Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: abattoir

20 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: abattoir, foetal loss, season, species

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19 Studies on Anaemia in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) Brought for Slaughter at Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Y. S. Baraya, B. Umar, A. Aliyu, A. A. Raji, K. A. N. Esievo

Abstract:

This study was performed to determine the presence of anaemia in randomly selected apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter at the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria. The camels were derived from both sexes, different age groups, functional usages and kept at various localities within and outside Sokoto town. In the study area, studies involving camels were limited in particular the emphasis on the anaemic status of camels brought daily for human consumption. A total of eighty (80) blood samples were collected once a week from these camels within the period of eight (8) weeks to investigate the haematological variations especially packed cell volume (PCV). The PCV analysis revealed anaemia in more than fifty (50) % of the camels studied. However, the actual cause of the anaemia was not investigated but could be caused by infectious agent like protozoan parasite Trypanosoma specie and non-infectious cause such as nutritional deficiency. The PCV examination as a simple, inexpensive and reliable procedure could be part of the routine ante-mortem assessment to evaluate camels for the existence of anaemia since many of the causes of anaemia besides being affecting the meat quality could also be of zoonotic significance.

Keywords: anaemia, camels, packed cell volume, Sokoto abattoir

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18 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Devendra Saroj, Judy Lee

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: abattoir wastewater, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, water disinfection

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17 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj

Abstract:

Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: abattoir waste water, activated sludge, ozone, waste water treatment

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16 Risk-Based Regulation as a Model of Control in the South African Meat Industry

Authors: R. Govender, T. C. Katsande, E. Madoroba, N. M. Thiebaut, D. Naidoo

Abstract:

South African control over meat safety is managed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Veterinary services department in each of the nine provinces in the country is tasked with overseeing the farm and abattoir segments of the meat supply chain. Abattoirs are privately owned. The number of abattoirs over the years has increased. This increase has placed constraints on government resources required to monitor these abattoirs. This paper presents empirical research results on the hygienic processing of meat in high and low throughout abattoirs. This paper presents a case for the adoption of risk-based regulation as a method of government control over hygiene and safe meat processing at abattoirs in South Africa. Recommendations are made to the DAFF regarding policy considerations on risk-based regulation as a model of control in South Africa.

Keywords: risk-based regulation, abattoir, food control, meat safety

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15 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti

Abstract:

This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388 cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: abattoir, aerosol, bacterial composition, environment

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14 Status of Physical, Chemical and Biological Attributes of Isheri, Ogun River, in Relation to the Surrounding Anthropogenic Activities of Kara Abattoir, South West Nigeria

Authors: N. B. Ikenweiwe, A. A. Alimi, N. A. Bamidele, A. O. Ewumi, J. Dairo, I. A. Akinnubi, S. O. Otubusin

Abstract:

A study on the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the lower course of Ogun River, Isheri-Olofin was carried out between January and December 2014 in order to determine the effects of the anthropogenic activities of the Kara abattoir and domestic waste depositions on the quality of the water. Water samples were taken twice each month at three selected stations A, B and C (based on characteristic features or activity levels) along the water course. Samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical and biological parameters the same day in the laboratory while physical parameters were determined in-situ with water parameters kit. Generally, results of Transparency, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrates, TDS and Alkalinity fall below the permissible limits of WHO and FEPA standards for drinking and fish production. Results of phosphates, lead and cadmium were also low but still within the permissible limit. Only Temperature and pH were within limit. Low plankton community, (phytoplankton, zooplankton), which ranges from 3, 5 to 40, 23 were as a result of low levels of DO, transparency and phosphate. The presence of coliform bacteria of public health importance like Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas sp., Shigella sp, Enterobacter aerogenes as well as gram negative bacteria Proteus morganii are mainly indicators of faecal pollution. Fish and other resources obtained from this water stand the risk of being contaminated with these organisms and man is at the receiving end. The results of the physical, chemical and some biological parameters of Isheri, Ogun River, according to this study showed that the live forms of aquatic and fisheries resources there are dwelling under stress as a result of deposition of bones, horns, faecal components, slurry of suspended solids, fat and blood into the water. Government should therefore establish good monitoring system against illegal waste depositions and create education programmes that will enlighten the community on the social, ecological and economic values of the river.

