Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: forage

87 Forage Production Area Development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

Authors: Thipayasothorn Pastraporn, Phonpakdee Rachadakorn, Ponpo Sopar


Forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region with an Agriculture in the city concept. Food chain of city man reduced distance of the food, so the food chain was a good attempt to connect the city’s product with the changes in each area of city. This paper purposed (I) to study the problems of using forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, (II) to propose guidelines of forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. We collected the data by questionnaire which we got from the agriculture, marketing and city plan sector in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. We analyzed the questionnaire in the way of relationship and guidelines of forage production area development in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Results from the analyses are that the role of forage area productive plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region is important to the cities for adapting in changing way of the food transmission. It also enhanced benefits using from cities fringe. Moreover, it managed watercourse and reduced energy consumption in order to sustainable distribute the food into the cities. .

Keywords: city plan, forage production area, urban development, Bangkok Metropolitan Region

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86 Forage Quality of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee


To study the quality response of forage to chickpea-barley mixed cropping under drought stress and vermicompost consumption, an experiment was carried out under well watered and %70 water requirement (stress condition) in RCBD as split plot with four replications in temperate condition of Khorramabad in 2013. Chickpea-barley mix cropping (%100 chickpea, %75:25 chickpea:barley, %50:50 chickpea:barley, %25:75 chickpea:barley, and %100 barley) was studied. Results showed that wet and dry forage yield were significantly affected by environment and decreased in stress condition. Also, crude protein content decreased from %26.2 in well watered to %17.3 in stress condition.

Keywords: crude protein, wet forage yield, dry forage yield, water stress condition, well watered

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
85 A Descriptive Study of the Mineral Content of Conserved Forage Fed to Horses in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France

Authors: Louise Jones, Rafael De Andrade Moral, John C. Stephens


Background: Minerals are an essential component of correct nutrition. Conserved hay/haylage is an important component of many horse's diets. Variations in the mineral content of conserved forage should be considered when assessing dietary intake. Objectives: This study describes the levels and differences in 15 commonly analysed minerals in conserved forage fed to horses in the United Kingdom (UK), Ireland (IRL), and France (FRA). Methods: Hay (FRA n=92, IRL n=168, UK n=152) and haylage samples (UK n=287, IRL n=49) were collected during 2017-2020. Mineral analysis was undertaken using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis was performed using beta regression, Gaussian, or gamma models, depending on the nature of the response variable. Results: There are significant differences in the mineral content of the UK, IRL, and FRA conserved forage samples. FRA hay samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of Sulphur (0.16 ± 0.0051 %), Calcium (0.56 ± 0.0342%), Magnesium (0.16 ± 0.0069 mg/ kg DM), Iron (194 ± 23.0 mg/kg DM), Cobalt (0.21 ± 0.0244 mg/kg DM) and Copper (4.94 ± 0.196 mg/kg DM) content compared to hay from the other two countries. UK hay samples had significantly less (p < 0.05) Selenium (0.07 ± 0.0084 mg/kg DM), whilst IRL hay samples were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Chloride (0.9 ± 0.026mg/kg DM) compared to hay from the other two countries. IRL haylage samples were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Phosphorus (0.26 ± 0.0102 %), Sulphur (0.17 ± 0.0052 %), Chloride (1.01 ± 0.0519 %), Calcium (0.54 ± 0.0257 %), Selenium (0.17 ± 0.0322 mg/kg DM) and Molybdenum (1.47 ± 0.137 mg/kg DM) compared to haylage from the UK. Main Limitations: Forage samples were obtained from professional yards and may not be reflective of forages fed by most horse owners. Information regarding soil type, species of grass, fertiliser treatment, harvest, or storage conditions were not included in this study. Conclusions: At a DM intake of 2% body weight, conserved forage as sampled in this study will be insufficient to meet Zinc, Iodine, and Copper NRC maintenance requirements, and Se intake will also be insufficient for horses fed the UK conserved forage. Many horses receive hay/haylage as the main component of their diet; this study highlights the need to consider forage analysis when making dietary recommendations.

