck, an ontology-based intelligent information systems needs to be developed. Domain knowledge unique and peculiar to Saudi Arabia needs to be formalized to develop an expert system that can detect abnormal activities and any intrusion.

Keywords: border security, sensors, abnormal activity detection, ontologies

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184 Political Economy in Climate Change Adaptation Efforts: Exploring Enclosure, Exclusion, Encroachment, and Entrenchment from the Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Cordia Chu

Abstract:

Bangladesh contributes little to global climate change, yet it is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Based on semi-structured in-depth interviews and literature review, focusing public spending distribution process, this paper demonstrates how the processes of political economy- enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment hinder the Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) efforts of Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (BCCTF). Enclosure refers to when CCA projects allocated to less vulnerable areas or expand the roles of influencing actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when CCA projects limit affected people's access to resources or marginalize particular stakeholders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when allocation of CCA projects and selection of location and issues degrade the environmental affect or contribute to other forms of disaster risk. Entrenchment refers to when CCA projects aggravate the disempowerment of common people worsen the concentrations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In the case of Bangladesh, climate change policies implemented under the country’s National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) and Bangladesh Climate Change Strategic Action Plan (BCCSAP) have somehow enabled influential-elites to mobilize and distribute resources through bureaucracies. Exclusionary forms of fund distribution of CCA exist at both the national and local scales. CCA related allocations have encroached through the low land areas development project without consulting local needs. Most severely, CCA related unequal allocations have entrenched social class trapping the backward communities vulnerable to climate related disasters. Planners and practitioners of BCCTF need to take necessary steps to eliminate the potential risks from the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment happens in project fund allocations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change adaptation, political economy, public fund distribution

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183 Enhancement of the Corrosion Resistance of Fastening System of Ballasted ‎Railway in Sandy Desert by Using Nano-Coating

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Navid Sabet, Mohamad Ali Mohit, Fatemeh Palizdar

Abstract:

Railway as one of the most important transportation modes, passes through ‎various areas with different conditions ‎inevitably, and in many countries such as ‎China, United States, Australia, and Iran, it passes through sandy ‎desert areas. One ‎of the main problems in these areas is the movement of sand, causing various ‎damages ‎to ballasted railway track such as corrosion in the railway fastening system. ‎The soil composition of some desert areas like Fahraj in Iran consists of sand ‎and ‎salt. Due to the movement of sand and corrosive ions of salt, the fastening system ‎of the railway is ‎corroded, which, in turn, reduces the thickness of the components ‎and their life span.‎ In this research, the Nano-coating for fastening system of ‎the railway is ‎introduced, and its performance has been investigated in both ‎laboratory and field tests. The Nano-coating of ‎the fastening system consists of zinc-rich, epoxy, polyurethane, and additive, which is produced through ‎Nano ‎technology. This layer covers the surface of the fastening system and ‎prohibits the chemical reactions, which result in ‎corrosion. The results of ‎Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) ‎indicate that corrosion resistance ‎increases 315 times by using nano-coating, salt spray test results demonstrate that ‎nano-coated components remained intact after 1000 hours.‎

Keywords: ballasted railway, Nano-coating, railway fastening system, sandy desert

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182 Phytopathology Prediction in Dry Soil Using Artificial Neural Networks Modeling

Authors: F. Allag, S. Bouharati, M. Belmahdi, R. Zegadi

Abstract:

The rapid expansion of deserts in recent decades as a result of human actions combined with climatic changes has highlighted the necessity to understand biological processes in arid environments. Whereas physical processes and the biology of flora and fauna have been relatively well studied in marginally used arid areas, knowledge of desert soil micro-organisms remains fragmentary. The objective of this study is to conduct a diversity analysis of bacterial communities in unvegetated arid soils. Several biological phenomena in hot deserts related to microbial populations and the potential use of micro-organisms for restoring hot desert environments. Dry land ecosystems have a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, with greater nutrient concentrations and microbial densities occurring in vegetated than in bare soils. In this work, we found it useful to use techniques of artificial intelligence in their treatment especially artificial neural networks (ANN). The use of the ANN model, demonstrate his capability for addressing the complex problems of uncertainty data.

