Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7627

Search results for: dynamic orthotropic behavior

7627 Dynamic Modeling of Orthotropic Cracked Materials by X-FEM

Authors: S. Houcine Habib, B. Elkhalil Hachi, Mohamed Guesmi, Mohamed Haboussi


In this paper, dynamic fracture behaviors of cracked orthotropic structure are modeled using extended finite element method (X-FEM). In this approach, the finite element method model is first created and then enriched by special orthotropic crack tip enrichments and Heaviside functions in the framework of partition of unity. The mixed mode stress intensity factor (SIF) is computed using the interaction integral technique based on J-integral in order to predict cracking behavior of the structure. The developments of these procedures are programmed and introduced in a self-software platform code. To assess the accuracy of the developed code, results obtained by the proposed method are compared with those of literature.

Keywords: X-FEM, composites, stress intensity factor, crack, dynamic orthotropic behavior

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7626 Design and Development of Chassis Made of Composite Material

Authors: P. Ravinder Reddy, Chaitanya Vishal Nalli, B. Tulja Lal, Anusha Kankanala


The chassis frame of an automobile with different sections have been considered for different loads. The orthotropic materials are selected to get the stability by varying fiber angle, fiber thickness, laminates, fiber properties, matrix properties and elastic ratios. The geometric model of chassis frame is carried out with parametric modelling approach. The analysis of chassis frame is carried out with ANSYS FEA software. The static and dynamic analysis of chassis frame is carried out by varying geometric parameters, orthotropic properties, materials and various sections. The static and dynamic response is discussed in detail in different sections.

Keywords: chassis frame, dynamic response, geometric model, orthotropic materials

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7625 Free Vibration of Orthotropic Plate with Four Clamped Edges

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xu


The explicit solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the orthotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges are presented by the double finite cosine integral transform method. In the analysis procedure, the classical orthotropic rectangular thin plate is considered. Because only are the basic dynamic elasticity equations of the orthotropic thin plate adopted, it is not need prior to select the deformation function arbitrarily. Therefore, the solution developed by this paper is reasonable and theoretical. Finally, an illustrative example is given and the results are compared with those reported earlier. This method is found to be easier and effective. The results show reasonable agreement with other available results, but with a simpler and practical approach.

Keywords: rectangular orthotropic plate, four clamped edges, natural frequencies and mode shapes, finite integral transform

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7624 Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation

Authors: D. Remache, M. Semaan, C. Baron, M. Pithioux, P. Chabrand, J. M. Rossi, J. L. Milan


A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approaches

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7623 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid


In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

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7622 Hyperelastic Formulation for Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Daniel O'Shea, Mario M. Attard, David C. Kellermann


In this paper, we propose a hyperelastic strain energy function that maps isotopic hyperelastic constitutive laws for the use of orthotropic materials without the use of structural tensors or any kind of fiber vector, or the use of standard invariants. In particular, we focus on neo-Hookean class of models and represent them using an invariant-free formulation. To achieve this, we revise the invariant-free formulation of isotropic hyperelasticity. The formulation uses quadruple contractions between fourth-order tensors, rather than scalar products of scalar invariants. We also propose a new decomposition of the orthotropic Hookean stiffness tensor into two fourth-order Lamé tensors that collapse down to the classic Lamé parameters for isotropic continua. The resulting orthotropic hyperelastic model naturally maintains all of the advanced properties of the isotropic counterparts, and similarly collapse back down to their isotropic form by nothing more than equality of parameters in all directions (isotropy). Comparisons are made with large strain experimental results for transversely isotropic rubber type materials under tension.

Keywords: finite strain, hyperelastic, invariants, orthotropic

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7621 Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Alibolandi


Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress. This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Keywords: dynamic behavior, reinforced sand, triaxial test, non-woven geotextile

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7620 Nonlinear Defects and Discombinations in Anisotropic Solids

Authors: Ashkan Golgoon, Arash Yavari


In this paper, we present some analytical solutions for the stress fields of nonlinear anisotropic solids with line and point defects distributions. In particular, we determine the induced stress fields of a parallel cylindrically-symmetric distribution of screw dislocations in infinite orthotropic and monoclinic media as well as a cylindrically-symmetric distribution of parallel wedge disclinations in an infinite orthotropic medium. For a given distribution of edge dislocations, the material manifold is constructed using Cartan's moving frames and the stress field is obtained assuming that the medium is orthotropic. Also, we consider a spherically-symmetric distribution of point defects in a transversely isotropic spherical ball. We show that for an arbitrary incompressible transversely isotropic ball with the radial material preferred direction, a uniform point defect distribution results in a uniform hydrostatic stress field inside the spherical region the distribution is supported in. Finally, we find the stresses induced by a discombination in an orthotropic medium.

