Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: Kashif Habib

122 Optimal Planning and Design of Hybrid Energy System for Taxila University

Authors: Habib Ur Rahman Habib

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources are being realized as suitable options in hybrid energy planning for on-grid and micro grid. In this paper, operation, planning and optimal design of on-grid distributed energy resources based hybrid system are investigated. The aim is to minimize the cost of the overall energy system keeping in view the environmental emission and minimum penetration of conventional energy resources. Seven grid connected different case studies including diesel only, diesel-renewable based, and renewable based only are designed to perform economic analysis, operational planning and emission. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate the impact of different parameters on the performance of energy resources.

Keywords: data management, renewable energy, distributed energy, smart grid, micro-grid, modeling, energy planning, design optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
121 Control Algorithm Design of Single-Phase Inverter For ZnO Breakdown Characteristics Tests

Authors: Kashif Habib, Zeeshan Ayyub

Abstract:

ZnO voltage dependent resistor was widely used as components of the electrical system for over-voltage protection. It has a wide application prospect in superconducting energy-removal, generator de-excitation, overvoltage protection of electrical & electronics equipment. At present, the research for the application of ZnO voltage dependent resistor stop, it uses just in the field of its nonlinear voltage current characteristic and overvoltage protection areas. There is no further study over the over-voltage breakdown characteristics, such as the combustion phenomena and the measure of the voltage/current when it breakdown, and the affect to its surrounding equipment. It is also a blind spot in its application. So, when we do the feature test of ZnO voltage dependent resistor, we need to design a reasonable test power supply, making the terminal voltage keep for sine wave, simulating the real use of PF voltage in power supply conditions. We put forward the solutions of using inverter to generate a controllable power. The paper mainly focuses on the breakdown characteristic test power supply of nonlinear ZnO voltage dependent resistor. According to the current mature switching power supply technology, we proposed power control system using the inverter as the core. The power mainly realize the sin-voltage output on the condition of three-phase PF-AC input, and 3 control modes (RMS, Peak, Average) of the current output. We choose TMS320F2812M as the control part of the hardware platform. It is used to convert the power from three-phase to a controlled single-phase sin-voltage through a rectifier, filter, and inverter. Design controller produce SPWM, to get the controlled voltage source via appropriate multi-loop control strategy, while execute data acquisition and display, system protection, start logic control, etc. The TMS320F2812M is able to complete the multi-loop control quickly and can be a good completion of the inverter output control.

Keywords: ZnO, multi-loop control, SPWM, non-linear load

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120 End to End Monitoring in Oracle Fusion Middleware for Data Verification

Authors: Syed Kashif Ali, Usman Javaid, Abdullah Chohan

Abstract:

In large enterprises multiple departments use different sort of information systems and databases according to their needs. These systems are independent and heterogeneous in nature and sharing information/data between these systems is not an easy task. The usage of middleware technologies have made data sharing between systems very easy. However, monitoring the exchange of data/information for verification purposes between target and source systems is often complex or impossible for maintenance department due to security/access privileges on target and source systems. In this paper, we are intended to present our experience of an end to end data monitoring approach at middle ware level implemented in Oracle BPEL for data verification without any help of monitoring tool.

Keywords: service level agreement, SOA, BPEL, oracle fusion middleware, web service monitoring

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119 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

Abstract:

Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometer, chromium, copper, heavy metal

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118 Mobile Payment over NFC: The M-Check System Case

Authors: Karima Maazouz, Habib Benlahmer, Naceur Achtaich

Abstract:

The realization of mobile payments will make possible new and unforeseen ways of convenience and m-commerce. Mobile payment today benefit from technology and trends. NFC technology is creating a new era of contactless mobile payment. the “M-check” is a mobile payment system provides a new way facilitating transaction with high valued payment and enable new m-commerce. The objective of the paper is to propose a new solution for m-payment. The proposed combination of m-check system and NFC offers acceptable security for payment mobile, client’s satisfaction, and simplifies the process payment between clients and merchants.

