Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 948

Search results for: greenhouse gases (GHGs)

948 Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.

Keywords: soil, GHG emission, sugarcane, agriculture, Thailand

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947 A Generalised Propensity Score Analysis to Investigate the Influence of Agricultural Research Systems on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors: Spada Alessia, Fiore Mariantonietta, Lamonaca Emilia, Contò Francesco

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Bioeconomy can give the chance to face new global challenges and can move ahead the transition from a waste economy to an economy based on renewable resources and sustainable consumption. Air pollution is a grave issue in green challenges, mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. The agriculture sector is a great contributor to global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to lacking efficient management of the resources involved and research policies. In particular, livestock sector contributes to emissions of GHGs, deforestation, and nutrient imbalances. More effective agricultural research systems and technologies are crucial in order to improve farm productivity but also to reduce the GHGs emissions. Using data from FAOSTAT statistics and concern the EU countries; the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of ASTI R&D (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators) on GHGs emissions for countries EU in 2015 by generalized propensity score procedures, estimating a dose-response function, also considering a set of covariates. Expected results show the existence of the influence of ASTI R&D on GHGs across EU countries. Implications are crucial: reducing GHGs emissions by means of R&D based policies and correlatively reaching eco-friendly management of required resources by means of green available practices could have a crucial role for fair intra-generational implications.

Keywords: agricultural research systems, dose-response function, generalized propensity score, GHG emissions

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946 Greenhouse Gasses’ Effect on Atmospheric Temperature Increase and the Observable Effects on Ecosystems

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky

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Radiative forces of greenhouse gases (GHG) increase the temperature of the Earth's surface, more on land, and less in oceans, due to their thermal capacities. Given this inertia, the temperature increase is delayed over time. Air temperature, however, is not delayed as air thermal capacity is much lower. In this study, through analysis and synthesis of multidisciplinary science and data, an estimate of atmospheric temperature increase is made. Then, this estimate is used to shed light on current observations of ice and snow loss, desertification and forest fires, and increased extreme air disturbances. The reason for this inquiry is due to the author’s skepticism that current changes cannot be explained by a "~1 oC" global average surface temperature rise within the last 50-60 years. The only other plausible cause to explore for understanding is that of atmospheric temperature rise. The study utilizes an analysis of air temperature rise from three different scientific disciplines: thermodynamics, climate science experiments, and climactic historical studies. The results coming from these diverse disciplines are nearly the same, within ± 1.6%. The direct radiative force of GHGs with a high level of scientific understanding is near 4.7 W/m2 on average over the Earth’s entire surface in 2018, as compared to one in pre-Industrial time in the mid-1700s. The additional radiative force of fast feedbacks coming from various forms of water gives approximately an additional ~15 W/m2. In 2018, these radiative forces heated the atmosphere by approximately 5.1 oC, which will create a thermal equilibrium average ground surface temperature increase of 4.6 oC to 4.8 oC by the end of this century. After 2018, the temperature will continue to rise without any additional increases in the concentration of the GHGs, primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. These findings of the radiative force of GHGs in 2018 were applied to estimates of effects on major Earth ecosystems. This additional force of nearly 20 W/m2 causes an increase in ice melting by an additional rate of over 90 cm/year, green leaves temperature increase by nearly 5 oC, and a work energy increase of air by approximately 40 Joules/mole. This explains the observed high rates of ice melting at all altitudes and latitudes, the spread of deserts and increases in forest fires, as well as increased energy of tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes, and extreme weather, much more plausibly than the 1.5 oC increase in average global surface temperature in the same time interval. Planned mitigation and adaptation measures might prove to be much more effective when directed toward the reduction of existing GHGs in the atmosphere.