Keywords: water parameters, Isheri Ogun river, anthropogenic activities, Kara abattoir

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13 Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of the Heavy Metal Contaminant in Surface Soils around Effurun Market

Authors: A. O. Ogunkeyede, D. Amuchi, A. A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Heavy metal contaminations in soil have received great attention. Anthropogenic activities such as vehicular emission, industrial activities and constructions have resulted in elevated concentration of heavy metals in the surface soils. The metal particles can be free from the surface soil when they are disturbed and re-entrained in air, which necessitated the need to investigate surface soil at market environment where adults and children are present on daily basis. This study assesses concentration of heavy metal pollution, ecological and health risk factors in surface soil at Effurun market. 8 samples were collected at household material (EMH), fish (EMFs), fish and commodities (EMF-C), Abattoir (EMA 1 & 2), fruit sections (EMF 1 & 2) and lastly main road (EMMR). The samples were digested and analyzed in triplicate for contents of Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu). The mean concentration of the Pb mg/kg (112.27 ± 1.12) and Cu mg/kg (156.14 ± 1.10) were highest in the abattoir section (EMA 1). The mean concentrations of the heavy metal were then used to calculate the ecological and health risk for people within the market. Pb contamination at EMMR, EMF 2, EMFs were moderately while Pb shows considerable contamination at EMH, EMA 1, EMA 2 and EMF-C sections of the Effurun market. The ecological risk factor varies between low to moderate pollution for Pb and EMA 1 has the highest potential ecological risk that falls within moderate pollution. The hazard quotient results show that dermal exposure pathway is the possible means of heavy metal exposure to the traders while ingestion is the least sources of exposure to adult. The ingestion suggested that children around the EMA 1 have the highest possible exposure to children due to hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth behaviour. The results further show that adults at the EMA1 will have the highest exposure to Pb due to inhalation during burning of cow with tyre that contained Pb and Cu. The carcinogenic risk values of most sections were higher than acceptable values, while Ni at EMMR, EMF 1 & 2, EMFs and EMF-C sections that were below the acceptable values. The cancer risk for inhalation exposure pathway for Pb (1.01E+17) shows a significant level of contamination than all the other sections of the market. It suggested that the people working at the Abattoir were very prone to cancer risk.

Keywords: carcinogenic, ecological, heavy metal, risk

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12 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

Abstract:

The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

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11 Survey of Campylobacter Contamination in Poultry Meat and By-Products in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Ali Bagherpour, Masoud Soltanialvar

Abstract:

Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis which are generally transmitted through foods of animal origin. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in poultry meat and by products in the city of Dezful in Iran. Since April 2012 to July 2013, a total of 400 samples including meat (n = 100), liver (n = 100), gizzard (n = 100), and poultry heart (n = 100), were randomly collected from Dezful industrial poultry abattoir and were experimented in order to investigate presence of Campylobacter species. According to culture test, 251 samples out of 400 samples under study (69%) were contaminated with Campylobacter species. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter species was observed in poultry's liver (78.3%) and then in gizzard (75.8%), heart (65%) and meat (56.7%). The most common isolated Campylobacter were C. jejuni (90.9%) and the rest were C. coli (9.1%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of Campylobacter species between the meat samples taken in the summer (86.7%). The results of this study indicate the importance of edible offal of poultries as the potential source of Campylobacter infections.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, poultry, meat, products

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10 Macroscopic Study of Reproductive Pathologies in Cows at the Souk-Ahras Communal Slaughterhouse

Authors: Besma Abdeltif, Chebabhi Imen

Abstract:

Introduction: it is important to define the genital pathologies encountered in Algeria in postpartum dairy cows. The objective was to identify the different pathologies of reproduction in cows found at the communal abattoir of Souk Ahras. Materials and Methods: Our study was carried at the communal slaughterhouse of Souk-Ahras on 63 genital tracts were examined macroscopically after slaughter. Results: The results obtained reveal a high frequency of pregnant females (14.28%), most of the gestations were at their beginning. Uterine anomalies ranked first in the genital lesions of the cow (20.37%). The frequencies of these abnormalities are in ascending order: aplasia of the horns = 1.85%, traumatic cervical = 1.85%, cervical tumors = 1.85%, chronic endometritis = 3.70% and Acute endometritis = 11.11%. The ovarian cyst is the most common lesion, with a frequency of 3.70%, followed by smooth ovaries (1.85%). These are single, thin-walled cysts more present on the right ovary than the left ovary. Salpingitis is the only tubal lesion found on 5.55% of the non-pregnant genital tract. Neoformation is the only vaginal lesion identified in this work (1.85%). Conclusion: Our result, in general, conforms to the data of the literature.

Keywords: genital tract, cow, slaughterhouse, pathology

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9 An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lesions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in the Semnan slaughter house, Northern East of Iran. In this study, 40 carcasses out of 150 randomly selected carcasses inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from the livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routine histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques. In histopathological examination of hepatic tissues, following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%. It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were hydatid cysts and Hepatic abscess respectively.

