Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 994

Search results for: collective competence

994 The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence

Authors: Amira Khelil, Habib Affes

Abstract:

The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: collective competence, exploitation learning, exploration learning, knowledge management, organizational learning capabilities

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993 Towards a Competence Management Approach Based on Continuous Improvement

Authors: N. Sefiani, C. Fikri Benbrahim, A. Boumane, K. Reklaoui

Abstract:

Nowadays, the reflection on competence management is the basic for new competitive strategies. It is considered as the core of the problems of the global supply chain. It interacts a variety of actors: information, physical and activities flows, etc. Even though competence management is seen as the key factor for any business success, the existing approaches demonstrate the deficiencies and limitations of the competence concept. This research has two objectives: The first is to make a contribution by focusing on the development of a competence approach, based on continuous improvement. It allows the enterprise to spot key competencies, mobilize them in order to serve its strategic objectives and to develop future competencies. The second is to propose a method to evaluate the level of Collective Competence. The approach was confirmed through an application carried out at an automotive company.

Keywords: competence, competencies’ approach, competence management, continuous improvement, collective competence level, performance indicator

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992 The Importance of Self-Efficacy and Collective Competence Beliefs in Managerial Competence of Sports Managers'

Authors: Şenol Yanar, Sinan Çeli̇kbi̇lek, Mehmet Bayansalduz, Yusuf Can

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Managerial competence defines as the skills that managers in managerial positions have in relation to managerial responsibilities and managerial duties. Today's organizations, which are in a competitive environment, have the desire to work with effective managers in order to be more advantageous position than the other organizations they are competing with. In today's organizations, self-efficacy and collective competence belief that determine managerial competencies of managers to assume managerial responsibility are of special importance. In this framework, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of sports managers' perceptions of self-efficacy and collective competence in managerial competence perceptions. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is a significant difference between self-efficacy, collective competence and managerial competence levels of sports managers in terms of their gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 248 sports managers, who work at the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the self-efficacy scale which was developed by Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995), collective competence scale developed by Goddard, Hoy and Woolfolk-Hoy (2000) and managerial competence scale developed by Cetinkaya (2009) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among self-efficacy, collective competence belief, and managerial competence levels in sports managers and regression analysis have been used to define the affect of self-efficacy and collective competence belief on the perception of managerial competence. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers' self-efficacy, collective competence beliefs, and managerial competence levels. According to the results of the regression analysis, it is understood that the managers’ perception of self-efficacy and collective competence belief significantly defines the perception of managerial competence. Also, the results show that there is no significant difference in self-efficacy, collective competence, and level of managerial competence of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education.

Keywords: sports manager, self-efficacy, collective competence, managerial competence

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991 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

Abstract:

The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

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990 Leadership Competences: The Case of Slovenian Healthcare

Authors: Helena Kovačič, Andrej Rus

Abstract:

This study compared ratings for leadership competence of managers in the healthcare sector and professional managers in Slovenia. Managers’ competence scores were analyzed for Slovenia and compared with some other EU countries. Comparisons of correlations yielded significant differences in leader/non-leader healthcare professionals in their relational competence.

Keywords: management, competence, healthcare, Slovenia

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989 Examination of the Relationship between Managerial Competence and Job Satisfacti̇on and Career Satisfacti̇on in Sports Managers'

Authors: Omur F. Karakullukcu, Bilal Okudan, Yusuf Can

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze sports managers’ managerial competence levels and job satisfaction’s correlation with career satisfaction. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is any significant difference in sports managers’ managerial competence, job and career satisfaction in terms of gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 256 sports managers, who work at department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the managerial competence scale which was developed by Cetinkaya (2009), job satisfaction scale developed by Weiss at al.(1967) and Career Satisfaction Scale developed by Vatansever (2008) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, pearson correlation analysis has been used for defining the correlation of managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels of sports managers. T-test analysis for binary grouping and anova analysis for more than binary groups have been used in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers’ managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in managerial competence levels, job satisfaction and career satisfaction of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education; however, the results reveal that there is no significant difference in terms of age groups and gender.