Keywords: M-payment, NFC, M-check, M-commerce, security

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117 Variation of Inductance in a Switched-Reluctance Motor under Various Rotor Faults

Authors: Muhammad Asghar Saqib, Saad Saleem Khan, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Abstract:

In order to have higher efficiency, performance and reliability the regular monitoring of an electrical motor is required. This article presents a novel view of the air-gap magnetic field analysis of a switched reluctance motor under rotor cracks and rotor tilt along its shaft axis. The fault diagnosis is illustrated on the basis of a 3-D model of the motor using finite element analysis (FEA). The analytical equations of flux linkages have been used to determine the inductance. The results of the 3-D finite element analysis on a 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM) shows the variation of mutual inductance with the tilting of the rotor shaft and cracked rotor conditions. These results present useful information regarding the detection of shaft tilting and cracked rotors.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, finite element analysis, cracked rotor, 3-D modelling of a srm

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116 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu

Abstract:

Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.

Keywords: spin flop transition, torque magnetometry, magnetization, anisotropic

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115 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

Abstract:

In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

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114 Fuzzy Gauge Capability (Cg and Cgk) through Buckley Approach

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohsen Sadegh Amalnick

Abstract:

Different terms of the statistical process control (SPC) has sketch in the fuzzy environment. However, measurement system analysis (MSA), as a main branch of the SPC, is rarely investigated in fuzzy area. This procedure assesses the suitability of the data to be used in later stages or decisions of the SPC. Therefore, this research focuses on some important measures of MSA and through a new method introduces the measures in fuzzy environment. In this method, which works based on Buckley approach, imprecision and vagueness nature of the real world measurement are considered simultaneously. To do so, fuzzy version of the gauge capability (Cg and Cgk) are introduced. The method is also explained through example clearly.

Keywords: measurement, SPC, MSA, gauge capability (Cg and Cgk)

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113 Challenges and Opportunities of Cloud-Based E-Learning Systems

Authors: Kashif Laeeq, Zubair A. Shaikh

Abstract:

The paradigm of education is drastically changing from conventional to e-learning model. Due to ease of learning with various other benefits, several educational institutions are adopting the e-learning models. Some institutions are still willing to transform their educational system on to e-learning, but due to limited resources, they are still compromising on the old traditional system. The cloud computing could be one of the best solutions to overcome this problem by providing hardware, software, and infrastructure resources with cost efficient manner. The adoption of cloud computing in education will bring revolution in this paradigm. This paper introduces various positive features of e-learning and presents a way how cloud computing technology can be provisioned e-learning model. This paper also investigates the numerous challenges and opportunities that would be observed in cloud computing adoption in e-learning domain. The concept and knowledge present in this paper may create a new direction of research in the domain of cloud-based e-learning.

Keywords: cloud-based e-learning, e-learning, cloud computing application, smart learning

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112 Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Ni-Cr and Zr Alloys in Supercritical Water Reactors

Authors: Igor Svishchev, Kashif Choudhry

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Progress in advanced energy technologies is not feasible without understanding how engineering materials perform under extreme environmental conditions. The corrosion behaviour of Fe-Ni-Cr and Zr alloys has been systematically examined under high-temperature and supercritical water flow conditions. The changes in elemental release rate and dissolved gas concentration provide valuable insights into the mechanism of passivation by forming oxide films. A non-intrusive method for monitoring the extent of surface oxidation based on hydrogen release rate has been developed. This approach can be used for the on-line monitoring corrosion behavior of reactor materials without the need to interrupt the flow and remove corrosion coupons. Surface catalysed thermochemical reactions may generate sufficient hydrogen to have an effect on the accumulation of oxidizing species generated by radiolytic processes in the heat transport systems of the supercritical water cooled nuclear reactor.