Keywords: conserved forage, hay, haylage, minerals

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
84 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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83 Potential of Intercropping Corn and Cowpea to Ratooned Sugarcane for Food and Forage

Authors: Maricon E. Gepolani, Edna A. Aguilar, Pearl B. Sanchez, Enrico P. Supangco


Intercropping farming system and biofertilizer application are sustainable agricultural practices that increase farm productivity by improving the yield performance of the components involved in the production system. Thus, this on-farm trial determined the yield and forage quality of corn and cowpea with and without biofertilizer application when intercropped with ratooned sugarcane. Intercropping corn and cowpea without biofertilizer application had no negative effect on the vegetative growth of sugarcane. However, application of biofertilizer on intercrops decreased tiller production at 117 days after stubble shaving (DASS), consequently reducing the estimated tonnage yield of sugarcane. The yield of intercrops and forage production of Cp3 cowpea variety increased when intercropped to ratooned sugarcane. In contrast, intercropping PSB 97-92 corn variety to ratooned sugarcane reduced its forage production, but when biofertilizer was applied to intercropped Cp5 cowpea variety, the forage production increased. Profitability (income equivalent ratio) of intercropping for both corn and cowpea are higher than monocropping and are thus suitable intercrops to ratooned sugarcane. Unaffected tiller count (a determinant of sugarcane tonnage yield) when biofertilizer was not applied to intercrops and a reduced tiller count with biofertilizer application to intercrops implies the need to develop a nutrient management practices specific for intercropping systems.

Keywords: biofertilizer, corn, cowpea, intercropping system, ratooned sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
82 Plant Water Relations and Forage Quality in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.) as Affected by Salinity Stress

Authors: Maher J. Tadros


This research was conducted to study the effect of different salinity concentrations on the plant water relation and forage quality on two multipurpose forest trees species seedlings Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.). Five different salinity concentrations mixture between sodium chloride and calcium chloride (v/v, 1:1) were applied. The control (Distilled Water), 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ppm were used to water the seedlings for 3 months. The research results presented showed a marked variation among the two species in response to salinity. The Leucaena was able to withstand the highest level of salinity compared to Acacia all over the studied parameters except in the relative water content. Although all the morphological characteristics studied for the two species showed a marked decrease under the different salinity concentrations, except the shoot/root ratio that showed a trend of increase. The water stress measure the leaf water potential was more negative with as the relative water content increase under that saline conditions compared to the control. The forage quality represented by the crude protein and nitrogen content were low at 6000 ppm compared to the 8000 ppm in L. Leucocephala that increased compared that level in A. saligna. Also the results showed that growing both Leucaena and Acacia provide a good source of forage when that grow under saline condition which will be of great benefits to the agricultural sector especially in the arid and semiarid areas were these species can provide forage with high quality forage all year around when grown under irrigation with saline. This research recommended such species to be utilized and grown for forages under saline conditions.

Keywords: plant water relations, growth performance, salinity stress, protein content, forage quality, multipurpose trees

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
81 Fuzzy Climate Control System for Hydroponic Green Forage Production

Authors: Germán Díaz Flórez, Carlos Alberto Olvera Olvera, Domingo José Gómez Meléndez, Francisco Eneldo López Monteagudo


In recent decades, population growth has exerted great pressure on natural resources. Two of the most scarce and difficult to obtain resources, arable land, and water, are closely interrelated, to the satisfaction of the demand for food production. In Mexico, the agricultural sector uses more than 70% of water consumption. Therefore, maximize the efficiency of current production systems is inescapable. It is essential to utilize techniques and tools that will enable us to the significant savings of water, labor and fertilizer. In this study, we present a production module of hydroponic green forage (HGF), which is a viable alternative in the production of livestock feed in the semi-arid and arid zones. The equipment in addition to having a forage production module, has a climate and irrigation control system that operated with photovoltaics. The climate control, irrigation and power management is based on fuzzy control techniques. The fuzzy control provides an accurate method in the design of controllers for nonlinear dynamic physical phenomena such as temperature and humidity, besides other as lighting level, aeration and irrigation control using heuristic information. In this working, firstly refers to the production of the hydroponic green forage, suitable weather conditions and fertigation subsequently presents the design of the production module and the design of the controller. A simulation of the behavior of the production module and the end results of actual operation of the equipment are presented, demonstrating its easy design, flexibility, robustness and low cost that represents this equipment in the primary sector.