Keywords: sports manager, managerial competence, job satisfaction, career satisfaction

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988 The Impact of Collective Punishment on Cadets’ Psychology

Authors: Ersegün Ömer Erol

Abstract:

Since the first civilizations, armies have been the most significant part of the countries. As generally known, in today’s world, people are trying hard to find the best way to educate their armies so as to prepare them effectively for the war. Due to the fact that, as rarely known, collective punishment is in fact one of the methods used commonly in militaries in order to educate personnel and cadets. In this study, it is purposed to find out the constructive and unfavorable impacts of collective punishment on cadets’ psychology and by comparing these impacts to decide whether the collective punishment is functional or not. These impacts are obtained from the questionnaire applied on cadets and personnel. The main goal of the study is to provide new point of views and more scientific information about the discussed education way-the collective punishment.

Keywords: army, cadet, collective punishment, psychology

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987 Development of Social Competence in the Preparation and Continuing Training of Adult Educators

Authors: Genute Gedviliene, Vidmantas Tutlys

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to reveal the deployment and development of the social competence in the higher education programmes of adult education and in the continuing training and competence development of the andragogues. There will be compared how the issues of cooperation and communication in the learning and teaching processes are treated in the study programmes and in the courses of continuing training of andragogues. Theoretical and empirical research methods were combined for research analysis. For the analysis the following methods were applied: 1) Literature and document analysis helped to highlight the communication and cooperation as fundamental phenomena of the social competence, it’s important for the adult education in the context of digitalization and globalization. There were also analyzed the research studies on the development of social competence in the field of andragogy, as well as on the place and weight of the social competence in the overall competence profile of the andragogue. 2) The empirical study is based on questionnaire survey method. The population of survey consists of 240 students of bachelor and master degree studies of andragogy in Lithuania and of 320 representatives of the different bodies and institutions involved in the continuing training and professional development of the adult educators in Lithuania. The themes of survey questionnaire were defined on the basis of findings of the literature review and included the following: 1) opinions of the respondents on the role and place of a social competence in the work of andragogue; 2) opinions of the respondents on the role and place of the development of social competence in the curricula of higher education studies and continuing training courses; 3) judgements on the implications of the higher education studies and courses of continuing training for the development of social competence and it’s deployment in the work of andragogue. Data analysis disclosed a wide range of ways and modalities of the deployment and development of social competence in the preparation and continuing training of the adult educators. Social competence is important for the students and adult education providers not only as the auxiliary capability for the communication and transfer of information, but also as the outcome of collective learning leading to the development of new capabilities applied by the learners in the learning process, their professional field of adult education and their social life. Equally so, social competence is necessary for the effective adult education activities not only as an auxiliary capacity applied in the teaching process, but also as a potential for improvement, development and sustainability of the didactic competence and know-how in this field. The students of the higher education programmes in the field of adult education treat social competence as important generic capacity important for the work of adult educator, whereas adult education providers discern the concrete issues of application of social competence in the different processes of adult education, starting from curriculum design and ending with assessment of learning outcomes.

Keywords: adult education, andragogues, social competence, curriculum

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986 Core Competence Development while Carrying out Organizational Changes

Authors: Olga A. Shvetsova

Abstract:

The paper contains the different issues of competence management in industrial companies. The theoretical bases of human resources management and practical issues of innovative enterprises’ competitiveness are considered. The research is focused on the modern industrial enterprise changes management problems; it focuses on the effective personnel management of industrial enterprises on the basis of competence approach. The influence of organizational changes on the competence development is discussed. The need for development of the new technologies is mentioned, proposal is based on competence-based approach in personnel management including in the conditions of carrying out organizational changes; methods of acquisition and development of missing key professional competences are discussed; importance of key competencies in forming competitive advantage of the organization is mentioned.

Keywords: competence model, core competencies, development of industrial company, organizational changes, competitiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
985 Communication Competence or Language Proficiency for Employability: An Investigation on Malaysian Polytechnics ESL Engineering Students

Authors: Chong Ling Ling

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In the Malaysian polytechnic, there are concerns about language proficiency, communicative competence, and employability among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students. This study examined the relationships between communicative competence, language proficiency, and employability using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Next, Pearson’s Correlation determines the correlation between communication competence, language proficiency, and employability skills of Malaysian Polytechnic ESL engineering students. The total number of participants was 81 final-year engineering students. The findings revealed high positive correlations between the communicative competence -'I can talk with a friend in English.' and employability skill (r = 0.854, p = .031), also, language proficiency -'I can understand the English songs I listen to' and employability skill (r = 0.887, p = .038). The result is consistent with the theories. The result revealed that for the 81 students, communication competence and language proficiency, and employability skills are firmly and significantly correlated. Thus, it concluded that both communicative competence and language proficiency equally essential to ensure a higher employability rate among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students.