Keywords: camel, liver, lesion, pathology, slaughterhouse

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8 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide

Abstract:

This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: biomedical, composites, cow bone, mechanical properties, polyester, reinforcement

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7 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu

Abstract:

Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: citric acid, cloves, smoked meat, bioengineering

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6 Diversities, Antibiogram and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat from a Research Farm

Authors: Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro, Thor Axel Stenstrom

Abstract:

A study to investigate the species diversities, antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from raw meat and dairy products collected from an abattoir and a farm shop of a research institute in Irene, South Africa over a six-month period was conducted. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to speciate the bacteria and to detect the presence and otherwise of resistance genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. A total of twenty-six (26) antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. S. xylosus was the predominant isolate with 30% total occurrence, followed by S. epidermis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus with 25%, 15%, 15%, and 10% abundance respectively. The isolates were resistant to ceftezidime, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nortrafuration, ampicillin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin and lincomycin. mecA genes was detected among the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species (MRSS) but no vancomycin resistance genes (van A and van B) were detected in these isolates. The presence of MRSS and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus species in meat affirms the need to avoid consumption of partially cooked meat currently rampant in South Africa, to avoid the spread of difficult to control pathogens in epidemiological proportion.

Keywords: Staphylococcus species, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, food products, methicillin resistance, mecA gene

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5 Detection of Leptospira interrogans in Kidney and Urine of water Buffalo and its Relationship with Histopathological and Serological Findings

Authors: M. R. Haji Hajikolaei, A. A. Nikvand, A. R. Ghadrdan, M. Ghorbanpoor, B. Mohammadian

Abstract:

This study was carried out on water buffalo for detection of Leptospira interrogans in kidney and urine and its relationship with serological findings. Blood, urine and kidney samples were taken immediately after slaughter from 353 water buffalos at Ahvaz abattoir in Khouzestan province, Iran. Sera were initially screened at serum dilution of 1:100 against seven live antigens of Leptospira interrogans: pomona, hardjo, ballum, icterohemorrhagiae, tarasovi, australis and grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial twofold dilution from 1:100 to 1:800. The samples of kidney were embedded in paraffin wax and 5µm thick sections were stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was done on urine and kidney by using LipL32 gene primers. Antibodies against one or more serovars at dilution >:100 were detected in sera. The most frequent reactor was hardjo (56.2%), followed by pomona (52.3%), australis (9.8%), tarassovi (5.9%), grippotyphosa (4.5%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (3.9%). The L. interrogans were detected in 43 (12.2%) of examined buffaloes, so that 26 (8.2%) of kidney tissues, 14 (4.8%) of urine samples separately and 3 (0.84%) of both kidney and urine samples were positive in PCR. From 153 (43.3%) buffaloes with positive MAT, 24 cases were positive by PCR of kidney and/or urine samples, synchronously. Renal lesions such as interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), pyelonephritis, glomerolonephritis, renal fibrosis and hydronephrosis were found in 128 (36.3%) cases. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between results of MAT, PCR and interstitial nephritis.

Keywords: leptospiral infection, PCR, MAT, histopathology, river buffalo

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4 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: enterobacteriaceae, antibiotic-resistance, MALDI-TOF, resistance genes, MARP, MARI, public health

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3 Human Activities Damaging the Ecosystem of Isheri Ogun River, South West Nigeria

Authors: N. B. Ikenweiwe, A. A. Alimi, N. A. Bamidele, O. A. Ewumi, K. Fasina, S. O. Otubusin

Abstract:

A study on the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the lower course of Ogun River, Isheri-Olofin was carried out between January and December 2014 in order to determine the effects of the anthropogenic activities of the Kara abattoir and domestic waste depositions on the quality of the water. Water samples were taken twice each month at three selected stations A, B and C (based on characteristic features or activity levels) along the water course. Samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical and biological parameters the same day in the laboratory while physical parameters were determined in-situ with water parameters kit. Generally, results of Transparency, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrates, TDS and Alkalinity fall below the permissible limits of WHO and FEPA standards for drinking and fish production. Results of phosphates, lead and cadmium were also low but still within the permissible limit. Only Temperature and pH were within limit. Low plankton community, (phytoplankton, zooplankton), which ranges from 3, 5 to 40, 23 were as a result of low levels of DO, transparency and phosphate. The presence of coliform bacteria of public health importance like Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas sp., Shigella sp, Enterobacter aerogenes as well as gram negative bacteria Proteus morganii are mainly indicators of faecal pollution. Fish and other resources obtained from this water stand the risk of being contaminated with these organisms and man is at the receiving end. The results of the physical, chemical and some biological parameters of Isheri, Ogun River, according to this study showed that the live forms of aquatic and fisheries resources there are dwelling under stress as a result of deposition of bones, horns, faecal components, slurry of suspended solids, fat and blood into the water. Government should therefore establish good monitoring system against illegal waste depositions and create education programmes that will enlighten the community on the social, ecological and economic values of the river.