Keywords: greenhouse radiative force, greenhouse air temperature, greenhouse thermodynamics, greenhouse historical, greenhouse radiative force on ice, greenhouse radiative force on plants, greenhouse radiative force in air

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945 Analysis of the Relationship between Micro-Regional Human Development and Brazil's Greenhouse Gases Emission

Authors: Geanderson Eduardo Ambrósio, Dênis Antônio Da Cunha, Marcel Viana Pires

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Historically, human development has been based on economic gains associated with intensive energy activities, which often are exhaustive in the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). It requires the establishment of targets for mitigation of GHGs in order to disassociate the human development from emissions and prevent further climate change. Brazil presents itself as one of the most GHGs emitters and it is of critical importance to discuss such reductions in intra-national framework with the objective of distributional equity to explore its full mitigation potential without compromising the development of less developed societies. This research displays some incipient considerations about which Brazil’s micro-regions should reduce, when the reductions should be initiated and what its magnitude should be. We started with the methodological assumption that human development and GHGs emissions arise in the future as their behavior was observed in the past. Furthermore, we assume that once a micro-region became developed, it is able to maintain gains in human development without the need of keep growing GHGs emissions rates. The human development index and the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2e) were extrapolated to the year 2050, which allowed us to calculate when the micro-regions will become developed and the mass of GHG’s emitted. The results indicate that Brazil must throw 300 GT CO2e in the atmosphere between 2011 and 2050, of which only 50 GT will be issued by micro-regions before it’s develop and 250 GT will be released after development. We also determined national mitigation targets and structured reduction schemes where only the developed micro-regions would be required to reduce. The micro-region of São Paulo, the most developed of the country, should be also the one that reduces emissions at most, emitting, in 2050, 90% less than the value observed in 2010. On the other hand, less developed micro-regions will be responsible for less impactful reductions, i.e. Vale do Ipanema will issue in 2050 only 10% below the value observed in 2010. Such methodological assumption would lead the country to issue, in 2050, 56.5% lower than that observed in 2010, so that the cumulative emissions between 2011 and 2050 would reduce by 130 GT CO2e over the initial projection. The fact of associating the magnitude of the reductions to the level of human development of the micro-regions encourages the adoption of policies that favor both variables as the governmental planner will have to deal with both the increasing demand for higher standards of living and with the increasing magnitude of reducing emissions. However, if economic agents do not act proactively in local and national level, the country is closer to the scenario in which emits more than the one in which mitigates emissions. The research highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in determining individual mitigation targets and also ratified the theoretical and methodological feasibility to allocate larger share of contribution for those who historically emitted more. It is understood that the proposals and discussions presented should be considered in mitigation policy formulation in Brazil regardless of the adopted reduction target.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, human development, mitigation, intensive energy activities

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944 Estimation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reductions from Solar Cell Technology Using Bottom-up Approach and Scenario Analysis in South Korea

Authors: Jaehyung Jung, Kiman Kim, Heesang Eum

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Solar cell is one of the main technologies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG). Thereby, accurate estimation of greenhouse gas reduction by solar cell technology is crucial to consider strategic applications of the solar cell. The bottom-up approach using operating data such as operation time and efficiency is one of the methodologies to improve the accuracy of the estimation. In this study, alternative GHG reductions from solar cell technology were estimated by a bottom-up approach to indirect emission source (scope 2) in Korea, 2015. In addition, the scenario-based analysis was conducted to assess the effect of technological change with respect to efficiency improvement and rate of operation. In order to estimate GHG reductions from solar cell activities in operating condition levels, methodologies were derived from 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and guidelines for local government greenhouse inventories published in Korea, 2016. Indirect emission factors for electricity were obtained from Korea Power Exchange (KPX) in 2011. As a result, the annual alternative GHG reductions were estimated as 21,504 tonCO2eq, and the annual average value was 1,536 tonCO2eq per each solar cell technology. Those results of estimation showed to be 91% levels versus design of capacity. Estimation of individual greenhouse gases (GHGs) showed that the largest gas was carbon dioxide (CO2), of which up to 99% of the total individual greenhouse gases. The annual average GHG reductions from solar cell per year and unit installed capacity (MW) were estimated as 556 tonCO2eq/yr•MW. Scenario analysis of efficiency improvement by 5%, 10%, 15% increased as much as approximately 30, 61, 91%, respectively, and rate of operation as 100% increased 4% of the annual GHG reductions.