Keywords: high-temperature corrosion, non-intrusive monitoring, reactor materials, supercritical water

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111 Location Quotient Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohamad Hasan Sadeghpour, Parsa Fallah Sheikhlari

Abstract:

Location quotient (LQ) is a comparison technique that represents emphasized economic structure of single zone versus the standard area to identify specialty for every zone. In another words, the exact calculation of this metric can show the main core competencies and critical capabilities of an area to the decision makers. This research focus on the exact calculation of the LQ for an Iranian Province called Qazvin and within a case study introduces LQ of the capable industries of Qazvin. Finally, through different graphs and tables, it creates an opportunity to compare the recognized capabilities.

Keywords: location quotient, case study, province analysis, core competency

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110 A Two Phase VNS Algorithm for the Combined Production Routing Problem

Authors: Nejah Ben Mabrouk, Bassem Jarboui, Habib Chabchoub

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Production and distribution planning is the most important part in supply chain management. In this paper, a NP-hard production-distribution problem for one product over a multi-period horizon is investigated. The aim is to minimize the sum of costs of three items: production setups, inventories and distribution, while determining, for each period, the amount produced, the inventory levels and the delivery trips. To solve this difficult problem, we propose a bi-phase approach based on a Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS). This heuristic is tested on 90 randomly generated instances from the literature, with 20 periods and 50, 100, 200 customers. Computational results show that our approach outperforms existing solution procedures available in the literature

Keywords: logistic, production, distribution, variable neighbourhood search

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109 Both Floristic Studies and Molecular Markers Are Necessary to Study of the Flora of a Region

Authors: Somayeh Akrami, Vali-Allah Mozaffarian, Habib Onsori

Abstract:

The studied region in this research, watershed Kuhkamar river, is about 112.66 square kilometers, it is located between 45º 48' 9" to 45º 2' 20" N and 38º 34' 15" to 38º 40' 28" E. The gained results of the studies on flora combinations, proved 287 plant species in 190 genera and 51 families. Asteracea with 49 and Lamiaceae with 27 plant species are the major plant families. Among collected species one interesting plant was found and determined as a new record Anemone narcissiflora L. for flora of Iran. This plant is known as a complex species that shows intraspecific speciation and is classified into about 12 subspecies and 10 varieties in world. To identify the infraspecies taxons of this species, in addition to morphological characteristics, the use of appropriate molecular markers for the better isolation of the individuals were needed.

Keywords: Anemone narcissiflora, floristic Study, kuhkamar, molecular marker

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108 Modeling of Hydrogen Production by Inductively Coupled Methane Plasma for Input Power Pin=700W

Authors: Abdelatif Gadoum, Djilali Benyoucef, Mouloudj Hadj, Alla Eddine Toubal Maamar, Mohamed Habib Allah Lahoual

Abstract:

Hydrogen occurs naturally in the form of chemical compounds, most often in water and hydrocarbons. The main objective of this study is 2D modeling of hydrogen production in inductively coupled plasma in methane at low pressure. In the present model, we include the motions and the collisions of both neutral and charged particles by considering 19 species (i.e in total ; neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), and more than 120 reactions (electron impact with methane, neutral-neutral, neutral-ions and surface reactions). The results show that the rate conversion of methane reach 90% and the hydrogen production is about 30%.

Keywords: hydrogen production, inductively coupled plasma, fluid model, methane plasma

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107 Transverse Testicular Ectopia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Authors: Rida Ahmad, Areej S. Habib, Sohail A. Dogar, Saqib H. Qazi

Abstract:

Transverse testicular ectopia is a rare congenital disorder involving mal descent and mal-positioning of the testes, reported in the medical literature about 300 times. Many theories attempt to explain the failure of the testes to migrate to their correct location. While the age at presentation can vary; most cases present in early adolescents or late adulthood. It is often an incidental discovery made during an operative intervention, most commonly during hernia exploration. It can be isolated or present with a plethora of anomalies. We present the case of a 2-year-old male with transverse testicular ectopia who presented with vague abdominal pain. He was managed successfully with the Modified Ombredanne procedure and good outcome 6 months after the procedure.