Keywords: communicative competence, employability, language proficiency, Malaysian polytechnic

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
984 Cultural Competence of Philippine National Police Personnel

Authors: Nestor C. Nabe, Melvie F. Bayog

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The cultural competence of police officers can lead to effective law enforcement and gain respect to their organization. This study evaluated the level of cultural competence of Philippine National Police Personnel in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The survey utilized an adapted questionnaire to measure the level of cultural competence of the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to 305 ethnic minorities coming from the four major ethnic tribes in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. The data gathered were treated using Percentage, Mean, T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings are as follows: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is moderate; and, there is no significant difference in the cultural competence of the police personnel when analyzed by age, gender, civil status and, occupation while there is a significant difference analyzed by educational attainment and ethnic tribe. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is only manifested sometimes; and, civil status, and occupation has no significant difference in the cultural competence of police personnel while educational attainment and ethnic tribe has a significant difference.

Keywords: competence, cultural, Philippines, police

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983 The Right to Engage in Collective Bargaining in South Africa: An Exploratory Analysis

Authors: Koboro J. Selala

Abstract:

Whilst the system of collective bargaining is well-researched in South Africa, recent studies reveal that this is an area of law and practice that is poorly understood. Despite the growing attention being paid by most scholars to the role of collective bargaining in the labour relations system, only a handful of the studies have considered collective bargaining as a mechanism of dispute resolution. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the current understanding of the right to engage in collective bargaining in South Africa to assess the extent to which collective bargaining is used to resolve labour disputes. The overall objective is to offer a deeper understanding of the role of collective bargaining in dispute resolution process within the South African constitutional labour law context. To this end, the paper examines the applicable legal framework of collective bargaining to address two fundamental questions that are critical to the proper understanding of the functioning of the South African collective labour dispute resolution system. The first concerns the extent to which the current South African legislative framework supports the fundamental labour rights entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The second addresses the role of trade unions in collective dispute resolution processes and the extent to which they can best utilize collective bargaining to resolve labour disputes. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the findings to stimulate further research and to enhance the constitutional development of collective labour rights in South Africa.

Keywords: collective bargaining, constitution, freedom of association, labour relations act

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982 Quality of Today's Teachers: Post-Certified Teachers' Competence in Alleviating Poverties towards a Sustainable Development

Authors: Sudirman

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Competence is a term describing capability that correlates with a person’s occupation. The competence of a teacher consists of four, i.e., pedagogical, professional, personality and social competence. These four components are implemented during interacting with students to motivate the students and improve their achievement. The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the roles and contributions of certified teachers in alleviating the issue of poverty to promote a sustainable development. The data comprise primary and secondary data which were generated from observation, interview, documentation and library research. Furthermore, this study offers in-depth information regarding the performance of the teachers in coping with poverty and sustaining development. The result shows that the teacher’s competence positively contributes to the improvement of students’ achievement. This helps the students to prepare for the real work experience by which it results in a better income and, therefore, alleviate poverty. All in all, the quality of today’s teachers can be measured by their contribution in enhancing the students’ competence prior to entering real work, resulting in a wealthy society. This is to deal with poverty and conceptualizing a sustainable development.

Keywords: competence, development, poverty, teachers

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981 Educational Psychologists in Instructional and Mentoring Contexts: The Significance of Multicultural Competence

Authors: Yassir Semmar

Abstract:

During the past two decades, the topic of multicultural competence has gained much attention in the psychology field, most notably in the clinical and counseling specializations. While higher education institutions have been placing a premium on sensitizing their faculty, staff, and student bodies to various diversity and multicultural issues, little emphasis has been directed towards mandating multicultural training for graduate learners in the educational psychology specialty. Given the increasingly diverse student population, it is imperative for educational psychologists to become multiculturally competent particularly in instructional and mentoring contexts. Strategies and conditions for attaining multicultural competence are discussed.