Keywords: fuzzy, climate control system, hydroponic green forage, forage production module

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80 Effects of Nitroxin Fertilizer on Physiological Characters Forage Millet under Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Darbani, Jafar Masoud Sinaki, Armaghan Abedzadeh Neyshaburi


An experiment was conducted as split plot factorial design using randomized complete block design in Damghan in 2012-2013 in order to investigate the effects of irrigation cut off (based on the Phenological stages of plants) on physiological properties of forage millet cultivars. The treatments included three irrigation levels (control with full irrigation, irrigation cut off when flowering started, and irrigation cut off when flowering ended) in the main plots, and applying nitroxin biofertilizer (+), not applying nitroxin biofertilizer (control), and Iranian forage millet cultivars (Bastan, Pishahang, and Isfahan) in the subplots. The highest rate of ashes and water-soluble carbohydrates content were observed in the cultivar Bastan (8.22 and 8.91%, respectively), the highest content of fiber and water (74.17 and 48.83%, respectively) in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started, and the largest proline concentration (μmol/gfw-1) was seen in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started. very rapid growth of millet, its short growing season, drought tolerance, its unique feature regarding harvest time, and its response to nitroxin biofertilizer can help expanding its cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

Keywords: irrigation cut off, forage millet, Nitroxin fertilizer, physiological properties

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79 The Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Brown Iranian Propolis Extracts on Ruminal Nitrogen Ammonia Concentration in in Vitro

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Mahdi Paktinat


The goal of this study is to determine the chemical compounds of brown Iranian propolis(BIP) extracts and to show flavonoids and phenol effects on nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) in in vitro. Experimental samples were including two diets with different concentrate: forage ratio (80:20 and 60:40) with eight treatments (1:Control diet 60:40 without BIP,2: 60:40 diet with 25% BIP, 3:60:40 diet with 50% BIP, 4: 60:40 diet with 75% BIP,5: Control diet 80:20 without BIP,6: 80:20 diet with 25% BIP,7: 80:20 diet with 50% BIP and 8: 80:20 diet with 75% BIP) and eight repeats. The trial was analyzed considering a completely randomized design by the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatment were compared by Tukey test. The results of this study showed that in food with 80:20 (concentrate: forage), adding BIP 25% did not statistically change NH3-N (p > 0.05) compared to the control treatment but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the effect of BIP 50% on NH3-N compared to the BIP 25% and the control. In diet with 60:40 (concentrate: forage), there was no significant difference between the effect of BIP 25% on NH3-N and the control, nor was there a significant difference between the effect of BIP 50% and 75%, while a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BIP 50% and 75% and the rest was observed. The propolis extract makes nitrogen ammonia decrease. This may help the nitrogen retain longer in ruminants.

Keywords: brown Iranian propolis, in vitro, nitrogen ammonia, ruminant

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78 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa


The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
77 Inventory of Local Forages in Indonesia That Potentially Reduce Methane (CH4) Emissions and Increase Productivity in Ruminants

Authors: Amriana Hifizah, Philip Edward Vercoe, Graeme Bruce Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasy, Muhammad Hambal


Many native forage plant species have been used in Indonesia as feed for ruminants. However, less information is available about how these plants affect productivity, let alone methane emissions. In the province of Aceh, where the traditional practice is to feed local forages to small ruminants, the farmers are not satisfied with the productivity of their livestock, and they attribute this problem to poor availability and too few options for good quality forages. Forage quality is reduced by high environmental temperatures which increase the amount of lignification. In addition to reducing productivity, these factors also increase enteric methane production. A preliminary survey about potential forage species was completed in three different districts, two of low elevation and one of high elevation: Syiah Kuala (05°30’5.08” N to 095°24’7.35” E), elevation 29 m MSL; Kajhu (05°32’34.6” N to 095°21’17.7” E), elevation 30 m MSL; Lembah Seulawah (05°28'06.4" N to 095°43' 14.2" E), elevation 254 m MSL. Information about local plants was collected in a semi-structured interview with scientists, government field officers and local farmers, in the city of Banda Aceh and in those three districts. The outcome was a list 40 species that could be useful, of which 21 were selected for further study. The selection process was based on several criteria: high availability, high protein content, low toxicity, and evidence of secondary metabolites (eg, history of medicinal plants for both human and animals). For some of the selected medicinal plants, there is experimental evidence of effects on methane production during rumen fermentation. Subsequently, the selected forages were tested for their effects on rumen fermentation in vitro, using batch culture. The data produced will be used to identify forages with the potential to reduce CH4 emissions. These candidates will then be assessed for their benefits (fermentability and productivity) and potential deleterious side-effects.