Keywords: cryptorchidism, persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia, testicular mal-descent

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
106 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

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105 Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation Sources for Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement by Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Babar, Amer Kashif, Muhammad Rizwan Javed

Abstract:

Nowadays distributed generation integration is best way to overcome the increasing load demand. Optimal allocation of distributed generation plays a vital role in reducing system losses and improves voltage profile. In this paper, a Meta heuristic technique is proposed for allocation of DG in order to reduce power losses and improve voltage profile. The proposed technique is based on Multi Objective Particle Swarm optimization. Fewer control parameters are needed in this algorithm. Modification is made in search space of PSO. The effectiveness of proposed technique is tested on IEEE 33 bus test system. Single DG as well as multiple DG scenario is adopted for proposed method. Proposed method is more effective as compared to other Meta heuristic techniques and gives better results regarding system losses and voltage profile.

Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), IEEE standard Test System

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104 Dynamic Modeling of Orthotropic Cracked Materials by X-FEM

Authors: S. Houcine Habib, B. Elkhalil Hachi, Mohamed Guesmi, Mohamed Haboussi

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In this paper, dynamic fracture behaviors of cracked orthotropic structure are modeled using extended finite element method (X-FEM). In this approach, the finite element method model is first created and then enriched by special orthotropic crack tip enrichments and Heaviside functions in the framework of partition of unity. The mixed mode stress intensity factor (SIF) is computed using the interaction integral technique based on J-integral in order to predict cracking behavior of the structure. The developments of these procedures are programmed and introduced in a self-software platform code. To assess the accuracy of the developed code, results obtained by the proposed method are compared with those of literature.

Keywords: X-FEM, composites, stress intensity factor, crack, dynamic orthotropic behavior

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103 The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence

Authors: Amira Khelil, Habib Affes

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The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: collective competence, exploitation learning, exploration learning, knowledge management, organizational learning capabilities

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102 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

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101 The Impact of Malicious Attacks on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Habib Gorine, Rabia Saleh

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Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks are the special type of wireless networks which share common security requirements with other networks such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and availability, which need to be addressed in order to secure data transfer through the network. Their routing protocols are vulnerable to various malicious attacks which could have a devastating consequence on data security. In this paper, three types of attacks such as selfish, gray hole, and black hole attacks have been applied to the two most important routing protocols in MANET named dynamic source routing and ad-hoc on demand distance vector in order to analyse and compare the impact of these attacks on the Network performance in terms of throughput, average delay, packet loss, and consumption of energy using NS2 simulator.

Keywords: MANET, wireless networks, routing protocols, malicious attacks, wireless networks simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
100 Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Various Isolates from Different Places

Authors: Kiran Fatima, Kashif Ali

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Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human as well as animal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases. A total of 70 staphylococci isolates were obtained from soil, water, yogurt, and clinical samples. The likely staphylococci clinical isolates were identified phenotypically by different biochemical tests. Molecular identification was done by PCR using species-specific 16S rRNA primer pairs, and finally, 50 isolates were found to be positive as Staphylococcus aureus, sciuri, xylous and cohnii. Screened isolates were further analyzed by several microbiological diagnostics tests, including gram staining, coagulase, capsule, hemolysis, fermentation of glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose tests enzymatic reactions. It was found that 78%, 81%, and 51% of isolates were positive for gelatin hydrolysis, protease, and lipase activities, respectively. Antibiogram analysis of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains with respect to different antimicrobial agents revealed resistance patterns ranging from 57 to 96%. Our study also shows 70% of strains to be MRSA, 54.3% as VRSA, and 54.3% as both MRSA and VRSA. All the identified isolates were subjected to detection of mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, and 70%, 84%, and 40% were found to harbour mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, respectively. The current investigation is highly important and informative for the high-level multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections inclusive also of methicillin and vancomycin.

