Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: X-FEM

6 Non Linear Dynamic Analysis of Cantilever Beam with Breathing Crack Using XFEM

Authors: K. Vigneshwaran, Manoj Pandey


In this paper, breathing crack is considered for the non linear dynamic analysis. The stiffness of the cracked beam is found out by using influence coefficients. The influence coefficients are calculated by using Castigliano’s theorem and strain energy release rate (SERR). The equation of motion of the beam was derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The stiffness and natural frequencies for the cracked beam has been calculated using XFEM and Eigen approach. It is seen that due to presence of cracks, the stiffness and natural frequency changes. The mode shapes and the FRF for the uncracked and breathing cracked cantilever beam also obtained and compared.

Keywords: breathing crack, XFEM, mode shape, FRF, non linear analysis

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5 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture Behavior of Foamed Concrete Based on Three-Point Bending Test of Beams with Initial Notch

Authors: M. Kozłowski, M. Kadela


Foamed concrete is known for its low self-weight and excellent thermal and acoustic properties. For many years, it has been used worldwide for insulation to foundations and roof tiles, as backfill to retaining walls, sound insulation, etc. However, in the last years it has become a promising material also for structural purposes e.g. for stabilization of weak soils. Due to favorable properties of foamed concrete, many interests and studies were involved to analyze its strength, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties. However, these studies do not cover the investigation of fracture energy which is the core factor governing the damage and fracture mechanisms. Only limited number of publications can be found in literature. The paper presents the results of experimental investigation and numerical campaign of foamed concrete based on three-point bending test of beams with initial notch. First part of the paper presents the results of a series of static loading tests performed to investigate the fracture properties of foamed concrete of varying density. Beam specimens with dimensions of 100×100×840 mm with a central notch were tested in three-point bending. Subsequently, remaining halves of the specimens with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm were tested again as un-notched beams in the same set-up with reduced distance between supports. The tests were performed in a hydraulic displacement controlled testing machine with a load capacity of 5 kN. Apart from measuring the loading and mid-span displacement, a crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was monitored. Based on the load – displacement curves of notched beams the values of fracture energy and tensile stress at failure were calculated. The flexural tensile strength was obtained on un-notched beams with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm. Moreover, cube specimens 150×150×150 mm were tested in compression to determine the compressive strength. Second part of the paper deals with numerical investigation of the fracture behavior of beams with initial notch presented in the first part of the paper. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to simulate and analyze the damage and fracture process. The influence of meshing and variation of mechanical properties on results was investigated. Numerical models simulate correctly the behavior of beams observed during three-point bending. The numerical results show that XFEM can be used to simulate different fracture toughness of foamed concrete and fracture types. Using the XFEM and computer simulation technology allow for reliable approximation of load–bearing capacity and damage mechanisms of beams made of foamed concrete, which provides some foundations for realistic structural applications.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fracture energy, three-point bending, XFEM

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4 Modeling of Large Elasto-Plastic Deformations by the Coupled FE-EFGM

Authors: Azher Jameel, Ghulam Ashraf Harmain


In the recent years, the enriched techniques like the extended finite element method, the element free Galerkin method, and the Coupled finite element-element free Galerkin method have found wide application in modeling different types of discontinuities produced by cracks, contact surfaces, and bi-material interfaces. The extended finite element method faces severe mesh distortion issues while modeling large deformation problems. The element free Galerkin method does not have mesh distortion issues, but it is computationally more demanding than the finite element method. The coupled FE-EFGM proves to be an efficient numerical tool for modeling large deformation problems as it exploits the advantages of both FEM and EFGM. The present paper employs the coupled FE-EFGM to model large elastoplastic deformations in bi-material engineering components. The large deformation occurring in the domain has been modeled by using the total Lagrangian approach. The non-linear elastoplastic behavior of the material has been represented by the Ramberg-Osgood model. The elastic predictor-plastic corrector algorithms are used for the evaluation stresses during large deformation. Finally, several numerical problems are solved by the coupled FE-EFGM to illustrate its applicability, efficiency and accuracy in modeling large elastoplastic deformations in bi-material samples. The results obtained by the proposed technique are compared with the results obtained by XFEM and EFGM. A remarkable agreement was observed between the results obtained by the three techniques.

Keywords: XFEM, EFGM, coupled FE-EFGM, level sets, large deformation

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3 Numerical Analysis of Shear Crack Propagation in a Concrete Beam without Transverse Reinforcement

Authors: G. A. Rombach, A. Faron


Crack formation and growth in reinforced concrete members are, in many cases, the cause of the collapse of technical structures. Such serious failures impair structural behavior and can also damage property and persons. An intensive investigation of the crack propagation is indispensable. Numerical methods are being developed to analyze crack growth in an element and to detect fracture failure at an early stage. For reinforced concrete components, however, further research and action are required in the analysis of shear cracks. This paper presents numerical simulations and continuum mechanical modeling of bending shear crack propagation in a three-dimensional reinforced concrete beam without transverse reinforcement. The analysis will provide a further understanding of crack growth and redistribution of inner forces in concrete members. As a numerical method to map discrete cracks, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is applied. The crack propagation is compared with the smeared crack approach using concrete damage plasticity. For validation, the crack patterns of real experiments are compared with the results of the different finite element models. The evaluation is based on single span beams under bending. With the analysis, it is possible to predict the fracture behavior of concrete members.