Keywords: bottom-up approach, greenhouse gas (GHG), reduction, scenario, solar cell

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943 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Tropical Eutrophic Freshwater Wetland

Authors: Juan P. Silva, T. R. Canchala, H. J. Lubberding, E. J. Peña, H. J. Gijzen

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This study measured the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O from a tropical eutrophic freshwater wetland (“Sonso Lagoon”) which receives input loading nutrient from several sources i.e. agricultural run-off, domestic sewage, and a polluted river. The flux measurements were carried out at four different points using the static chamber technique. CO2 fluxes ranged from -8270 to 12210 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 360; SD = 4.11; n = 50), CH4 ranged between 0.2 and 5270 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 60; SD = 1.27; n = 45), and N2O ranged from -31.12 to 15.4 mg N2O m-2.d-1 (median = 0.05; SD = 9.36; n = 42). Although some negative fluxes were observed in the zone dominated by floating plants i.e. Eichornia crassipes, Salvinia sp., and Pistia stratiotes L., the mean values indicated that the Sonso Lagoon was a net source of CO2, CH4 and N2O. In addition, an effect of the eutrophication on GHG emissions could be observed in the positive correlation found between CO2, CH4 and N2O generation and COD, PO4-3, NH3-N, TN and NO3-N. The eutrophication impact on GHG production highlights the necessity to limit the anthropic activities on freshwater wetlands.

Keywords: eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater wetlands, climate change

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942 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene

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Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: agriculture, determinants of intensity, greenhouse gas emission, intensity

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941 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham

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Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: forest, soil, greenhouse, quadrupole

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940 Exploring the Relationship between the Adoption of Environmental Processes, Policies, Techniques and Environmental Operational Performance

Authors: Renata Konadu

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Over the last two decades, the concept of environmental management and its related issues have received increased attention in global discourse and on management research agenda due to climate change and other environmental challenges. To abate and avert these challenges, diverse environmental policies, strategies and practices have been adopted by businesses and economies as a whole. Extant literature has placed much emphasis on whether improved environmental operational performance improves firm performance. However, there is a huge gap in the literature with regards to whether the adoption of environmental management practices and policies has a direct relationship with environmental operational performance (EOP). The current paper is intended to provide a comprehensive perspective of how different aspects of environmental management can relate to firms EOP. Using a panel regression analysis of 149 large listed firms in the UK, the study found evidence of both negative and positive statistically significant link between some Environmental Policies (EP), Environmental Processes (EPR), Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and EOP. The findings suggest that in terms of relating EP, EPR and EMS to Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions for instance, the latter should be viewed separately in Scopes 1, 2 and 3 as developed by GHG protocol. The results have useful implication for policy makers and managers when designing strategies and policies to reduce negative environmental impacts.

Keywords: environmental management, environmental operational performance, GHGs, large listed firms

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939 Quantification of GHGs Emissions from Electricity and Diesel Fuel Consumption in Basalt Mining Industry in Thailand

Authors: S. Kittipongvises, A. Dubsok

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The mineral and mining industry is necessary for countries to have an adequate and reliable supply of materials to meet their socio-economic development. Despite its importance, the environmental impacts from mineral exploration are hugely significant. This study aimed to investigate and quantify the amount of GHGs emissions emitted from both electricity and diesel vehicle fuel consumption in basalt mining in Thailand. Plant A, located in the northeastern region of Thailand, was selected as a case study. Results indicated that total GHGs emissions from basalt mining and operation (Plant A) were approximately 2,501,086 kgCO2e and 1,997,412 kgCO2e in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The estimated carbon intensity ranged between 1.824 kgCO2e to 2.284 kgCO2e per ton of rock product. Scope 1 (direct emissions) was the dominant driver of its total GHGs compared to scope 2 (indirect emissions). As such, transport related combustion of diesel fuels generated the highest GHGs emission (65%) compared to emissions from purchased electricity (35%). Some of the potential implications for mining entities were also presented.