Keywords: defects, disclinations, dislocations, monoclinic solids, nonlinear elasticity, orthotropic solids, transversely isotropic solids

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7619 Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of a Bridge Deck to Determine Residual Weld Stresses

Authors: Evy Van Puymbroeck, Wim Nagy, Ken Schotte, Heng Fang, Hans De Backer


The knowledge of residual stresses for welded bridge components is essential to determine the effect of the residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior. The residual stresses of an orthotropic bridge deck are determined by simulating the welding process with finite element modelling. The stiffener is placed on top of the deck plate before welding. A chained thermal-mechanical analysis is set up to determine the distribution of residual stresses for the bridge deck. First, a thermal analysis is used to determine the temperatures of the orthotropic deck for different time steps during the welding process. Twin wire submerged arc welding is used to construct the orthotropic plate. A double ellipsoidal volume heat source model is used to describe the heat flow through a material for a moving heat source. The heat input is used to determine the heat flux which is applied as a thermal load during the thermal analysis. The heat flux for each element is calculated for different time steps to simulate the passage of the welding torch with the considered welding speed. This results in a time dependent heat flux that is applied as a thermal loading. Thermal material behavior is specified by assigning the properties of the material in function of the high temperatures during welding. Isotropic hardening behavior is included in the model. The thermal analysis simulates the heat introduced in the two plates of the orthotropic deck and calculates the temperatures during the welding process. After the calculation of the temperatures introduced during the welding process in the thermal analysis, a subsequent mechanical analysis is performed. For the boundary conditions of the mechanical analysis, the actual welding conditions are considered. Before welding, the stiffener is connected to the deck plate by using tack welds. These tack welds are implemented in the model. The deck plate is allowed to expand freely in an upwards direction while it rests on a firm and flat surface. This behavior is modelled by using grounded springs. Furthermore, symmetry points and lines are used to prevent the model to move freely in other directions. In the thermal analysis, a mechanical material model is used. The calculated temperatures during the thermal analysis are introduced during the mechanical analysis as a time dependent load. The connection of the elements of the two plates in the fusion zone is realized with a glued connection which is activated when the welding temperature is reached. The mechanical analysis results in a distribution of the residual stresses. The distribution of the residual stresses of the orthotropic bridge deck is compared with results from literature. Literature proposes uniform tensile yield stresses in the weld while the finite element modelling showed tensile yield stresses at a short distance from the weld root or the weld toe. The chained thermal-mechanical analysis results in a distribution of residual weld stresses for an orthotropic bridge deck. In future research, the effect of these residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior of welded bridge components can be studied.

Keywords: finite element modelling, residual stresses, thermal-mechanical analysis, welding simulation

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7618 Effect of Delay on Supply Side on Market Behavior: A System Dynamic Approach

Authors: M. Khoshab, M. J. Sedigh


Dynamic systems, which in mathematical point of view are those governed by differential equations, are much more difficult to study and to predict their behavior in comparison with static systems which are governed by algebraic equations. Economical systems such as market are among complicated dynamic systems. This paper tries to adopt a very simple mathematical model for market and to study effect of supply and demand function on behavior of the market while the supply side experiences a lag due to production restrictions.

Keywords: dynamic system, lag on supply demand, market stability, supply demand model

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7617 Numerical Study of the Dynamic Behavior of an Air Conditioning with a Muti Confined Swirling Jet

Authors: Mohamed Roudane


The objective of this study is to know the dynamic behavior of a multi swirling jet used for air conditioning inside a room. To conduct this study, we designed a facility to ensure proper conditions of confinement in which we placed five air blowing devices with adjustable vanes, providing multiple swirling turbulent jets. The jets were issued in the same direction and the same spacing defined between them. This study concerned the numerical simulation of the dynamic mixing of confined swirling multi-jets, and examined the influence of important parameters of a swirl diffuser system on the dynamic performance characteristics. The CFD investigations are carried out by a hybrid mesh to discretize the computational domain. In this work, the simulations have been performed using the finite volume method and FLUENT solver, in which the standard k-ε RNG turbulence model was used for turbulence computations.