Keywords: desert soil, climatic changes, bacteria, vegetation, artificial neural networks

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181 A Perceptive Study on Oviposition Behavior and Selection of Host Plant for Egg Laying in Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Riffat Sultana, Ahmed Ali Samejo

Abstract:

Desert Locust is a critical pest of crop and non-crop plants throughout the old world including Pakistan. Geographically, this pest invades 31 million km2 in about 60 countries during the gregarious phase which may bring calamity. The present study is carried out in order to conduct field observations on oviposition behavior from Thar Desert, Pakistan. Females preferred loose soil for oviposition rather than packed or hard soil. The depth of egg pods inside the soil was measured up to 8.996±1.40 cm, and duration of egg laying was measured up to 105.9±26.4 min. Besides this, an insightful recognition has been made that the solitary females oviposited predominantly in the vicinity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) crops in cultivated fields while in uncultivated land preferred the surroundings of bekar grass (Indigofera caerulea) and snow bush (Aerva javanica). It was also observed that nymphs preferred to feed on these host plants. Furthermore, experimental outcomes indicated that gravid females oviposited on the bottom of perforated plastic cages while, they did not find suitable soil for oviposition.

Keywords: calamity, cultivated fields, desert locust, host plants, oviposition behavior

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180 Investigating the Urban Heat Island Phenomenon in A Desert City Aiming at Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Afifa Mohammed, Gloria Pignatta, Mattheos Santamouris, Evangelia Topriska

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the global challenges that is exacerbated by the rapid growth of urbanizations. Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon can be considered as an effect of the urbanization and it is responsible together with the Climate change of the overheating of urban cities and downtowns. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and perform analysis of UHI Intensity in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), through checking the relationship between the UHI and different meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, winds speed, winds direction). Climate data were collected from three meteorological stations in Dubai (e.g., Dubai Airport - Station 1, Al-Maktoum Airport - Station 2 and Saih Al-Salem - Station 3) for a period of five years (e.g., 2014 – 2018) based upon hourly rates, and following clustering technique as one of the methodology tools of measurements. The collected data of each station were divided into six clusters upon the winds directions, either from the seaside or from the desert side, or from the coastal side which is in between both aforementioned winds sources, to investigate the relationship between temperature degrees and winds speed values through UHI measurements for Dubai Airport - Station 1 compared with the same of Al-Maktoum Airport - Station 2. In this case, the UHI value is determined by the temperature difference of both stations, where Station 1 is considered as located in an urban area and Station 2 is considered as located in a suburban area. The same UHI calculations has been applied for Al-Maktoum Airport - Station 2 and Saih Salem - Station 3 where Station 2 is considered as located in an urban area and Station 3 is considered as located in a suburban area. The performed analysis aims to investigate the relation between the two environmental parameters (e.g., Temperature and Winds Speed) and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensity when the wind comes from the seaside, from the desert, and the remaining directions. The analysis shows that the correlation between the temperatures with both UHI intensity (e.g., temperature difference between Dubai Airport - Station 1 and Saih Al-Salem - Station 3 and between Al-Maktoum Airport - Station 2 and Saih Al-Salem - Station 3 (through station 1 & 2) is strong and has a negative relationship when the wind is coming from the seaside comparing between the two stations 1 and 2, while the relationship is almost zero (no relation) when the wind is coming from the desert side. The relation is independent between the two parameters, e.g., temperature and UHI, on Station 2, during the same procedures, the correlation between the urban heat island UHI phenomenon and wind speed is weak for both stations when wind direction is coming from the seaside comparing the station 1 and 2, while it was found that there’s no relationship between urban heat island phenomenon and wind speed when wind direction is coming from desert side. The conclusion could be summarized saying that the wind coming from the seaside or from the desert side have a different effect on UHI, which is strongly affected by meteorological parameters. The output of this study will enable more determination of UHI phenomenon under desert climate, which will help to inform about the UHI phenomenon and intensity and extract recommendations in two main categories such as planning of new cities and designing of buildings.