Keywords: damage, ecosystem, human activities, Isheri ogun river

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
2 Ultrastructural Study of Surface Topography of Trematode Parasites of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India

Authors: Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis diseases have been prevalent due to presence of trematode parasites in the rumen and liver of domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India. The trematode parasites such as Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Orthocoelium scoliocoelium, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were collected from infected rumen and liver of the freshly slaughtered buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. Live trematodes were washed in normal saline, fixed in 0.2M cacodylate fixative, post fixed in osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated, dried, coated with gold sputter and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The surface tegument of Paramphistomum cervi was spineless with transverse folds, discontinuous with ridges and grooves. Two types of sensory papillae such as knob like and button shaped were also observed. The oral opening of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was surrounded by wrinkled and ridged tegument which formed concentric elevated rings. Tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum in acetabulum region was observed to be rough and bee-comb like structure. Genital sucker of this worm was surrounded by a tyre- shaped elevation of the tegument. Orthocoelium scoliocoelium showed circular and concentric rings of tegumental folds around the oral sucker. Genital pore had knob like papillae with radial tegumental folds. Surface topography of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were found to be rough due to occurrence of different types of spines, three types of sensory papillae, transverse folds and grooves. Oral and ventral suckers were spineless and covered with thick rims of transverse folds. Genital pore showed small scattered spines. Present research work would provide knowledge for ultrastructural characteristics of trematode parasites for chemotherapeutic measures and help us to evolve suitable strategy for the eradication of trematode parasites from the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

Keywords: Domestic buffalo, tegument, trematode parasites, ultrastructure

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1 A Multiple Freezing/Thawing Cycles Influence Internal Structure and Mechanical Properties of Achilles Tendon

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Natalia Grzechnik, Joanna Karbowniczek, Urszula Stachewicz, Andrzej Mlyniec

Abstract:

Tendon grafting is a common procedure performed to treat tendon rupture. Before the surgical procedure, tissues intended for grafts (i.e., Achilles tendon) are stored in ultra-low temperatures for a long time and also may be subjected to unfavorable conditions, such as repetitive freezing (F) and thawing (T). Such storage protocols may highly influence the graft mechanical properties, decrease its functionality and thus increase the risk of complications during the transplant procedure. The literature reports on the influence of multiple F/T cycles on internal structure and mechanical properties of tendons stay inconclusive, confirming and denying the negative influence of multiple F/T at the same time. An inconsistent research methodology and lack of clear limit of F/T cycles, which disqualifies tissue for surgical graft purposes, encouraged us to investigate the issue of multiple F/T cycles by the mean of biomechanical tensile tests supported with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging. The study was conducted on male bovine Achilles tendon-derived from the local abattoir. Fresh tendons were cleaned of excessive membranes and then sectioned to obtained fascicle bundles. Collected samples were randomly assigned to 6 groups subjected to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 cycles of freezing-thawing (F/T), respectively. Each F/T cycle included deep freezing at -80°C temperature, followed by thawing at room temperature. After final thawing, thin slices of the side part of samples subjected to 1, 4, 8 and 12 F/T cycles were collected for SEM imaging. Then, the width and thickness of all samples were measured to calculate the cross-sectional area. Biomechanical tests were performed using the universal testing machine (model Instron 8872, INSTRON®, Norwood, Massachusetts, USA) using a load cell with a maximum capacity of 250 kN and standard atmospheric conditions. Both ends of each fascicle bundle were manually clamped in grasping clamps using abrasive paper and wet cellulose wadding swabs to prevent tissue slipping while clamping and testing. Samples were subjected to the testing procedure including pre-loading, pre-cycling, loading, holding and unloading steps to obtain stress-strain curves for representing tendon stretching and relaxation. The stiffness of AT fascicles bundle samples was evaluated in terms of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), calculated from the slope of the linear region of stress-strain curves. SEM imaging was preceded by chemical sample preparation including 24hr fixation in 3% glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.1 M phosphate buffer, washing with 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and dehydration in a graded ethanol solution. SEM images (Merlin Gemini II microscope, ZEISS®) were taken using 30 000x mag, which allowed measuring a diameter of collagen fibrils. The results confirm a decrease in fascicle bundles Young’s modulus as well as a decrease in the diameter of collagen fibrils. These results confirm the negative influence of multiple F/T cycles on the mechanical properties of tendon tissue.

Keywords: biomechanics, collagen, fascicle bundles, soft tissue

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