Keywords: simulation, dynamic behavior, swirl, turbulent jet

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7616 Dynamic Test and Numerical Analysis of Twin Tunnel

Authors: Changwon Kwak, Innjoon Park, Dongin Jang


Seismic load affects the behavior of underground structure like tunnel broadly. Seismic soil-structure interaction can play an important role in the dynamic behavior of tunnel. In this research, twin tunnel with flexible joint was physically modeled and the dynamic centrifuge test was performed to investigate seismic behavior of twin tunnel. Seismic waves have different frequency were exerted and the characteristics of response were obtained from the test. Test results demonstrated the amplification of peak acceleration in the longitudinal direction in seismic waves. The effect of the flexible joint was also verified. Additionally, 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis was conducted and the analysis results exhibited good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis, dynamic centrifuge test, flexible joint, seismic soil-structure interaction

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7615 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation on the Dynamic Behavior of the Building

Authors: Yassine Sadji


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities, and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accélérogramme) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: irregularity, seismic, response, structure, ductility

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7614 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar


Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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7613 Study the Dynamic Behavior of Irregular Buildings by the Analysis Method Accelerogram

Authors: Beciri Mohamed Walid


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: structure, irregular, code, seismic, method, force, period

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7612 Rayleigh Wave Propagation in an Orthotropic Medium under the Influence of Exponentially Varying Inhomogeneities

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishwakarma


The aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of inhomogeneity associated with the elastic constants and density of the orthotropic medium. The inhomogeneity is considered as exponential function of depth. The impact of gravity had been discussed. Using the concept of separation of variables, the system of a partial differential equation (equation of motion) has been converted into ordinary differential equation, which is coupled in nature. It further reduces to a biquadratic equation whose roots were found by using MATLAB. A suitable boundary condition is employed to derive the dispersion equation in a closed-form. Numerical simulations had been performed to show the influence of the inhomogeneity parameter. It was observed that as the numerical values of increases, the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves decreases at a particular wavenumber. Graphical illustrations were drawn to visualize the effect of the increasing and decreasing values of the inhomogeneity parameter. It can be concluded that it has a remarkable bearing on the phase velocity as well as damping velocity.

Keywords: Rayleigh waves, orthotropic medium, gravity field, inhomogeneity

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7611 Low-Level Forced and Ambient Vibration Tests on URM Building Strengthened by Dampers

Authors: Rafik Taleb, Farid Bouriche, Mehdi Boukri, Fouad Kehila


The aim of the paper is to investigate the dynamic behavior of an unreinforced masonry (URM) building strengthened by DC-90 dampers by ambient and low-level forced vibration tests. Ambient and forced vibration techniques are usually applied to reinforced concrete or steel buildings to understand and identify their dynamic behavior, however, less is known about their applicability for masonry buildings. Ambient vibrations were measured before and after strengthening of the URM building by DC-90 dampers system. For forced vibration test, a series of low amplitude steady state harmonic forced vibration tests were conducted after strengthening using eccentric mass shaker. The resonant frequency curves, mode shapes and damping coefficients as well as stress distribution in the steel braces of the DC-90 dampers have been investigated and could be defined. It was shown that the dynamic behavior of the masonry building, even if not regular and with deformable floors, can be effectively represented. It can be concluded that the strengthening of the building does not change the dynamic properties of the building due to the fact of low amplitude excitation which do not activate the dampers.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, masonry buildings, forced vibrations, structural dynamic identification

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7610 Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Giorgio Serino


In this paper, the results of experimental tests performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small, relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements. Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements. Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, experimental hysteresis loops, wire rope isolators

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7609 Hot Spot Stress Analysis and Parametric Study on Rib-To-Deck Welded Connections in Orthotropic Steel Bridge Decks