Keywords: meteorological data, subtropical desert climate, urban climate, urban heat island (UHI)

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179 Assessing Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Westleigh Soil under Shrub Encroached Rangeland, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abel L. Masotla, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Vusumuzi E. Mbanjwa

Abstract:

Accurate quantification of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to land cover transformations, associated with shrub encroachment is crucial because deeper lying horizons have been shown to have greater capacity to sequester SOC. Despite this, in-depth soil carbon dynamics remain poorly understood, especially in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) in shrub-encroached and open grassland sites. To achieve this, soil samples were collected vertically at 10 cm depth intervals under both sites. The results showed that SOC was on average 19% and 13% greater in the topsoil and subsoil respectively, under shrub-encroached grassland compared to open grassland. In both topsoil and subsoil, lower SOCs were found under shrub-encroached (4.53 kg m⁻² and 3.90 kgm⁻²) relative to open grassland (4.39 kgm⁻² and 3.67 kgm⁻²). These results demonstrate that deeper soil horizon play a critical role in the storage of SOC in savanna grassland.

Keywords: savanna grasslands, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, vertical distribution

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178 The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate

Authors: A. Sherif, H. Sabry, A. Elzafarany, M. Gadelhak, R. Arafa, M. Aly

Abstract:

This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt. The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs. ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide acceptable performance. These require additional local shading measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.

Keywords: daylighting, desert, energy efficiency, shading

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177 Persian Garden Design and Climate Case Studies: Shahzadeh-Mahan and Shah Garden

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan

Abstract:

Gardens symbolize human effort to bring Eden to earth and are defined as the purest pleasures and the greatest inspiration for men. According to Persian mythology, a garden called "Paris" is a magical, perfumed place populated by beautiful and angelic creatures. "Pardis" comes from the word "paridaiza," which means "walled garden." Gardening has always been a worldwide attraction due to the abundance of green space, and desert gardens are no exception. Because most historical garden designs use a similar pattern, such as Chahar-Bagh, climate effects have not been considered. The purpose of studying these general designs was to determine whether location and weather conditions are affecting them. So, two gardens were chosen for comparison: a desert (Shahzadeh-Mahan) and a humid garden (Shah) and compared their geometry, irrigation system, entrances, and pavilions. The findings of the study revealed that there are several notable differences among their architectural principles. For example, the desert garden design is introverted with transparent surfaces and a single focal point, while the moderate garden is extraverted with high complexity and multiple perspectives. In conclusion, the study recognizes the richness and significance of the Persian garden concept, which can be applied in many different contexts.

Keywords: Pardis, Chahar-bagh, Persian garden, temperate, humid climate, geometry, pavilion, irrigations, culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
176 A Prototype for Biological Breakdown of Plastic Bags in Desert Areas

Authors: Yassets Egaña, Patricio Núñez, Juan C. Rios, Ivan Balic, Alex Manquez, Yarela Flores, Maria C. Gatica, Sergio Diez De Medina, Rocio Tijaro-Rojas

Abstract:

Globally, humans produce millions of tons of waste per year. An important percentage of this waste is plastic, which frequently ends up in landfills and oceans. During the last decades, the greatest plastics production in history have been made, a few amount of this plastic is recycled, the rest ending up as plastic pollution in soils and seas. Plastic pollution is disastrous for the environment, affecting essential species, quality of consumption water, and some economic activities such as tourism, in different parts of the world. Due to its durability and decomposition on micro-plastics, animals and humans are accumulating a variety of plastic components without having clear their effects on human health, economy, and wildlife. In dry regions as the Atacama Desert, up to 95% of the water consumption comes from underground reservoirs, therefore preventing the soil pollution is an urgent need. This contribution focused on isolating, genotyping and optimizing microorganisms that use plastic waste as the only source of food to construct a batch-type bioreactor able to degrade in a faster way the plastic waste before it gets the desert soils and groundwater consumed by people living in this areas. Preliminary results, under laboratory conditions, has shown an improved degradation of polyethylene when three species of bacteria and three of fungi act on a selected plastic material. These microorganisms have been inoculated in dry soils, initially lacking organic matter, under environmental conditions in the laboratory. Our team designed and constructed a prototype using the natural conditions of the region and the best experimental results.

Keywords: biological breakdown, plastic bags, prototype, desert regions

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175 Desert Houses of the Past: Green Buildings of Today

Authors: Baharak Shakeri, Seyed Hashem Hosseini

Abstract:

The weather in deserts is hot and dry in summers, and cold and dry in winters, and difference of temperature of nights and days sometimes reaches to 28°C. People of deserts have reached some solutions to cope with this climatic condition and to decrease its annoying features. Among these solutions are: constructing houses adjacent to each other, making tall walls, using mud brick and thatch cover, constructing domical arches, cellar, and wind catcher, which are together the devices to control the adversity of hot weather in summers and cold weather in winters. Using these solutions, the people of deserts have succeeded to make the best use with the least energy consumption, and to minimize the damage on the nature and environment, and in short, they are friends of the nature, which is a step toward the objectives of green buildings.