Keywords: batch culture, forage, methane, rumen

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
76 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli


Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: grazing, soluble carbohydrate, protein, fiber, metabolizeable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
75 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti


The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
74 The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Ratio of Forage and Concentrate

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya, Nadide Hulya Ozdemir


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to the small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. . The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinin levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in µmol/W0. 75 (p<0.05). Mean creatinine values in µmol/W0. 75 and allantoin:creatinin ratios were not significantly different among diets. In conclusion, supplementation with SC live yeast culture had a significant effect on urinary allantoin excretion and microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik yearlings fed with high concentrate Diet II (P<0.05). Hence urinary allantoin excretion may be used as a tool for estimating microbial protein supply in Kivircık yearlings. However, further studies are necessary to understand the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast culture with different forage: concentrate ratio in Kıvırcık Yearlings.

Keywords: allantoin, creatinin, Kivircik yearling, microbial nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisia

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73 Determination of Critical Period for Weed Control in the Second Crop Forage Maize (454 Cultivar)

Authors: Farhad Farahvash, Parya Mobaseri


Weeds control based on their critical period leads to less production costs and risks of wide chemical application of weeds control methods. The present study considered effect of weeds control time (weeds interference after 20, 40 and 60 days, weeds full control, weeds interference and weeds control after 20, 40 and 60 days) on growth and yield of forage maize 454. The experiment based on full-randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at research farm of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz located at 15th km of East Tabriz in 2013. According to the results, weeds interference after 40 and 60 days as well as weeds control after 20 days prevented from decrease of maize biomass resulted from weeds presence while weeds interference after 20 days, weeds interference and weeds control after 40 and 60 days led respectively to 41.2%, 35%, 25% and 32.5% decrease of forage maize biomass. The weeds-influenced decrease was manifested at different parts of the plant depending on presence period of weeds. Decrease of fresh weight of ear and fresh weight of leaf and stem was observed due to weeds interference after 20 days and weeds interference. If weeds are controlled after 60 days, decrease of ear weight and fresh weight of stem will lead to biomass decrease. Also, if weeds are controlled after 40 days, decrease of fresh weight of maize stems will result in biomass decrease. Ear traits were affected by weeds control treatment. Being affected by treatments of weeds interference after 20 days, weeds non-interference, weeds control after 40 and 60 days, ear length was shortened 29.9 %, 41.4 %, 27.6 % and 37.2 %, respectively. The stem diameter demonstrated a significant decrease although it was only affected by treatments of weeds interference and weeds control after 60 days. Considering results of the present study, generally, it is suggested to control weeds during initial 20-60 days of maize growth in order to prevent undesirable effect of weeds on growth, production and production biomass of maize and decrease of production costs.

Keywords: maize, competition, weed, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
72 A Remotely Piloted Aerial Application System to Control Rangeland Grasshoppers

Authors: Daniel Martin, Roberto Rodriguez, Derek Woller, Chris Reuter, Lonnie Black, Mohamed Latheef