Authors: Dibu Dave Mbako, Bin Cheng


This paper study the stress variation of the welded joints in the rib-to-deck connection structure, the influence stress of the deck plate and u-rib thickness at different positions. A Finite-element model of orthotropic steel deck structure using solid element and shell element was established in ABAQUS. Under a single wheel load, the static response was analyzed to understand the structural behaviors and examine stress distribution. A parametric study showed that the geometric parameters have a significant effect on the hot spot stress at the weld toe, but has little impact on the stress concentration factor. The increase of the thickness of the deck plate will lead to the decrease of the hot spot stress at the weld toe and the maximum deflection of the deck plate. The surface stresses of the deck plate are significantly larger than those of the rib near the joint in the 80% weld penetration into the u-rib.

Keywords: orthotropic steel bridge deck, rib-to-deck connection, hot spot stress, finite element method, stress distribution

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7608 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Microcantilever Beam

Authors: S. B. Kerur, B. S. Murgayya


The development of micro and nano particle is challenging task and the study of the behavior of material at the micro level is gaining importance as their behavior at micro/nano level is different. These micro particle are being used as a sensing element to measure and detects the hazardous chemical, gases, explosives and biological agents. In the present study, finite element method is used for static and dynamic analysis of simple and composite cantilever beams of different shapes. The present FE model is validated with available analytical results and various parameters like shape, materials properties, damped and undamped conditions are considered for the numerical study. The results show the effects of shape change on the natural frequency and as these are used with fluid for chemical applications, the effect of damping due to viscous nature of fluid are simulated by considering different damping coefficient effect on the dynamic behavior of cantilever beams. The obtained results show the effect of these parameters can be effectively utilized based on system requirements.

Keywords: micro, FEM, dynamic, cantilever beam

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7607 Experimental Investigation of Cup Anemometer under Static and Dynamic Wind Direction Changes: Evaluation of Directional Sensitivity

Authors: Vaibhav Rana, Nicholas Balaresque


The 3-cup anemometer is the most commonly used instrument for wind speed measurement and, consequently, for the wind resource assessment. Though the cup anemometer shows accurate measurement under quasi-static conditions, there is uncertainty in the measurement when subjected to field measurement. Sensitivity to the angle of attacks with respect to horizontal plane, dynamic response, and non-linear behavior in calibration due to friction. The presented work aimed to identify the sensitivity of anemometer to non-horizontal flow. The cup anemometer was investigated under low wind speed wind tunnel, first under the static flow direction changes and second under the dynamic direction changes, at a different angle of attacks, under the similar conditions of reference wind tunnel speeds. The cup anemometer response under both conditions was evaluated and compared. The results showed the anemometer under dynamic wind direction changes is highly sensitive compared to static conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, cup anemometer, directional sensitivity, dynamic behavior, wind tunnel

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7606 Dynamic Analysis of Turbine Foundation

Authors: Mogens Saberi


This paper presents different design approaches for the design of turbine foundations. In the design process, several unknown factors must be considered such as the soil stiffness at the site. The main static and dynamic loads are presented and the results of a dynamic simulation are presented for a turbine foundation that is currently being built. A turbine foundation is an important part of a power plant since a non-optimal behavior of the foundation can damage the turbine itself and thereby stop the power production with large consequences.

Keywords: dynamic turbine design, harmonic response analysis, practical turbine design experience, concrete foundation

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7605 The Effect of AMBs Number of a Dynamics Behavior of a Spur Gear Reducer in Non-Stationary Regime

Authors: Najib Belhadj Messaoud, Slim Souissi


The non-linear dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer is studied in this paper in transient regime. Driving and driver rotors are, respectively, powered by a motor torque Cm and loaded by a resistive torque Cr. They are supported by two identical Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiff-ness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Three models of AMBs were used with four, six and eight magnets. They are operated by P.D controller and powered by control and bias currents. The dynamic parameters of the AMBs are modeled by stiffness and damping matrices computed by the derivation of the electromagnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved iteratively using Newmark time integration method. In the first part of the study, the model is powered by an electric motor and by a four strokes four cylinders diesel engine in the second part. The numerical results of the dynamic responses of the system come to confirm the significant effect of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition. Results also confirm the influence of the magnet number by AMBs on the dynamic behavior of the system. Indeed, vibrations were more important in the case of gear reducer supported by AMBs with four magnets.

