Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7117

Search results for: leakage current

7117 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
7116 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
7115 Leakage Current Analysis of FinFET Based 7T SRAM at 32nm Technology

Authors: Chhavi Saxena

Abstract:

FinFETs can be a replacement for bulk-CMOS transistors in many different designs. Its low leakage/standby power property makes FinFETs a desirable option for memory sub-systems. Memory modules are widely used in most digital and computer systems. Leakage power is very important in memory cells since most memory applications access only one or very few memory rows at a given time. As technology scales down, the importance of leakage current and power analysis for memory design is increasing. In this paper, we discover an option for low power interconnect synthesis at the 32nm node and beyond, using Fin-type Field-Effect Transistors (FinFETs) which are a promising substitute for bulk CMOS at the considered gate lengths. We consider a mechanism for improving FinFETs efficiency, called variable supply voltage schemes. In this paper, we’ve illustrated the design and implementation of FinFET based 4x4 SRAM cell array by means of one bit 7T SRAM. FinFET based 7T SRAM has been designed and analysis have been carried out for leakage current, dynamic power and delay. For the validation of our design approach, the output of FinFET SRAM array have been compared with standard CMOS SRAM and significant improvements are obtained in proposed model.

Keywords: FinFET, 7T SRAM cell, leakage current, delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
7114 Characterization of Leakage Current on the Surface of Porcelain Insulator under Contaminated Conditions

Authors: Hocine Terrab , Abdelhafid Bayadi, Adel Kara, Ayman El-Hag

Abstract:

Insulator flashover under polluted conditions has been a serious threat on the reliability of power systems. It is known that the flashover process is mainly affected by the environmental conditions such as; the pollution level and humidity. Those are the essential parameters influencing the wetting process. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of leakage current (LC) developed on the surface of porcelain insulator at contaminated conditions under AC voltage. The study is done in an artificial fog chamber and the LC is characterized for different stages; dry, wetted and presence of discharge activities. Time-frequency and spectral analysis are adopted to calculate the evolution of LC characteristics with various stages prior to flashover occurrence. The preliminary results could be used in analysing the LC to develop more effective diagnosis of early signs of dry band arcing as an indication for insulation washing.

Keywords: flashover, harmonic components, leakage current, phase angle, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
7113 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat

Abstract:

Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
7112 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100 nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry

Abstract:

As CMOS technology scaling down, Silicon oxide thickness (SiO2) become very thin (few Nano meters). When SiO2 is less than 3nm, gate direct tunneling (DT) leakage current becomes a dormant problem that impacts the transistor performance. Floating gate MOSFET (FGMOSFET) has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications. Most of the available simulation models of FGMOSFET for analog circuit design does not account for gate DT current and there is no accurate analysis for the gate DT. It is a crucial to use an accurate mode in order to get a realistic simulation result that account for that DT impact on FGMOSFET performance effectively.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floating-gate, gate-leakage current, simulation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
7111 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro

Abstract:

Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
7110 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi

Abstract:

The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
7109 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo

Abstract:

The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
7108 Optimizing Power in Sequential Circuits by Reducing Leakage Current Using Enhanced Multi Threshold CMOS

Authors: Patikineti Sreenivasulu, K. srinivasa Rao, A. Vinaya Babu

Abstract:

The demand for portability, performance and high functional integration density of digital devices leads to the scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices inevitable. The increase in power consumption, coupled with the increasing demand for portable/hand-held electronics, has made power consumption a dominant concern in the design of VLSI circuits today. MTCMOS technology provides low leakage and high performance operation by utilizing high speed, low Vt (LVT) transistors for logic cells and low leakage, high Vt (HVT) devices as sleep transistors. Sleep transistors disconnect logic cells from the supply and/or ground to reduce the leakage in the sleep mode. In this technology, energy consumption while doing the mode transition and minimum time required to turn ON the circuit upon receiving the wake up signal are issues to be considered because these can adversely impact the performance of VLSI circuit. In this paper we are introducing an enhancing method of MTCMOS technology to optimize the power in MTCMOS sequential circuits.