The grasshoppers comprised of heterogeneous assemblages of Acrididae (Family: Orthoptera) species periodically reach outbreak levels by their gregarious behavior and voracious feeding habits, devouring stems and leaves of food crops and rangeland pasture. Cattle consume about 1.5-2.5% of their body weight in forage per day, so pound for pound, a grasshopper will eat 12-20 times as much plant material as a steer and cause serious economic damage to the cattle industry, especially during a drought when forage is already scarce. Grasshoppers annually consume more than 20% of rangeland forages in the western United States at an estimated loss of $1.25 billion per year in forage. A remotely piloted aerial application system with both a spreader and spray application system was used to apply granular insect bait and a liquid formulation of Carbaryl for control of grasshopper infestations on rangeland in New Mexico, United States. Pattern testing and calibration of both the granular and liquid application systems were conducted to determine proper application rate set up and distribution pattern. From these tests, an effective swath was calculated. Results showed that 14 days after application, granular baits were only effective on those grasshopper species that accepted the baits. The liquid formulation at 16 ounces per acre was highly successful at controlling all grasshopper species. Results of this study indicated that a remotely piloted aerial application system can be used to effectively deliver grasshopper control products in both granular and liquid form. However, the spray application treatment proved to be most effective and efficient for all grasshopper species present.

Keywords: Carbaryl, Grasshopper, Insecticidal Efficacy, Remotely Piloted Aerial Application System

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
71 Fertilizer Value of Nitrogen Captured from Poultry Facilities Using Ammonia Scrubbers

Authors: Philip A. Moore Jr., Jerry Martin, Hong Li


Research has shown that over half of the nitrogen (N) excreted from broiler chickens is emitted to the atmosphere before the manure is removed from the barns, resulting in air and water pollution, as well as the loss of a valuable fertilizer resource. The objective of this study was to determine the fertilizer efficiency of N captured from the exhaust air from poultry houses using acid scrubbers. This research was conducted using 24 plots located on a Captina silt loam soil. There were six treatments: (1) unfertilized control, (2) aluminum sulfate (alum) scrubber solution, (3) potassium bisulfate scrubber solution, (4) sodium bisulfate scrubber solution, (5) sulfuric acid scrubber solution and (6) ammonium nitrate fertilizer dissolved in water. There were four replications per treatment in a randomized block design. The scrubber solutions were obtained from acid scrubbers attached to exhaust fans on commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at an application rate equivalent to 112 kg N ha⁻¹. Forage yields were measured five times throughout the growing season. Five months after the fertilizer sources were applied, a rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the potential effects on phosphorus (P) runoff. Forage yields were significantly higher in plots fertilized with scrubber solutions from potassium bisulfate and sodium bisulfate than plots fertilized with scrubber solutions made from alum or sulfuric acid or ammonium nitrate, which were higher than the controls (7.61, 7.46, 6.87, 6.72, 6.45, and 5.12 Mg ha ⁻¹, respectively). Forage N uptake followed similar trends as yields. Phosphorus runoff and water soluble P was significantly lower in plots fertilized with the scrubber solutions made from aluminum sulfate. This study demonstrates that N captured using ammonia scrubbers is as good or possibly better than commercial ammonium nitrate fertilizer.

Keywords: air quality, ammonia emissions, nitrogen fertilizer, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
70 Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Honey Producer in Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin


Ethiopian farmers have a long tradition of beekeeping and the country has huge potential for honey production. However traditional mode of production still dominates the sub sector which negatively affect the total production and productivity. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the working honey production, however, none of them systematically investigate the extent of technical efficiency of the sub-sector. This paper uses Stochastic Frontier production model to quantifying the extent of technical efficiency and identify exogenous determinant of inefficiency. The result showed that consistent with other studies traditional practice dominate small scale honey production in Ethiopia. The finding also revealed that use of purchased inputs such as bee forage and other supplement is very limited among honey producers indicating that natural bee forage is the primary source of bee forage. The immediate consequence of all these is low production and productivity. The number of hives the household owns, whether the household used improved apiculture technologies, availability of natural forest which is the primary sources of nectar for bees and amount of land owned by the households were found to have a significant influence on the amount of honey produced by beekeeper. Our result further showed that the mean technical efficiency of honey producers is 0.79 implying that, on average honey producer produce 80 percent of the maximum output. The implication is that 20 percent of the potential output is lost due to technical inefficiency. Number of hives owned by a honey produces, distance to district town-a proxy to market access, household wealth, and whether the household head has a leadership role in the PA affect the technical efficiency of honey producers. The finding suggest that policies that aim to expand the use of improved hives is expected to increase the honey production at household level. The result also suggest that investment on rural infrastructure would be instrumental in improving technical efficiency of honey producer.