Keywords: multicultural competence, instruction, pedagogical practices, mentoring

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980 An Intervention Method on Improving Teamwork Competence for Business Studies Undergraduates

Authors: Silvia Franco, Marcos Sarasola

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The Faculty of Business Administration at the Catholic University of Uruguay is performing an important educational innovation, unique in the country. In preparing future professionals in companies, teamwork competence is very important. However, there is no often a systematic and specific training in the acquisition of this competence in undergraduate students. For this reason, we have designed and implemented an educational innovation through an intervention method to improve teamwork competence for undergraduate students of business studies. Students’ teams are integrated according to the complementary roles of Belbin; changes in teamwork competence during training period are measured with CCSAC tool; classroom methodology in the prio-border teamwork by Team-Based Learning. Methodology also integrates coaching and support team performance during the first two semesters.

Keywords: business students, teamwork, learning, competences

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979 Insights into the Assessment of Intercultural Competence of Female University Students in the KSA

Authors: Agnes Havril

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to introduce some partial findings of an ongoing research project which is investigating the improvement of intercultural competence of Saudi female university students in English as a Second Language academic environment at the multicultural Jazan University. Since previous research results support the idea that this university generation has the desire to become interculturally or globally competent university students, the present-day investigation is focusing on the assessment of Saudi-specific cultural terms and intercultural competence components in comparison with the Anglo-Saxon oriented western perspective of intercultural competence theories and models. On this stage of the research quantitative research methodology is applied and a survey is being conducted among the female university students in different academic specializations. This paper discusses some empirical data with the aim of identifying and evaluating certain supplementary aspects of intercultural dimensions and components of the intercultural competence construct. The research results also highlight several gender issues in the gender separated higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: gender separation, globally competent university student, intercultural competence, intercultural competence construct, higher education

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978 Competence-Based Human Resources Selection and Training: Making Decisions

Authors: O. Starineca, I. Voronchuk

Abstract:

Human Resources (HR) selection and training have various implementation possibilities depending on an organization’s abilities and peculiarities. We propose to base HR selection and training decisions about on a competence-based approach. HR selection and training of employees are topical as there is room for improvement in this field; therefore, the aim of the research is to propose rational decision-making approaches for an organization HR selection and training choice. Our proposals are based on the training development and competence-based selection approaches created within previous researches i.e. Analytic-Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Linear Programming. Literature review on non-formal education, competence-based selection, AHP form our theoretical background. Some educational service providers in Latvia offer employees training, e.g. motivation, computer skills, accounting, law, ethics, stress management, etc. that are topical for Public Administration. Competence-based approach is a rational base for rational decision-making in both HR selection and considering HR training.

Keywords: competence-based selection, human resource, training, decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
977 Collective Redress in Consumer Protection in South East Europe: Cross-National Comparisons, Issues of Commonality and Difference

Authors: Veronika Efremova

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In recent decades, there have been significant developments in the European Union in the field of collective consumer redress. South East European countries (SEE) covered by this paper, in line with their EU accession priorities and duties under Stabilisation and Association Agreements, have to harmonize their national laws with the relevant EU acquis for consumer protection (Chapter 28: Health and Consumer). In these countries, only minimal compliance is achieved. SEE countries have introduced rudimentary collective redress mechanisms, with modest enforcement of collective redress and case law. This paper is based on comprehensive interdisciplinary research conducted for SEE countries on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms, emphasizing cross-national comparisons, underlining issues of commonality and difference aiming to develop recommendations for an adequate enforcement of collective redress. SEE countries are recognized by the sectoral approach for regulating collective redress contrary to the majority of EU Member States with having adopted horizontal approach to collective redress. In most SEE countries, the laws do not recognize compensatory but only injunctive collective redress in consumer protection. All responsible stakeholders for implementation of collective redress in SEE countries, lack information and awareness on collective redress mechanisms and the way they function in practice. Therefore, specific actions are needed in these countries to make the whole system of collective redress for consumer protection operational and efficient. Taking into consideration the various designated stakeholders in collective redress in each SEE countries, there is a need of their mutual coordination and cooperation in order to develop consumer protection system and policies. By putting into practice the national collective redress mechanisms, effective access to justice for all consumers, the principle of rule of law will be secured and appropriate procedural guarantees to avoid abusive litigation will be ensured.