Keywords: basalt mining, diesel fuel, electricity, GHGs emissions, Thailand

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938 An Equitable Strategy to Amend Zero-Emission Vehicles Incentives for Travelers: A Policy Review

Authors: Marie Louis

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Even though many stakeholders are doing their very best to promote public transportation around the world, many areas are still public transportation non-accessible. With travelers purchasing and driving their private vehicles can be considered as a threat to all three aspects of the sustainability (e.g., economical, social, environmental). However, most studies that considered simultaneously all three aspects of the sustainability concept when planning and designing public transportation for a corridor have found tradeoffs among the said three aspects.One of the tradeoffs was identified by looking at tipping points of the travel demands to question whether transit agencies/and or transportation policymakers should either operate smaller buses or provide incentives to purchase Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-Qualified low-emission vehicles or greener vehicles (e.g., hybrid). However, how and when do the department of environmental protection (DEP) and the department of revenue (DOR) figure out how much incentives to give to each traveler who lives in a zoning that is considered as public transportation inaccessible or accessible? To answer this policy question, this study aims to compare the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions when hybrid and conventional cars are used to access public transportation stops/stations. Additionally, this study also intends to review previous states that have already adopted low-emissions vehicle (LEVs) or Zero-Emissions Vehicles (ZEVs) to diminish the daily GHGs pollutants.

Keywords: LEED-qualified vehicles, public transit accessibility, hybrid vehicles incentives, sustainability trade-offs

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937 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni

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The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

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936 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky

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In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

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935 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz

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Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

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934 Reducing Greenhouse Gass Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

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This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gases

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933 Biochar from Empty Fruit Bunches Generated in the Palm Oil Extraction and Its Nutrients Contribution in Cultivated Soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia

Authors: Alvarado M. Lady G., Ortiz V. Yaylenne, Quintero B. Quelbis R.

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The oil palm sector has seen significant growth in Colombia after the insertion of policies to stimulate the use of biofuels, which eventually contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) that deteriorate not only the environment but the health of people. However, the policy of using biofuels has been strongly questioned by the impacts that can generate; an example is the increase of other more harmful GHGs like the CH₄ that underlies the amount of solid waste generated. Casanare's department is estimated be one of the major producers of palm oil of the country given that has recently expanded its sowed area, which implies an increase in waste generated primarily in the industrial stage. For this reason, the following study evaluated the agronomic potential of the biochar obtained from empty fruit bunches and its nutritional contribution in cultivated soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia. The biochar was obtained by slow pyrolysis of the clusters in a retort oven at an average temperature of 190 °C and a residence time of 8 hours. The final product was taken to the laboratory for its physical and chemical analysis as well as a soil sample from a cultivation of Elaeis guineensis located in Tauramena-Casanare. With the results obtained plus the bibliographical reports of the nutrient demand in this cultivation, the possible nutritional contribution of the biochar was determined. It is estimated that the cultivation requirements of nitrogen is 12.1 kg.ha⁻¹, potassium is 59.3 kg.ha⁻¹, magnesium is -31.5 kg.ha⁻¹ and phosphorus is 5.6 kg.ha⁻¹ obtaining a biochar contribution of 143.1 kg.ha⁻¹, 1204.5 kg.ha⁻¹, 39.2 kg.ha⁻¹ and 71.6 kg.ha⁻¹ respectively. The incorporation of biochar into the soil would significantly improve the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg, nutrients considered important in the yield of palm oil, coupled with the importance of nutrient recycling in agricultural production systems sustainable. The biochar application improves the physical properties of soils, mainly in the humidity retention. On the other hand, it regulates the availability of nutrients for plants absorption, with economic savings in the application of synthetic fertilizers and water by irrigation. It also becomes an alternative to manage agricultural waste, reducing the involuntary emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment by decomposition in the field, reducing the CO₂ content in the atmosphere.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recycling, oil palm, pyrolysis

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932 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu

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Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

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931 Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases: Implication for Global Warming in Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chikwelu Edward Emenike, Ogbuagu Uchenna Fredrick