Keywords: desert house, green building, Iran, nature

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174 Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon within Silt+Clay Fraction in Shrub-Encroached Rangeland Shallow Soil at the University of Limpopo Syferkuil Experimental Farm

Authors: Millicent N. Khumalo, Phesheya E. Dlamini

Abstract:

Shrub-encroachment leads to a gain or loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in previously open rangelands. The stabilization mechanisms controlling the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates of shrub-encroached grassland soils are poorly understood, especially in shallow plinthic soils. In this study, physical fractionation of surface soils (0- 10 cm) collected from open and shrub-encroached grasslands was conducted to determine the distribution of SOC within macro-and- microaggregates. Soil aggregates were classified into four fractions by a wet-sieving procedure, namely >2000 (large macro-aggregates), 212-2000 (small macro-aggregates), 50-212 (microaggregates) and < 50µm (silt+clay). In both shrub-encroached and open grassland soils, SOC was greater in the silt+clay fraction. In this fraction, SOC was on average 133% greater in shrub-encroached compared to open grassland. The greater SOC within the silt+clay fraction is due to the greater surface area and thus more exchange sites for carbon absorption. This implies that the SOC physically protected within the silt+clay is stored long-term.

Keywords: aggregate fractions, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, stabilization

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173 Towards Developing Social Assessment Tool for Siwan Ecolodge Case Study: Babenshal Ecolodge

Authors: Amr Ali Bayoumi, Ola Ali Bayoumi

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The aim of this research is enhancing one of the main aspects (Social Aspect) for developing an eco-lodge in Siwa oasis in Egyptian Western Desert. According to credible weightings built in this research through formal and informal questionnaires, the researcher detected one of the highest credible aspects, 'Social Aspect': through which it carries the maximum priorities among the total environmental and economic categories. From here, the researcher suggested the usage of ethnographic design approach and Space Syntax as observational and computational methods for developing future Eco-lodge in Siwa Oasis. These methods are used to study social spaces of Babenshal eco-lodge as a case study. This hybrid method is considered as a beginning of building Social Assessment Tool (SAT) for ecological tourism buildings located in Siwa as a case of Egyptian Western desert community. Towards livable social spaces, the proposed SAT was planned to be the optimum measurable weightings for social aspect's priorities of future Siwan eco-lodge(s). Finally, recommendations are proposed for enhancing SAT to be more correlated with sensitive desert biome (Siwa Oasis) to be adapted with the continuous social and environmental changes of the oasis.

Keywords: ecolodge, social aspect, space syntax, Siwa Oasis

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172 Practicing Participatory Approach in Social Forestry to Strengthen Sustainability in a Rural Area of Bangladesh

Authors: A B M Enamol Hassan

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The forest storing up in Bangladesh is of deep concern to policy analysts because of increasing encroachment that results in deforestation and degradation of the ecosystem. To address these problems, forest-dependent people, as responsible for encroachment, could be involved in the co-management process along with other local stakeholders through a participatory approach. On the basis of this premise, this paper conceptualizes and empirically assesses the integration of all stakeholders in the co-management process through two lenses such as participation and collaboration. The study also analyzed the issues of sustainability in local communities along with examining constraints that limit the processes of integration. The study used a qualitative research method, which included face-to-face interviews with semi-structured questionnaires and field notes following the purposive sampling technique focusing on Comilla Sadar South Upazila (CSSU), Bangladesh. The findings of this paper reveal beneficiaries, Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) and Union Parishad (UP), come together as leading actors, while NGOs and business entrepreneurs are ignored in the co-management process of social forestry. However, integrated management contributes to the strength of community sustainability, although it has some major limitations causing the matter of concerns among the local communities and policy analysts.