Keywords: collective redress mechanism, consumer protection, commonality and difference, South East Europe

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976 Managing Core Competencies in Innovative Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

Authors: Olga Shvetsova

Abstract:

The research paper contains the different issues of competence management in innovation companies. The theoretical bases of human resources management and practical issues of innovative enterprises’ competitiveness are considered. The research is focused on the modern innovative enterprise management problems; it focuses on the effective management of the personnel of innovative enterprises on the basis of competence approach. The concept of core competence approach is discussed. The point of view, that the key competences of the company create the competitive advantages, support strategy development and protect business from external negative factors is considered. The used methodology is background research.

Keywords: competence model, competitiveness, innovation management, implementation

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975 The Potential of Cloud Computing in Overcoming the Problems of Collective Learning

Authors: Hussah M. AlShayea

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This study aimed to identify the potential of cloud computing, "Google Drive" in overcoming the problems of collective learning from the viewpoint of Princess Noura University students. The study included (92) students from the College of Education. To achieve the goal of the study, several steps have been taken. First, the most important problems of collective learning were identified from the viewpoint of the students. After that, a survey identifying the potential of cloud computing "Google Drive" in overcoming the problems of collective learning was distributed among the students. The study results showed that the students believe that the use of Google Drive contributed to overcoming these problems. In the light of those results, the researcher presented a set of recommendations and proposals, including: encouraging teachers and learners to employ cloud computing to overcome the problems and constraints of collective learning.

Keywords: cloud computing, collective learning, Google drive, Princess Noura University

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974 The Mediator Role of Social Competence in the Relation between Effortful Control and Maths Achievement

Authors: M. A. Fernández-Vilar, M. D. Galián, E. Ato

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The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control and Maths achievement in a sample of 447 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that higher level of effortful control has been associated with higher academic achievement, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s social competence exert to this relation. To measure children’s effortful control parents were given the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire), and Maths achievement was taken from teacher´s rates. To measure social competence, we used the nominations method in the classroom context. Results confirmed that higher effortful control predicted a better maths achievement, whereas lower effortful control scores predicted lower Maths scores. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a mediation model that revealed the mediating role of social competence (popularity and rejection) in the relation between effortful control and Maths achievement. Concretely, higher social competence (higher popularity and lower rejection) seems to mediate the better Maths achievement showed by better self´regulated children. Therefore, an adequate social competence mediates the positive effect that self-regulatory capacity exerts to academic achievement. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, rejected children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, due the relevant role of social competence in the relation between temperament and academic achievement.

Keywords: effortful control, maths achievement, social competence, mediation

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973 Organization Culture: Mediator of Information Technology Competence and IT Governance Effectiveness

Authors: Sonny Nyeko, Moses Niwe

Abstract:

Purpose: This research paper examined the mediation effect of organization culture in the relationship between information technology (IT) competence and IT governance effectiveness in Ugandan public universities. The purpose of the research paper is to examine the role of organizational culture in the relationship between IT competence and IT governance effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopted the MedGraph program, Sobel tests and Kenny and Baron Approach for testing the mediation effects. Findings: It is impeccable that IT competence and organization culture are true drivers of IT governance effectiveness in Ugandan public universities. However, organizational culture reveals partial mediation in the IT competence and IT governance effectiveness relationship. Research limitations/implications: The empirical investigation in this research depends profoundly on public universities. Future research in Ugandan private universities could be undertaken to compare results. Practical implications: To effectively achieve IT governance effectiveness, it means senior management requires IT knowledge which is a vital ingredient of IT competence. Moreover, organizations today ought to adopt cultures that are intended to have them competitive in their businesses, with IT operations not in isolation. Originality/value: Spending thousands of dollars on IT resources in advanced institutes of learning necessitates IT control. Preliminary studies in Ugandan public universities have revealed the ineffective utilization of IT resources. Besides, IT governance issues with IT competence and organization culture remain outstanding. Thus, it’s a new study testing the mediating outcome of organization culture in the association between IT competence and IT governance effectiveness in the Ugandan universities.