Keywords: power consumption, ultra-low power, leakage, sub threshold, MTCMOS

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7107 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7106 Performance Improvement of SOI-Tri Gate FinFET Transistor Using High-K Dielectric with Metal Gate

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A.Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza

Abstract:

SOI TRI GATE FinFET transistors have emerged as novel devices due to its simple architecture and better performance: better control over short channel effects (SCEs) and reduced power dissipation due to reduced gate leakage currents. As the oxide thickness scales below 2 nm, leakage currents due to tunneling increase drastically, leading to high power consumption and reduced device reliability. Replacing the SiO2 gate oxide with a high-κ material allows increased gate capacitance without the associated leakage effects. In this paper, SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with use of high K dielectric materials (HfO2) and SiO2 dielectric are simulated using the 3-D device simulator Devedit and Atlas of TCAD Silvaco. The simulated results exhibits significant improvements in the performances of SOI TRI GATE FinFET with gate oxide HfO2 compared with conventional gate oxide SiO2 for the same structure. SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with the use of high K materials (HfO2) in gate oxide results into the increase in saturation current, threshold voltage, on-state current and Ion/Ioff ratio while off-state current, subthreshold slope and DIBL effect are decreased.

Keywords: technology SOI, short-channel effects (SCEs), multi-gate SOI MOSFET, SOI-TRI Gate FinFET, high-K dielectric, Silvaco software

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
7105 Water Leakage Detection System of Pipe Line using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: A. Ejah Umraeni Salam, M. Tola, M. Selintung, F. Maricar

Abstract:

Clean water is an essential and fundamental human need. Therefore, its supply must be assured by maintaining the quality, quantity and water pressure. However the fact is, on its distribution system, leakage happens and becomes a common world issue. One of the technical causes of the leakage is a leaking pipe. The purpose of the research is how to use the Radial Basis Function Neural (RBFNN) model to detect the location and the magnitude of the pipeline leakage rapidly and efficiently. In this study the RBFNN are trained and tested on data from EPANET hydraulic modeling system. Method of Radial Basis Function Neural Network is proved capable to detect location and magnitude of pipeline leakage with of the accuracy of the prediction results based on the value of RMSE (Root Meant Square Error), comparison prediction and actual measurement approaches 0.000049 for the whole pipeline system.

Keywords: radial basis function neural network, leakage pipeline, EPANET, RMSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7104 Fabrication of InGaAs P-I-N Micro-Photodiode Sensor Array

Authors: Jyun-Hao Liao, Chien-Ju Chen, Chia-Jui Yu, Meng Chyi Wu, Chia-Ching Wu

Abstract:

In this letter, we reported the fabrication of InGaAs micro-photodiode sensor array with the rapid thermal diffusion (RTD) technique. The spin-on dopant source Zn was used to form the p-type region in InP layer. Through the RTD technique, the InP/InGaAs heterostructure was formed. We improved our fabrication on the p-i-n photodiode to micro size which pixel is 7.8um, and the pitch is 12.8um. The proper SiNx was deposited to form the passivation layer. The leakage current of single pixel decrease to 3.3pA at -5V, and 35fA at -10mV. The leakage current densities of each voltage are 21uA/cm² at -5V and 0.223uA/cm² at -10mV. As we focus on the wavelength from 0.9um to 1.7um, the optimized Si/Al₂O₃ bilayers are deposited to form the AR-coating.

Keywords: InGaAs, micro sensor array, p-i-n photodiode, rapid thermal diffusion, Zn diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
7103 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
7102 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu

Abstract:

Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
7101 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
7100 Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.

Keywords: Listeria innocua ATCC 33092, inactivation, gas phase plasma, cellular leakage, recovery of cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
7099 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
7098 Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems

Authors: L. Ashok Kumar, N. Sujith Kumar

Abstract:

Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.