Keywords: integration, participation, collaboration, stakeholders, community sustainability

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171 Petrography and Geochemistry of Basic Dokhan Volcanics from the Eastern Desert of Egypt and their Use as Aggregates in Concrete Mixes

Authors: Ahmed Khalil, Hatem M. El-Desoky

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The present paper deals with the petrography and geochemistry of the Basic Dokhan Volcanics, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The basalts from Gabal Wassif, Atalla volcanics and Gabal Esh Mellaha were tested for use as aggregates in concrete mixes. The representative twelve samples were collected from areas. These samples were examined by using a petrographic microscope to evaluate sample texture, degree of alteration and the presence of volcanic glass in the matrix. The results obtained indicate that basalt can be used successfully for preparing concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of basalt. A general improvement in concrete mix properties has been found by using basalt aggregates in the mix.

Keywords: basic Dokhan volcanics, petrography, geochemistry, petrogenesis and concrete aggregates

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170 The Use of Empirical Models to Estimate Soil Erosion in Arid Ecosystems and the Importance of Native Vegetation

Authors: Meshal M. Abdullah, Rusty A. Feagin, Layla Musawi

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When humans mismanage arid landscapes, soil erosion can become a primary mechanism that leads to desertification. This study focuses on applying soil erosion models to a disturbed landscape in Umm Nigga, Kuwait, and identifying its predicted change under restoration plans, The northern portion of Umm Nigga, containing both coastal and desert ecosystems, falls within the boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) adjacent to Iraq, and has been fenced off to restrict public access since 1994. The central objective of this project was to utilize GIS and remote sensing to compare the MPSIAC (Modified Pacific South West Inter Agency Committee), EMP (Erosion Potential Method), and USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) soil erosion models and determine their applicability for arid regions such as Kuwait. Spatial analysis was used to develop the necessary datasets for factors such as soil characteristics, vegetation cover, runoff, climate, and topography. Results showed that the MPSIAC and EMP models produced a similar spatial distribution of erosion, though the MPSIAC had more variability. For the MPSIAC model, approximately 45% of the land surface ranged from moderate to high soil loss, while 35% ranged from moderate to high for the EMP model. The USLE model had contrasting results and a different spatial distribution of the soil loss, with 25% of area ranging from moderate to high erosion, and 75% ranging from low to very low. We concluded that MPSIAC and EMP were the most suitable models for arid regions in general, with the MPSIAC model best. We then applied the MPSIAC model to identify the amount of soil loss between coastal and desert areas, and fenced and unfenced sites. In the desert area, soil loss was different between fenced and unfenced sites. In these desert fenced sites, 88% of the surface was covered with vegetation and soil loss was very low, while at the desert unfenced sites it was 3% and correspondingly higher. In the coastal areas, the amount of soil loss was nearly similar between fenced and unfenced sites. These results implied that vegetation cover played an important role in reducing soil erosion, and that fencing is much more important in the desert ecosystems to protect against overgrazing. When applying the MPSIAC model predictively, we found that vegetation cover could be increased from 3% to 37% in unfenced areas, and soil erosion could then decrease by 39%. We conclude that the MPSIAC model is best to predict soil erosion for arid regions such as Kuwait.

Keywords: soil erosion, GIS, modified pacific South west inter agency committee model (MPSIAC), erosion potential method (EMP), Universal soil loss equation (USLE)

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169 Mineral Chemistry of Extraordinary Ilmenite from the Gabbroic Rocks of Abu Ghalaga Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidence to Metamorphic Modification

Authors: Yaser Maher Abdel Aziz Hawa

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An assemblage of Mn-bearing ilmenite, titanomagnetite (4-17 vol.%) and subordinate chalcopyrite, pyrrhptite and pyrite is present as dissiminations in gabbroic rocks of Abu Ghalaga area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The neoproterozoic gabbroic rocks encompasses these opaques are emplaced during oceanic island arc stage which represents the Nubian shield of Egypt. However, some textural features of these opaques suggest a relict igneous. The high Mn (up to 5.8 MnO%, 1282% MnTiO3) and very low Mg contents (0.21 MgO%, 0.82 MgTiO3) are dissimilar to those of any igneous ilmenite of tholeiitic rocks. Most of these ilmenites are associated mostly with metamorphic hornblende. Hornblende thermometry estimate crystallization of about 560°C. the present study suggests that the ilmenite under consideration has been greatly metamorphically modified, having lost Mg and gained Mn by diffusion.