Keywords: organization culture, IT competence, IT governance, effectiveness, mediating effect, universities, Uganda

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972 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

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The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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971 Comparing Russian and American Students’ Metaphorical Competence

Authors: Svetlana L. Mishlanova, Evgeniia V. Ermakova, Mariia E. Timirkina

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The paper is concerned with the study of metaphor production in essays written by Russian and English native speakers in the framework of cognitive metaphor theory. It considers metaphorical competence as individual’s ability to recognize, understand and use metaphors in speech. The work analyzes the influence of visual metaphor on production and density of conventional and novel verbal metaphors. The main methods of research include experiment connected with image interpretation, metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) and visual conventional metaphors identification procedure proposed by VisMet group. The research findings will be used in the project aimed at comparing metaphorical competence of native and non-native English speakers.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphorical competence, conventional, novel

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970 The Social Process of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Collective Conciliation: Unveiling the Theoretical Framework

Authors: Adejoke Yemisi Ige

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This study presents a conceptual analysis and investigation into the development of a systematic framework required for better understanding of the social process of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and collective conciliation. The critical examination presented in this study is significant because; it draws on insight from ADR, negotiation and collective bargaining literature and applies it in our advancement of a methodical outline which gives an insight into the influence of the key actors and other stakeholder strategies and behaviours during dispute resolution in relation to the outcomes which is novel. This study is qualitative and essentially inductive in nature. One of the findings of the study confirms the need to consider ADR and collective conciliation within the context of the characteristic conditions; which focus on the need for some agreement to be reached. Another finding of the study shows the extent which information-sharing, willingness of the parties to negotiate and make concession assist both parties to attain resolution. This paper recommends that in order to overcome deadlock and attain acceptable outcomes at the end of ADR and collective conciliation, the importance of information exchange and sustenance of trade union and management relationship cannot be understated. The need for trade unions and management, the representatives to achieve their expectations in order to build the confidence and assurance of their respective constituents is essential. In conclusion, the analysis presented in this study points towards a set of factors that together can be called the social process of collective conciliation nevertheless; it acknowledges that its application to collective conciliation is new.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, collective conciliation, social process, theoretical framework, unveiling

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969 Exploring Non-Native English Language Teachers' Understandings and Attitudes towards the Integration of Intercultural Competence

Authors: Simin Sasani

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This study will explore a group of English language teachers’ understanding of intercultural competence to find out if they are aware of the concept and how important it is for them. It will investigate how much they are concerned about the challenges that the learners might face in their intercultural communications and to what extent they can help the learners to overcome the barriers to increase students’ insight into cultural differences. In addition, it will explore how a group of non-native English language teachers define culture in relation to their English language teaching practices. More specifically, the research tries to take the how and why of inclusion of intercultural competence into consideration and how non-native teachers think they can improve their learners’ knowledge and skills in this domain. The study will be conducted in the UK and the participants are eight non-native English language teachers who are currently teaching general English language courses for foreigners. A pilot study have been conducted for this research which its results show three non-native English teachers are aware of the notion although they have not had any formal education about intercultural competence. Their challenges and limitation were also highlighted through interviews and observations.

Keywords: English, English language teachers, intercultural communications, intercultural competence, non-natives

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968 Intercultural Competence in Teaching Mediation to Students of Legal English

Authors: Paulina Dwuznik

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For students of legal English, the skill of mediation is of special importance as it constitutes part of their everyday work. Developing the skill of mediation requires developing linguistic, communicative, textual, pragmatic, interactive, social, and intercultural competencies. The study conducted at the Open University of the University of Warsaw compared the results of a questionnaire concerning the needs of legal professionals relating to mediation tasks, which they perform at work with the analysis of the content of different legal English handbooks with special stress on the development of intercultural competence necessary in interlinguistic mediation. The study found that legal English handbooks focus mainly on terminology study, but some of them extend students' intercultural competence in a way which may help them to perform tasks of mediating concepts, texts, and communication. The author of the paper will present the correlation between intercultural competence and mediation skill and give some examples of mediation tasks which may be based on comparative intercultural content of some chosen academic legal English handbooks.