Keywords: small-scale honey producer, Ethiopia, technical efficiency in apiculture, stochastic frontier analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
69 Welfare and Sustainability in Beef Cattle Production on Tropical Pasture

Authors: Andre Pastori D'Aurea, Lauriston Bertelli Feranades, Luis Eduardo Ferreira, Leandro Dias Pinto, Fabiana Ayumi Shiozaki


The aim of this study was to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture without harming this environment. On tropical pastures, cattle's live weight gain is lower than feedlot, and forage production is seasonable, changing from season to season. Thus, concerned with sustainable livestock production, the Premix Company has developed strategies to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture to ensure sustainability of welfare and production. There are two important principles in this productivity system: 1) increase individual gains with use of better supplementation and 2) increase the productivity units with better forage quality like corn silage or other forms of forage conservations, actually used only in winter, and adding natural additives in the diet. This production system was applied from June 2017 to May 2018 in the Research Center of Premix Company, Patrocínio Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The area used had 9 hectares of pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. 36 steers Nellore were evaluated for one year. The initial weight was 253 kg. The parameters used were daily average gain and gain per area. This indicated the corrections to be made and helped design future fertilization. In this case, we fertilized the pasture with 30 kg of nitrogen per animal divided into two parts. The diet was pasture and protein-energy supplements (0.4% of live weight). The supplement used was added with natural additive Fator P® – Premix Company). Fator P® is an additive composed by amino acids (lysine, methionine and tyrosine, 16400, 2980 and 3000 respectively), minerals, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 7 x 10E8 and essential fatty acids (linoleic and oleic acids, 108.9 and respectively). Due to seasonal changes, in the winter we supplemented the diet by increasing the offer of forage, supplementing with maize silage. It was offered 1% of live weight in silage corn and 0.4% of the live weight in protein-energetic supplements with additive Fator P ®. At the end of the period, the productivity was calculated by summing the individual gains for the area used. The average daily gain of the animals were 693 grams per day and was produced 1.005 kg /hectare/year. This production is about 8 times higher than the average of Brazilian meat national production. To succeed in this project, it is necessary to increase the gains per area, so it is necessary to increase the capacity per area. Pasture management is very important to the project's success because the dietary decisions were taken from the quantity and quality of the forage. We, therefore, recommend the use of animals in the growth phase because the response to supplementation is greater in that phase and we can allocate more animals per area. This system's carbon footprint reduces emissions by 61.2 percent compared to the Brazilian average. This beef cattle production system can be efficient and environmentally friendly to the natural. Another point is that bovines will benefit from their natural environment without competing or having an impact on human food production.

Keywords: cattle production, environment, pasture, sustainability

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68 Land Equivalent Ration of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System and Vermicompost in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee


Study of the effect of vermin compost on yield, and Land equivalent ration (LER) of chickpea-barley mixed cropping under normal dry land condition can be useful in order to increase qualitative and quantitative performance. In this case, two factors include fertilizer (vermicompost biological fertilizer, ammonium phosphate chemical fertilizer, vermicompost + %75 chemical fertilizer) and chickpea + barley mixed cropping (sole chickpea, %75 chickpea: %25 barley, %50 chickpea: %50 barley, %25 chickpea: %75 barley, and sole barley) in RCBD in three replications in two experiments include normal and dry land conditions were studied. Result showed that total LER base on dry matter was affected by environment and mixed cropping interaction and was more than 1 in all mixed cropping treatments. In different mixed cropping rates, wet forage yield decreased by decreasing chickpea ratio as well as increasing barley ratio. Total LER mean in base on forage dry matter in mixed-, chemical-, and vermicompost fertilizer treatments were 1.12, 1.05 and 1.10 in normal condition and 1.15, 1.08 and 1.14 in dry land condition, respectively, represented the important of biological fertilizer in mixed cropping systems.