Keywords: motor, stiffness, gear, acyclism, fluctuation, torque

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7604 Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites

Authors: Abir Abdessalem, Sahbi Tamboura, J. Fitoussi, Hachmi Ben Daly, Abbas Tcharkhtchi


Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.

Keywords: composite material, dynamic mechanical analysis, SMC composites, viscoelastic behavior, modeling

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7603 Pose-Dependency of Machine Tool Structures: Appearance, Consequences, and Challenges for Lightweight Large-Scale Machines

Authors: S. Apprich, F. Wulle, A. Lechler, A. Pott, A. Verl


Large-scale machine tools for the manufacturing of large work pieces, e.g. blades, casings or gears for wind turbines, feature pose-dependent dynamic behavior. Small structural damping coefficients lead to long decay times for structural vibrations that have negative impacts on the production process. Typically, these vibrations are handled by increasing the stiffness of the structure by adding mass. That is counterproductive to the needs of sustainable manufacturing as it leads to higher resource consumption both in material and in energy. Recent research activities have led to higher resource efficiency by radical mass reduction that rely on control-integrated active vibration avoidance and damping methods. These control methods depend on information describing the dynamic behavior of the controlled machine tools in order to tune the avoidance or reduction method parameters according to the current state of the machine. The paper presents the appearance, consequences and challenges of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight large-scale machine tool structures in production. The paper starts with the theoretical introduction of the challenges of lightweight machine tool structures resulting from reduced stiffness. The statement of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior is corroborated by the results of the experimental modal analysis of a lightweight test structure. Afterwards, the consequences of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight machine tool structures for the use of active control and vibration reduction methods are explained. Based on the state of the art on pose-dependent dynamic machine tool models and the modal investigation of an FE-model of the lightweight test structure, the criteria for a pose-dependent model for use in vibration reduction are derived. The description of the approach for a general pose-dependent model of the dynamic behavior of large lightweight machine tools that provides the necessary input to the aforementioned vibration avoidance and reduction methods to properly tackle machine vibrations is the outlook of the paper.

Keywords: dynamic behavior, lightweight, machine tool, pose-dependency

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7602 Assessment of the Effect of Wind Turbulence on the Aero-Hydrodynamic Behavior of Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Reza Dezvareh


The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of wind turbulence on the aero hydrodynamic behavior of offshore wind turbines with a monopile holder platform. Since in the sea, the wind turbine structures are under water and structures interactions, the dynamic analysis has been conducted under combined wind and wave loading. The offshore wind turbines have been investigated undertow models of normal and severe wind turbulence, and the results of this study show that the amplitude of fluctuation of dynamic response of structures including thrust force and base shear force of structures is increased with increasing the amount of wind turbulence, and this increase is not necessarily observed in the mean values of responses. Therefore, conducting the dynamic analysis is inevitable in order to observe the effect of wind turbulence on the structures' response.

Keywords: offshore wind turbine, wind turbulence, structural vibration, aero-hydro dynamic

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7601 Study of the Effect of Seismic Behavior of Twin Tunnels Position on Each Other

Authors: M. Azadi, M. Kalhor


Excavation of shallow tunnels such as subways in urban areas plays a significant role as a life line and investigation of the soil behavior against tunnel construction is one of the vital subjects studied in the geotechnical scope. Nowadays, urban tunnels are mostly drilled by T.B.Ms and changing the applied forces to tunnel lining is one of the most risky matters while drilling tunnels by these machines. Variation of soil cementation can change the behavior of these forces in the tunnel lining. Therefore, this article is designed to assess the impact of tunnel excavation in different soils and several amounts of cementation on applied loads to tunnel lining under static and dynamic loads. According to the obtained results, changing the cementation of soil will affect the applied loadings to the tunnel envelope significantly. It can be determined that axial force in tunnel lining decreases considerably when soil cementation increases. Also, bending moment and shear force in tunnel lining decreases as the soil cementation increases and causes bending and shear behavior of the segments to improve. Based on the dynamic analyses, as cohesion factor in soil increases, bending moment, axial and shear forces of segments decrease but lining behavior of the tunnel is the same as static state. The results show that decreasing the overburden applied to lining caused by cementation is different in two static and dynamic states.