Keywords: concrete damage plasticity, crack propagation, extended finite element method, fracture mechanics

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2 Study of Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack in Functionally Graded Materials

Authors: Somnath Bhattacharya, Kamal Sharma, Vaibhav Sonkar


Composite materials emerged in the middle of the 20th century as a promising class of engineering materials providing new prospects for modern technology. Recently, a new class of composite materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs) has drawn considerable attention of the scientific community. In general, FGMs are defined as composite materials in which the composition or microstructure or both are locally varied so that a certain variation of the local material properties is achieved. This gradual change in composition and microstructure of material is suitable to get gradient of properties and performances. FGMs are synthesized in such a way that they possess continuous spatial variations in volume fractions of their constituents to yield a predetermined composition. These variations lead to the formation of a non-homogeneous macrostructure with continuously varying mechanical and / or thermal properties in one or more than one direction. Lightweight functionally graded composites with high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios have been used successfully in aircraft industry and other engineering applications like in electronics industry and in thermal barrier coatings. In the present work, elastic-plastic crack growth problems (using Ramberg-Osgood Model) in an FGM plate under cyclic load has been explored by extended finite element method. Both edge and centre crack problems have been solved by taking additionally holes, inclusions and minor cracks under plane stress conditions. Both soft and hard inclusions have been implemented in the problems. The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics theory is limited to the brittle materials. A rectangular plate of functionally graded material of length 100 mm and height 200 mm with 100% copper-nickel alloy on left side and 100% ceramic (alumina) on right side is considered in the problem. Exponential gradation in property is imparted in x-direction. A uniform traction of 100 MPa is applied to the top edge of the rectangular domain along y direction. In some problems, domain contains major crack along with minor cracks or / and holes or / and inclusions. Major crack is located the centre of the left edge or the centre of the domain. The discontinuities, such as minor cracks, holes, and inclusions are added either singly or in combination with each other. On the basis of this study, it is found that effect of minor crack in the domain’s failure crack length is minimum whereas soft inclusions have moderate effect and the effect of holes have maximum effect. It is observed that the crack growth is more before the failure in each case when hard inclusions are present in place of soft inclusions.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, fatigue crack, functionally graded materials, extended finite element method (XFEM)

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1 Improving the Accuracy of Stress Intensity Factors Obtained by Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method on Hybrid Quadtree Meshes

Authors: Adrian W. Egger, Savvas P. Triantafyllou, Eleni N. Chatzi


The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a semi-analytical numerical method, which introduces a scaling center in each element’s domain, thus transitioning from a Cartesian reference frame to one resembling polar coordinates. Consequently, an analytical solution is achieved in radial direction, implying that only the boundary need be discretized. The only limitation imposed on the resulting polygonal elements is that they remain star-convex. Further arbitrary p- or h-refinement may be applied locally in a mesh. The polygonal nature of SBFEM elements has been exploited in quadtree meshes to alleviate all issues conventionally associated with hanging nodes. Furthermore, since in 2D this results in only 16 possible cell configurations, these are precomputed in order to accelerate the forward analysis significantly. Any cells, which are clipped to accommodate the domain geometry, must be computed conventionally. However, since SBFEM permits polygonal elements, significantly coarser meshes at comparable accuracy levels are obtained when compared with conventional quadtree analysis, further increasing the computational efficiency of this scheme. The generalized stress intensity factors (gSIFs) are computed by exploiting the semi-analytical solution in radial direction. This is initiated by placing the scaling center of the element containing the crack at the crack tip. Taking an analytical limit of this element’s stress field as it approaches the crack tip, delivers an expression for the singular stress field. By applying the problem specific boundary conditions, the geometry correction factor is obtained, and the gSIFs are then evaluated based on their formal definition. Since the SBFEM solution is constructed as a power series, not unlike mode superposition in FEM, the two modes contributing to the singular response of the element can be easily identified in post-processing. Compared to the extended finite element method (XFEM) this approach is highly convenient, since neither enrichment terms nor a priori knowledge of the singularity is required. Computation of the gSIFs by SBFEM permits exceptional accuracy, however, when combined with hybrid quadtrees employing linear elements, this does not always hold. Nevertheless, it has been shown that crack propagation schemes are highly effective even given very coarse discretization since they only rely on the ratio of mode one to mode two gSIFs. The absolute values of the gSIFs may still be subject to large errors. Hence, we propose a post-processing scheme, which minimizes the error resulting from the approximation space of the cracked element, thus limiting the error in the gSIFs to the discretization error of the quadtree mesh. This is achieved by h- and/or p-refinement of the cracked element, which elevates the amount of modes present in the solution. The resulting numerical description of the element is highly accurate, with the main error source now stemming from its boundary displacement solution. Numerical examples show that this post-processing procedure can significantly improve the accuracy of the computed gSIFs with negligible computational cost even on coarse meshes resulting from hybrid quadtrees.

Keywords: linear elastic fracture mechanics, generalized stress intensity factors, scaled finite element method, hybrid quadtrees

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