Keywords: intercultural competence, legal English, mediation skill, teaching

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967 Disparities in Language Competence and Conflict: The Moderating Role of Cultural Intelligence in Intercultural Interactions

Authors: Catherine Peyrols Wu

Abstract:

Intercultural interactions are becoming increasingly common in organizations and life. These interactions are often the stage of miscommunication and conflict. In management research, these problems are commonly attributed to cultural differences in values and interactional norms. As a result, the notion that intercultural competence can minimize these challenges is widely accepted. Cultural differences, however, are not the only source of a challenge during intercultural interactions. The need to rely on a lingua franca – or common language between people who have different mother tongues – is another important one. In theory, a lingua franca can improve communication and ease coordination. In practice however, disparities in people’s ability and confidence to communicate in the language can exacerbate tensions and generate inefficiencies. In this study, we draw on power theory to develop a model of disparities in language competence and conflict in a multicultural work context. Specifically, we hypothesized that differences in language competence between interaction partners would be positively related to conflict such that people would report greater conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence and lesser conflict with partners with more similar levels of language competence. Furthermore, we proposed that cultural intelligence (CQ) an intercultural competence that denotes an individual’s capability to be effective in intercultural situations, would weaken the relationship between disparities in language competence and conflict such that people would report less conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence when the interaction partner has high CQ and more conflict when the partner has low CQ. We tested this model with a sample of 135 undergraduate students working in multicultural teams for 13 weeks. We used a round-robin design to examine conflict in 646 dyads nested within 21 teams. Results of analyses using social relations modeling provided support for our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that in intercultural dyads with large disparities in language competence, partners with the lowest level of language competence would report higher levels of interpersonal conflict. However, this relationship disappeared when the partner with higher language competence was also high in CQ. These findings suggest that communication in a lingua franca can be a source of conflict in intercultural collaboration when partners differ in their level of language competence and that CQ can alleviate these effects during collaboration with partners who have relatively lower levels of language competence. Theoretically, this study underscores the benefits of CQ as a complement to language competence for intercultural effectiveness. Practically, these results further attest to the benefits of investing resources to develop language competence and CQ in employees engaged in multicultural work.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, intercultural interactions, language competence, multicultural teamwork

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966 English Learning Motivation in Communicative Competence

Authors: Sebastianus Menggo

Abstract:

The aim of communicative language teaching is to enable learners to communicate in the target language. Each learner is required to perform the micro and macro components in each utterance produced. Utterances produced must be in line with the understanding of competence and performance of each speaker. These are inter-depended. Competence and performance are obliged to be appeared proportionally in creating the utterances. The representative of competence and performance reflects the linguistics identity of a speaker in providing sentences in each certain language community. Each lexicon spoken may lead that interlocutor in comprehending the intentions utterances given. However proportional performance of both components in an utterance needed to be further elaborated. Finding appropriate gap between competence and performance components in a communicative competence must be supported positive response given by the learners.The learners’ inability to keep communicative competence proportionally is caused by inside and outside factors. The inside factors are certain lacks such as lack of self-confidence and lack of motivation which could make students feel ashamed to produce utterances, scared to make mistakes, and have no enough confidence. Knowing learner’s English learning motivation is an urgent variable to be considered in creating conducive atmosphere classroom which will raise the learners to do more toward the achievement of communicative competence. Meanwhile, the outside factor is related with the teacher. The teacher should be able to recognize the students’ problem in creating conducive atmosphere in the classroom that will raise the students’ ability to be an English speaker qualified. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know and describe the English learning motivation affecting students’ communicative competence of 48 students of XI grade of science program at catholic senior of Saint Ignasius Loyola Labuan Bajo, West Flores, Indonesia. Correlation design with purposive procedure applied in this research. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, and students’ speaking achievement document. Result shows the description of motivation significantly affecting students’ communicative competence.

Keywords: communicative, competence, English, learning, motivation

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965 Collective Strategies Dominate in Spatial Iterated Prisoners Dilemma

Authors: Jiawei Li

Abstract:

How cooperation emerges and persists in a population of selfish agents is a fundamental question in evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that Collective Strategies with Master-Slave Mechanism (CSMSM) defeat Tit-for-Tat and other well-known strategies in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma. A CSMSM identifies kin members by means of a handshaking mechanism. If the opponent is identified as non-kin, a CSMSM will always defect. Once two CSMSMs meet, they play master and slave roles. A mater defects and a slave cooperates in order to maximize the master’s payoff. CSMSM outperforms non-collective strategies in spatial IPD even if there is only a small cluster of CSMSMs in the population. The existence and performance of CSMSM in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma suggests that cooperation first appears and persists in a group of collective agents.

Keywords: Evolutionary game theory, spatial prisoners dilemma, collective strategy, master-slave mechanism

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