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About 34% of the solar radiant energy reaching the earth is immediately reflected back to space as incoming radiation by clouds, chemicals, dust in the atmosphere and by the earth’s surface. Most of the remaining 66% warms the atmosphere and land. Most of the incoming solar radiation not reflect away is degraded into low-quality heat and flows into space. The rate at which this energy returns to space as low-quality heat is affected by the presence of molecules of greenhouse gases. Gaseous emission was measured with the aid of Growen gas Analyzer with a digital readout. Total measurements of eight parameters of twelve selected sample locations taken at two different seasons within two months were made. The ambient air quality investigation in Anambra State has shown the overall mean concentrations of gaseous emission at twelve (12) locations. The mean gaseous emissions showed (NO2=0.66ppm, SO2=0.30ppm, CO=43.93ppm, H2S=2.17ppm, CH4=1.27ppm, CFC=1.59ppb, CO2=316.33ppm, N2O=302.67ppb and O3=0.37ppm). These values do not conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and thus contribute significantly to the global warming. Because some of these gaseous emissions (SO2, NO2) are oxidizing agents, they act as irritants that damage delicate tissues in the eyes and respiratory passages. These can impair lung function and trigger cardiovascular problems as the heart tries to compensate for lack of Oxygen by pumping faster and harder. The major sources of air pollution are transportation, industrial processes, stationary fuel combustion and solid waste disposal, thus much is yet to be done in a developing country like Nigeria. Air pollution control using pollution-control equipment to reduce the major conventional pollutants, relocating people who live very close to dumpsites, processing and treatment of gases to produce electricity, heat, fuel and various chemical components should be encouraged.

Keywords: ambient air, atmosphere, greenhouse gases, anambra state

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930 Rapid Assessment the Ability of Forest Vegetation in Kulonprogo to Store Carbon Using Multispectral Satellite Imagery and Vegetation Index

Authors: Ima Rahmawati, Nur Hafizul Kalam

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Development of industrial and economic sectors in various countries very rapidly caused raising the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere that make the surface temperature of the earth always increase. The increasing gases caused by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coals and also high rate of deforestation. Yogyakarta Special Province which every year always become tourist destination, has a great potency in increasing of greenhouse gas emissions mainly from the incomplete combustion. One of effort to reduce the concentration of gases in the atmosphere is keeping and empowering the existing forests in the Province of Yogyakarta, especially forest in Kulonprogro is to be maintained the greenness so that it can absorb and store carbon maximally. Remote sensing technology can be used to determine the ability of forests to absorb carbon and it is connected to the density of vegetation. The purpose of this study is to determine the density of the biomass of forest vegetation and determine the ability of forests to store carbon through Photo-interpretation and Geographic Information System approach. Remote sensing imagery that used in this study is LANDSAT 8 OLI year 2015 recording. LANDSAT 8 OLI imagery has 30 meters spatial resolution for multispectral bands and it can give general overview the condition of the carbon stored from every density of existing vegetation. The method is the transformation of vegetation index combined with allometric calculation of field data then doing regression analysis. The results are model maps of density and capability level of forest vegetation in Kulonprogro, Yogyakarta in storing carbon.

Keywords: remote sensing, carbon, kulonprogo, forest vegetation, vegetation index

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929 Alternative Systems of Drinking Water Supply Using Rainwater Harvesting for Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Emissions

Authors: Martin Mundo-Molina

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In Mexico, there are many small rural communities with serious water supply deficiencies. In Chiapas, Mexico, there are 19,972 poor rural communities, 15,712 of which have fewer than 100 inhabitants. The lack of a constant water supply is most severe in the highlands of Chiapas where the population is made up mainly of indigenous groups. The communities are on mountainous terrain with a widely dispersed population. These characteristics combine to make the provision of public utilities, such as water, electricity and sewerage, difficult with conventional means. The introduction of alternative, low-cost technologies represents means of supplying water such as through fog and rain catchment with zero greenhouse emissions. In this paper is presented the rainwater harvesting system (RWS) constructed in Yalentay, Chiapas Mexico. The RWS is able to store 1.2 M liters of water to provide drinking water to small rural indigenous communities of 500 people in the drought stage. Inside the system of rainwater harvesting there isn't photosynthesis in order to conserve water for long periods. The natural filters of the system of rainwater harvesting guarantee the drinking water for using to the community. The combination of potability and low cost makes rain collection a viable alternative for rural areas, weather permitting. The Mexican Institute of Water Technology and Chiapas University constructed a rainwater harvesting system in Yalentay Chiapas, it consists of four parts: 1. Roof of aluminum, for collecting rainwater, 2. Underground-cistern, divided in two tanks, 3. Filters, to improve the water quality and 4. The system of rainwater harvesting dignified the lives of people in Yalentay, saves energy, prevents the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, conserves natural resources such as water and air.