Keywords: grid-connected, photovoltaic (PV) systems, transformerless inverter, stray capacitance, common-mode, leakage current, pulse width modulation (PWM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
7097 Low Power CNFET SRAM Design

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Iman Rahbari, Mohamad Reza Kalhor

Abstract:

CNFET has emerged as an alternative material to silicon for high performance, high stability and low power SRAM design in recent years. SRAM functions as cache memory in computers and many portable devices. In this paper, a new SRAM cell design based on CNFET technology is proposed. The proposed SRAM cell design for CNFET is compared with SRAM cell designs implemented with the conventional CMOS and FinFET in terms of speed, power consumption, stability, and leakage current. The HSPICE simulation and analysis show that the dynamic power consumption of the proposed 8T CNFET SRAM cell’s is reduced about 48% and the SNM is widened up to 56% compared to the conventional CMOS SRAM structure at the expense of 2% leakage power and 3% write delay increase.

Keywords: SRAM cell, CNFET, low power, HSPICE

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
7096 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, Cuk converter, SEPIC converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
7095 Etude 3D Quantum Numerical Simulation of Performance in the HEMT

Authors: A. Boursali, A. Guen-Bouazza

Abstract:

We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/m, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 0.59S/m at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, leakage current density IFuite=1 x 10-26 A, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
7094 Numerical Investigation of Gas Leakage in RCSW-Soil Combinations

Authors: Mahmoud Y. M. Ahmed, Ahmed Konsowa, Mostafa Sami, Ayman Mosallam

Abstract:

Fukushima nuclear accident (Japan 2011) has drawn attention to the issue of gas leakage from hazardous facilities through building boundaries. The rapidly increasing investments in nuclear stations have made the ability to predict, and prevent, gas leakage a rather crucial issue both environmentally and economically. Leakage monitoring for underground facilities is rather complicated due to the combination of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall (RCSW) and soil. In the framework of a recent research conducted by the authors, the gas insulation capabilities of RCSW-soil combination have been investigated via a lab-scale experimental work. Despite their accuracy, experimental investigations are expensive, time-consuming, hazardous, and lack for flexibility. Numerically simulating the gas leakage as a fluid flow problem based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach can provide a potential alternative. This novel implementation of CFD approach is the topic of the present paper. The paper discusses the aspects of modeling the gas flow through porous media that resemble the RCSW both isolated and combined with the normal soil. A commercial CFD package is utilized in simulating this fluid flow problem. A fixed RCSW layer thickness is proposed, air is taken as the leaking gas, whereas the soil layer is represented as clean sand with variable properties. The variable sand properties include sand layer thickness, fine fraction ratio, and moisture content. The CFD simulation results almost demonstrate what has been found experimentally. A soil layer attached next to a cracked reinforced concrete section plays a significant role in reducing the gas leakage from that cracked section. This role is found to be strongly dependent on the soil specifications.

Keywords: RCSW, gas leakage, Pressure Decay Method, hazardous underground facilities, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
7093 Analysis of Weld Crack of Main Steam Governing Valve Steam Turbine Case

Authors: Sarakorn Sukaviriya

Abstract:

This paper describes the inspection procedure, root cause analysis, the rectification of crack, and how to apply the procedure with other similar plants. During the operation of the steam turbine (620MW), instruments such as speed sensor of steam turbine, the servo valve of main stop valve and electrical wires were malfunction caused by leakage steam from main steam governing valve. Therefore, the power plant decided to shutdown steam turbines for figuring out the cause of leakage steam. Inspection techniques to be applied in this problem were microstructure testing (SEM), pipe stress analysis (FEM) and non-destructive testing. The crack was initially found on main governing valve’s weldment by visual inspection. To analyze more precisely, pipe stress analysis and microstructure testing were applied and results indicated that the crack was intergranular and originated from the weld defect. This weld defect caused the notch with high-stress concentration which created crack and then propagated to steam leakage. The major root cause of this problem was an inappropriate welding process, which created a weld defect. To repair this joint from damage, we used a welding technique by producing refinement of coarse grain HAZ and eliminating stress concentration. After the weldment was completely repaired, other adjacent weldments still had risk. Hence, to prevent any future cracks, non-destructive testing (NDT) shall be applied to all joints in order to ensure that there will be no indication of crack.