Keywords: titanomagnetite, Ghalaga, ilmenite, chemistry

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168 Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity of Granitoid Rocks at Abu Marw Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Adel H.El-Afandy, Abd Alrahman Embaby, Mona A. El Harairey

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Abu Marw area is located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Desert, about 150km south east of Aswan. Abu Marw area is mainly covered by late Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These basement rocks are nonconformably overlain by late Cretaceous Nubian sandstones in the western and northern parts of the areas. Abu Marw granitoid batholiths comprises a co-magmatic calc alkaline I type peraluminous suite of rocks ranging in composition from tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The studied tonalite and granodiorite samples have ΣREE lower than the average REE values (250ppm) of granitic rocks, while the monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite samples have ΣREE above the average REE values of granitic rocks. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the considered granites display a gull-wing shape, characterized by large to moderately fractionated patterns and high LREE relative to the MREE and HREE contents. Furthermore, the studied rocks have a steadily decreasing Eu/Eu* values from the tonalite to the alkali feldspar granite with simultaneous increase in the ΣREE contents. The average U contents in different granitic rocks.

Keywords: granite, rare earth element, radioactivity, Abu Marw, south eastern desert

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167 Exploring Exposed Political Economy in Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts in Bangladesh

Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Cordia Chu

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Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate related disasters such as flood and cyclone. Exploring from the semi-structured in-depth interviews of 38 stakeholders and literature review, this study examined the public spending distribution process in DRR. This paper demonstrates how the processes of political economy-enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment hinder the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) efforts of Department of Disaster Management (DDM) such as distribution of flood centres, cyclone centres and 40 days employment generation programs. Enclosure refers to when DRR projects allocated to less vulnerable areas or expand the roles of influencing actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when DRR projects limit affected people’s access to resources or marginalize particular stakeholders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when allocation of DRR projects and selection of location and issues degrade the environmental affect or contribute to other forms of disaster risk. Entrenchment refers to when DRR projects aggravate the disempowerment of common people worsen the concentrations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In line with United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Hyogo and Sendai Frameworks, in the case of Bangladesh, DRR policies implemented under the country’s national five-year plan, disaster-related acts and rules. These policies and practices have somehow enabled influential-elites to mobilize and distribute resources through bureaucracies. Exclusionary forms of fund distribution of DRR exist at both the national and local scales. DRR related allocations have encroached through the low land areas development project without consulting local needs. Most severely, DRR related unequal allocations have entrenched social class trapping the backward communities vulnerable to climate related disasters. Planners and practitioners of DRR need to take necessary steps to eliminate the potential risks from the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment happens in project fund allocations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, disaster risk reduction, fund distribution, political economy

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166 Gold-Bearing Alteration Zones in South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Geology and Remote Sensing Analysis

Authors: Mohamed F. Sadek, Safaa M. Hassan, Safwat S. Gabr

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Several alteration zones hosting gold mineralization are wide spreading in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt where gold has been mined from many localities since the time of the Pharaohs. The Sukkari is the only mine currently producing gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on these locations using modern exploratory methods. The remote sensing plays an important role in lithological mapping and detection of associated hydrothermal mineralization particularly the exploration of gold mineralization. This study is focused on three localities in South Eastern Desert of Egypt, namely Beida, Defiet and Hoteib-Eiqat aiming to detect the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones using the integrated data of remote sensing, field study and mineralogical investigation. Generally, these areas are dominated by Precambrian basement rocks including metamorphic and magmatic assemblages. They comprise ophiolitic serpentinite-talc carbonate, island-arc metavolcanics which were intruded by syn to late orogenic mafic and felsic intrusions mainly gabbro, granodiorite and monzogranite. The processed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Landsat-8 images are used in the present study to map the gold bearing-hydrothermal alteration zones. Band rationing and principal component analysis techniques are used to discriminate the different lithologic units exposed in the studied three areas. Field study and mineralogical investigation have been used to verify the remote sensing data. This study concluded that, the integrated remote sensing data with geological, field and mineralogical investigations are very effective in lithological discrimination, detailed geological mapping and detection of the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones. More detailed exploration for gold mineralization with the help of remote sensing techniques is recommended to evaluate its potentiality in the study areas.

Keywords: pan-african, Egypt, landsat-8; ASTER, gold, alteration zones

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