Keywords: appropriate technologies, climate change, greenhouse gases, rainwater harvesting

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928 Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Mohammed Sale Abubakar, Kabir Omar, Mohammed Umar Abba

Abstract:

The effects of climate change continue to ravage globe upsetting or even overturning the entire communities in its wake. It is therefore on the front burner of most global issues affecting the world today. Hardly any field of endeavor has escaped the manifestation of its effects. The effects of climate change on agricultural productivity calls for intense study because of the nexus between agriculture, global food security and provision of employment for the teaming population in sub-saharan Africa. This paper examines current challenges of climate change on agricultural productivity in this region. This challenge indicated that both long and short-term change in climate bring unpleasant repercussion on agricultural productivity as they manifest in the vulnerability of industrial work force. The paper also focused on the impact of agriculture and bio-environmental engineering as a separate entity that will help to fight these major challenges facing humanity currently associated with negative effects of climate change such as scarcity of water, declining agricultural yields, desert encroachment, and damage of coastal structures. Finally, a suggestion was put forward as an effort that should be directed towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change on our environment.

Keywords: climate change mitigation, desert encroachment, environment, global food security, greenhouse gases (GHGs)

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927 A Review on Nuclear Desalination Technology

Authors: Aiswarya C. L, Swatantra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

In recent years, most desalination plants have been powered by fossil fuels, and to a lesser extent, by green energy. Greenhouse gases emitted by fossil-fuelled plants significantly impact the global climate. So scientists are forced to develop a powerful energy source to protect the environment with greater sustainability due to climate change issues. Nuclear energy can supply much more fresh water than what is currently available. Furthermore, it is more affordable and does not emit any greenhouse gases. This review compares conventional desalination plants with nuclear-powered desalination plants in terms of cost, energy consumption, water recovery, and environmental issues. On the basis of the review conducted, nuclear desalination has been demonstrated to be technically feasible and economically competitive with a variety of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, and waste heat sources. Nuclear sources have been criticized due to their lack of safety. But studies show, if we were able to handle the issue with care, the problems could be eliminated. Here we're looking at the Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant (SWROP) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu, India and review the further possibility of implementing nuclear desalination technology in other states of India.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental impacts, nuclear desalination, water recovery

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926 The Development and Testing of Greenhouse Comprehensive Environment Control System

Authors: Mohammed Alrefaie, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

Greenhouses provide a convenient means to grow plants in the best environment. They achieve this by trapping heat from the sunlight and using artificial means to enhance the environment of the greenhouse. This includes controlling factors such as air flow, light intensity and amount of water among others that can have a big impact on plant growth. The aim of the greenhouse is to give maximum yield from plants possible. This report details the development and testing of greenhouse environment control system that can regulate light intensity, airflow and power supply inside the greenhouse. The details of the module development to control these three factors along with results of testing are presented.

Keywords: greenhouse, control system, light intensity, comprehensive environment

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925 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel

Abstract:

Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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924 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira

Abstract:

Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

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923 Application of Alumina-Aerogel in Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey

Abstract:

Dependence of global economics on fossil fuels has led to a large growth in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Among the various GHGs, carbon dioxide is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect due to its huge emission amount. To mitigate the threatening effect of CO₂, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies have been studied widely in recent years. For the combustion processes, three main CO₂ capture techniques have been proposed such as post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. Post-combustion is the most commonly used CO₂ capture process as it can be readily retrofit into the existing power plants. Multiple advantages have been reported for the post-combustion by solid sorbents such as high CO₂ selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and low required regeneration energy. Chemical adsorption of CO₂ over alkali-metal-based solid sorbents such as K₂CO₃ is a promising method for the selective capture of diluted CO₂ from the huge amount of nitrogen existing in the flue gas. To improve the CO₂ capture performance, K₂CO₃ is supported by a stable and porous material. Al₂O₃ has been employed commonly as the support and enhanced the cyclic CO₂ capture efficiency of K₂CO₃. Different phases of alumina can be obtained by setting the calcination temperature of boehmite at 300, 600 (γ-alumina), 950 (δ-alumina) and 1200 °C (α-alumina). By increasing the calcination temperature, the regeneration capacity of alumina increases, while the surface area reduces. However, sorbents with lower surface areas have lower CO₂ capture capacity as well (except for the sorbents prepared by hydrophilic support materials). To resolve this issue, a highly efficient alumina-aerogel support was synthesized with a BET surface area of over 2000 m²/g and then calcined at a high temperature. The synthesized alumina-aerogel was impregnated on K₂CO₃ based on 50 wt% support/K₂CO₃, which resulted in the preparation of a sorbent with remarkable CO₂ capture performance. The effect of synthesis conditions such as types of alcohols, solvent-to-co-solvent ratios, and aging times was investigated on the performance of the support. The best support was synthesized using methanol as the solvent, after five days of aging time, and at a solvent-to-co-solvent (methanol-to-toluene) ratio (v/v) of 1/5. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of operating parameters such as carbonation temperature and H₂O-to-CO₂ flowrate ratio on the CO₂ capture capacity. The maximum CO₂ capture capacity, at the optimum amounts of operating parameters, was 7.2 mmol CO₂ per gram K₂CO₃. Cyclic behavior of the sorbent was examined over 20 carbonation and regenerations cycles. The alumina-aerogel-supported K₂CO₃ showed a great performance compared to unsupported K₂CO₃ and γ-alumina-supported K₂CO₃. Fundamental performance analyses and long-term thermal and chemical stability test will be performed on the sorbent in the future. The applicability of the sorbent for a bench-scale process will be evaluated, and a corresponding process model will be established. The fundamental material knowledge and respective process development will be delivered to industrial partners for the design of a pilot-scale testing unit, thereby facilitating the industrial application of alumina-aerogel.

Keywords: alumina-aerogel, CO₂ capture, K₂CO₃, optimization

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922 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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921 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

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Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

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920 Exploring the Association between Risks Emerging from Climate Change Scenarios and the Built Environment

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Abdel Halim Boussabaine

Abstract:

There is an international consensus on the climate change in the entire world and this is as a result of the combination of the natural factors, such as volcanoes and hurricanes with increased of human activity on the earth, such as industrial renaissance. Where this solidarity increases emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs that considered as the main driver of climate change scenarios and related emerging risks and impacts on buildings. These climatic risks including damages, disruption and disquiet are set to increase and it is considered as the main challenges and difficulties facing built environment due to major implications on assets sector. Consequently, the threat from climate change patterns has a significant impact on a variety of complex human decisions, which affect all aspects of living. Understanding the relationship between buildings and such risks arising from climate change scenarios on buildings are the key in insuring the optimal timing and design of policies and systems, which affect all aspects of the built environment. This paper will uncovering this correlation between emerging climate change risks and the building assets. In addition, how these emerging risks can be classified in practical way in terms of their impact type on buildings. Hence, this mapping will assist professionals and interested parties in the building sector to cope with such risks in several systematic ways including development and designing of mitigation and adaptation strategies and processes of design, specification, construction, and operation; all these leads to successful management of assets.

Keywords: climate change, climate change risks, built environment, building sector, impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
919 The Climate Impact Due to Clouds and Selected Greenhouse Gases by Short Wave Upwelling Radiative Flux within Spectral Range of Space-Orbiting Argus1000 Micro-Spectrometer

Authors: Rehan Siddiqui, Brendan Quine

Abstract:

The Radiance Enhancement (RE) and integrated absorption technique is applied to develop a synthetic model to determine the enhancement in radiance due to cloud scene and Shortwave upwelling Radiances (SHupR) by O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4. This new model is used to estimate the magnitude variation for RE and SHupR over spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by varying surface altitude, mixing ratios and surface reflectivity. In this work, we employ satellite real observation of space orbiting Argus 1000 especially for O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 together with synthetic model by using line by line GENSPECT radiative transfer model. All the radiative transfer simulations have been performed by varying over a different range of percentages of water vapor contents and carbon dioxide with the fixed concentration oxygen and methane. We calculate and compare both the synthetic and real measured observed data set of different week per pass of Argus flight. Results are found to be comparable for both approaches, after allowing for the differences with the real and synthetic technique. The methodology based on RE and SHupR of the space spectral data can be promising for the instant and reliable classification of the cloud scenes.

Keywords: radiance enhancement, radiative transfer, shortwave upwelling radiative flux, cloud reflectivity, greenhouse gases

Procedia PDF Downloads 261