Keywords: steam-pipe leakage, steam leakage, weld crack analysis, weld defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7092 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir

Abstract:

The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: arc nozzle, CFD simulation, droplets, oil spills

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
7091 A Model for Revenue Leakage Prevention Kabul Municipality Lesson Learned from Jakarta and Mitaka City

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

E-government has become a widespread focus of government efforts in various countries around the world. Many governments around the world have been adopted and introduced e-government systems. This research examines the implementation of the Information& communication technology (ICTS) Model in the Kabul Municipality. The objective of this research is to propose an ICT model in the Kabul Municipality to prevent revenue leakage. The research methodology consists qualitative research method based on a comparative case study. The research findings propose that implementing ICT prevent revenue leakage, increases transparency and paves the way for better services. The key conclusion of this research is that the practice of advanced technology in revenue collection paves the way for transparency and provides services in a decent way. The usage of experiences from other Municipalities, especially Jakarta province and Mitaka Municipality Helps KM to improve revenue and provide better services to the citizens

Keywords: E-government, ICT, municipality, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
7090 Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow

Authors: Mohand Kessal, Rachid Boucetta, Mourad Tikobaini, Mohammed Zamoum

Abstract:

Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.

Keywords: fluid transients, pipelines leaks, method of characteristics, leakage problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
7089 Time-Interval between Rectal Cancer Surgery and Reintervention for Anastomotic Leakage and the Effects of a Defunctioning Stoma: A Dutch Population-Based Study

Authors: Anne-Loes K. Warps, Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar, Pieter J. Tanis, Jan Willem T. Dekker

Abstract:

Anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery remains a severe complication. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further adverse outcomes. In the literature, it has been suggested that earlier reintervention is associated with better survival, but anastomotic leakage can occur with a highly variable time interval to index surgery. This study aims to evaluate the time-interval between rectal cancer resection with primary anastomosis creation and reoperation, in relation to short-term outcomes, stratified for the use of a defunctioning stoma. Methods: Data of all primary rectal cancer patients that underwent elective resection with primary anastomosis during 2013-2019 were extracted from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Analyses were stratified for defunctioning stoma. Anastomotic leakage was defined as a defect of the intestinal wall or abscess at the site of the colorectal anastomosis for which a reintervention was required within 30 days. Primary outcomes were new stoma construction, mortality, ICU admission, prolonged hospital stay and readmission. The association between time to reoperation and outcome was evaluated in three ways: Per 2 days, before versus on or after postoperative day 5 and during primary versus readmission. Results: In total 10,772 rectal cancer patients underwent resection with primary anastomosis. A defunctioning stoma was made in 46.6% of patients. These patients had a lower anastomotic leakage rate (8.2% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001) and less often underwent a reoperation (45.3% vs. 88.7%, p < 0.001). Early reoperations (< 5 days) had the highest complication and mortality rate. Thereafter the distribution of adverse outcomes was more spread over the 30-day postoperative period for patients with a defunctioning stoma. Median time-interval from primary resection to reoperation for defunctioning stoma patients was 7 days (IQR 4-14) versus 5 days (IQR 3-13 days) for no-defunctioning stoma patients. The mortality rate after primary resection and reoperation were comparable (resp. for defunctioning vs. no-defunctioning stoma 1.0% vs. 0.7%, P=0.106 and 5.0% vs. 2.3%, P=0.107). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that early reinterventions after anastomotic leakage are associated with worse outcomes (i.e. mortality). Maybe the combination of a physiological dip in the cellular immune response and release of cytokines following surgery, as well as a release of endotoxins caused by the bacteremia originating from the leakage, leads to a more profound sepsis. Another explanation might be that early leaks are not contained to the pelvis, leading to a more profound sepsis requiring early reoperations. Leakage with or without defunctioning stoma resulted in a different type of reinterventions and time-interval between surgery and reoperation.

Keywords: rectal cancer surgery, defunctioning stoma, anastomotic leakage, time-interval to reoperation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
7088 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: nuclear reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von-Misses stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 203