Keywords: seismic behavior, twin tunnels, tunnel positions, TBM, optimum distance

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7600 Modeling of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with Experimental Validation

Authors: Jhe-Hao Huang, Kun-Da Wu, Wei-Cheng Shih, Jui-Pin Hung


This study presented the investigation on the dynamic characteristics of a spindle tool system by experimental and finite element modeling approaches. As well known facts, the machining stability is greatly determined by the dynamic characteristics of the spindle tool system. Therefore, understanding the factors affecting dynamic behavior of a spindle tooling system is a prerequisite in dominating the final machining performance of machine tool system. To this purpose, a physical spindle unit was employed to assess the dynamic characteristics by vibration tests. Then, a three-dimensional finite element model of a high-speed spindle system integrated with tool holder was created to simulate the dynamic behaviors. For modeling the angular contact bearings, a series of spring elements were introduced between the inner and outer rings. The spring constant can be represented by the contact stiffness of the rolling bearing based on Hertz theory. The interface characteristic between spindle nose and tool holder taper can be quantified from the comparison of the measurements and predictions. According to the results obtained from experiments and finite element predictions, the vibration behavior of the spindle is dominated by the bending deformation of the spindle shaft in different modes, which is further determined by the stiffness of the bearings in spindle housing. Also, the spindle unit with tool holder shows a different dynamic behavior from that of spindle without tool holder. This indicates the interface property between tool holder and spindle nose plays an dominance on the dynamic characteristics the spindle tool system. Overall, the dynamic behaviors the spindle with and without tool holder can be successfully investigated through the finite element model proposed in this study. The prediction accuracy is determined by the modeling of the rolling interface of ball bearings in spindles and the interface characteristics between tool holder and spindle nose. Besides, identifications of the interface characteristics of a ball bearing and spindle tool holder are important for the refinement of the spindle tooling system to achieve the optimum machining performance.

Keywords: contact stiffness, dynamic characteristics, spindle, tool holder interface

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7599 Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior of a Rotor-Bearing System in Operating Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Jalali, Behrooz Shahriari, Mostafa Ghayour, Saeed Ziaei-Rad, Shahram Yousefi


Most flexible rotors can be considered as beam-like structures. In many cases, rotors are modeled as one-dimensional bodies, made basically of beam-like shafts with rigid bodies attached to them. This approach is typical of rotor dynamics, both analytical and numerical, and several rotor dynamic codes, based on the finite element method, follow this trend. In this paper, a finite element model based on Timoshenko beam elements is utilized to analyze the lateral dynamic behavior of a certain rotor-bearing system in operating conditions.

Keywords: finite element method, Timoshenko beam elements, operational deflection shape, unbalance response

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7598 Structural Modeling and Experimental-Numerical Correlation of the Dynamic Behavior of the Portuguese Guitar by Using a Structural-Fluid Coupled Model

Authors: M. Vieira, V. Infante, P. Serrão, A. Ribeiro


The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone particularly known for its role in Fado, the most distinctive traditional Portuguese musical style. The acknowledgment of the dynamic behavior of the Portuguese guitar, specifically of its modal and mode shape response, has been the focus of different authors. In this research, the experimental results of the dynamic behavior of the guitar, which were previously obtained, are correlated with a vibro-acoustic finite element model of the guitar. The modelling of the guitar offered several challenges which are presented in this work. The results of the correlation between experimental and numerical data are presented and indicate good correspondence for the studied mode shapes. The influence of the air inside the chamber, for the finite element analysis, is shown to be crucial to understand the low-frequency modes of the Portuguese guitar, while, for higher frequency modes, the geometry of the guitar assumes greater relevance. Comparison is made with the classical guitar, providing relevant information about the intrinsic differences between the two, such as between its tones and other acoustical properties. These results represent a sustained base for future work, which will allow the study of the influence of different location and geometry of diverse components of the Portuguese guitar, being as well an asset to the comprehension of its musical properties and qualities and may, furthermore, represent an advantage for its players and luthiers.

Keywords: dynamic behavior of guitars, instrument acoustics, modal analysis, Portuguese guitar

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