Keywords: MRSA, VRSA, mecA, MSSA

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99 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif

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Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: body mass index, cardiovascular disease, fast food, morbidity, overweight

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98 Floodplain Modeling of River Jhelum Using HEC-RAS: A Case Study

Authors: Kashif Hassan, M.A. Ahanger

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Floods have become more frequent and severe due to effects of global climate change and human alterations of the natural environment. Flood prediction/ forecasting and control is one of the greatest challenges facing the world today. The forecast of floods is achieved by the use of hydraulic models such as HEC-RAS, which are designed to simulate flow processes of the surface water. Extreme flood events in river Jhelum , lasting from a day to few are a major disaster in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, India. In the present study HEC-RAS model was applied to two different reaches of river Jhelum in order to estimate the flood levels corresponding to 25, 50 and 100 year return period flood events at important locations and to deduce flood vulnerability of important areas and structures. The flow rates for the two reaches were derived from flood-frequency analysis of 50 years of historic peak flow data. Manning's roughness coefficient n was selected using detailed analysis. Rating Curves were also generated to serve as base for determining the boundary conditions. Calibration and Validation procedures were applied in order to ensure the reliability of the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to ensure the accuracy of Manning's n in generating water surface profiles.

Keywords: flood plain, HEC-RAS, Jhelum, return period

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97 Ergonomic Design of Speed Control Humps/Dips

Authors: Emad Khorshid, Habib Awada

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Newly developed Ergonomic speed control hump/Dip designs are conducted. The numerical simulation for the driver-vehicle-hump dynamic system will be performed using computer software. The design problem for which the speed hump or dip should provide: (1) discomfort feeling to the driver if speed is over the specified limit, and (2) normal/good comfort level to the driver (and or other passengers) if the speed is within the limit. For comparison reasons, different vehicles suspension systems (active, semi-active and non-active suspension) are used in the simulation. The measuring of the acceptable range of vibration will be referenced to the British standard BS6841, ISO 2631/1 and the new ISO 2631/5. All these standards are related to human health and comfort level in terms of acceptable range of whole body vibration exposure.

Keywords: speed hump, speed dip, ergonomic design, human health, vehicle modeling

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96 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

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This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, ideology, TV channels, power

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95 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

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The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort

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94 An Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Strong Brand Questionnaire in Sport

Authors: Mona Rezaei, Habib Honari, Mehrzad Hamidi, Fatemeh Kiani

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Make strong brands has become a priority for many organizations in marketing. Brand is an important indicator of marketing status. Brand Strength is in kept customer, profit, brand development and gain competitive advantage and In fact it is a concept that was created from a consumer perspective. It is assumed that the creation of a strong brand is creating numerous marketing benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire the most strong sports brands in the consumer society. Questionnaire was conducted to a sample of 340 customers of sports brands. Psychometric parameters were determined by using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the factor analysis and Varimax rotation revealed five factors of strong brands. The results confirms that questionnaire structure have acceptable associated to the data and confirmed all indicators of the model. Reliability (859/0) was satisfactory. According to calculated psychometric indices, this questionnaire could be appropriate to assess the most strong sports brands.

Keywords: reliability, strong brand, sport brands, psychometric

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93 The Study of the Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Sport

Authors: Habib Honari

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The purpose of this study is an investigation of the factors affecting entrepreneurship in sport from the point of view of experts in this field. This study is a descriptive analytic one and was conducted as a survey and statistical sample consisted of 64 subjects including top managers and sport management professors at physical education organization. Data is collected by research designed questionnaire. Its reliability (α=.95) is obtained after its validity confirmation (by professors). In this article the most important factors affecting sport entrepreneurship, both as an interdisciplinary field in the world, are studied. Initially, infrastructures are identified for entrepreneurial opportunities in sports and related problems become known so that identifying factors for social, cultural, and economical development to entrepreneurs will be a smooth path, because sport entrepreneurship, given its effective roles in business development, welfare, health development, and participation in various aspects of society, can also play a crucial role in the development of the country. Finally, some solutions for developing entrepreneurial sport are introduced.

Keywords: sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial barriers, interdisciplinary

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