Keywords: land equivalent ration, biological fertilizer, mixed cropping systems, water stress

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67 The Use of Palm Kernel Cake in Ration and Its Influence on VFA, NH3 and pH Rumen Fluid of Goat

Authors: Arief, Noovirman Jamarun, Benni Satria


Background: The main problem in the development of livestock in Indonesia is feed both in terms of quality and quantity. On the other hand, conventional feed ingredients are expensive and difficult to obtain. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative feed ingredients that have good quality, potential, and low cost. Feed ingredients that meet the above requirements are by-products of the palm oil industry, namely palm kernel cake (PKC). This study aims to obtain the best PKC composition for Etawa goat concentrate ration. Material and Methode : This research consists of 2 stages. Stage I is invitro study using Tilley and Terry method. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments of rations and 4 replications. The treatment is the composition of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC) in the ration, namely, A). 10%, B). 20%, C). 30%, D). 40%. Other feed ingredients are corn, rice bran, tofu waste and minerals. The measured variables are the characteristics of the rumen fluid (pH, VFA and NH3). Stage II was done using the best ration of stage I (Ration C), followed by testing the use of Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and agricultural waste of sweet potato leaves as a source of forage for livestock by in-vitro. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were: Treatment A) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Titonia (Thitonia difersifolia), Treatment B) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and Sweet potato Leaves, Treatment C) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Sweet potato leaves. The data obtained were analyzed using variance analysis while the differences between treatments were tested using the Duncant Multiple Range Test (DMRT) according to Steel and Torrie. Results of Stage II showed that the use of PKC in rations as concentrate feed combined with forage originating from Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and sweet potato leaves produced pH, VFA and NH3-N which were still in normal conditions. The best treatment was obtained from diet B (P <0.05) with 6.9 pH, 116.29 mM VFA and 15mM NH3-N. Conclussion From the results of the study it can be concluded that PKC can be used as feed ingredients for dairy goat concentrate with a combination of forage from Tithonia (Tithonia difersifolia) and sweet potato leaves.

Keywords: palm oil by-product, palm kernel cake, concentrate, rumen fluid, Etawa goat

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
66 Economic and Environmental Impact of the Missouri Grazing Schools

Authors: C. A. Roberts, S. L. Mascaro, J. R. Gerrish, J. L. Horner


Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) is a practice that rotates livestock through paddocks in a way that best matches the nutrient requirements of the animal to the yield and quality of the pasture. In the USA, MiG has been taught to livestock producers throughout the state of Missouri in 2- and 3-day workshops called “Missouri Grazing Schools.” The economic impact of these schools was quantified using IMPLAN software. The model included hectares of adoption, animal performance, carrying capacity, and input costs. To date, MiG, as taught in the Missouri Grazing Schools, has been implemented on more than 70,000 hectares in Missouri. The economic impact of these schools is presently $125 million USD per year added to the state economy. This magnitude of impact is the result not only of widespread adoption but also because of increased livestock carrying capacity; in Missouri, a capacity increase of 25 to 30% has been well documented. Additional impacts have been MiG improving forage quality and reducing the cost of feed and fertilizer. The environmental impact of MiG in the state of Missouri is currently being estimated. Environmental impact takes into account the reduction in the application of commercial fertilizers; in MiG systems, nitrogen is supplied by N fixation from legumes, and much of the P and K is recycled naturally by well-distributed manure. The environmental impact also estimates carbon sequestration and methane production; MiG can increase carbon sequestration and reduce methane production in comparison to default grazing practices and feedlot operations in the USA.

Keywords: agricultural education, forage quality, management-intensive grazing, nutrient cycling, stock density, sustainable agriculture

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65 Estimation of the Nutritive Value of Local Forage Cowpea Cultivars in Different Environments

Authors: Salem Alghamdi


Genotypes collected from farmers at a different region of Saudi Arabia as well as from Egyptian cultivar and a new line from Yamen. Seeds of these genotypes were grown in Dirab Agriculture Research Station, (Middle Region) and Al-Ahsa Palms and Dates Research Center (East region), during summer of 2015. Field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design on the first week of June with three replications. Each experiment plot contained 6 rows 3m in length. Inter- and intra-row spacing was 60 and 25cm, respectively. Seed yield and its components were estimated in addition to qualitative characters on cowpea plants grown only in Dirab using cowpea descriptor from IPGRI, 1982. Seeds for chemical composite and antioxidant contents were analyzed. Highly significant differences were detected between genotypes in both locations and the combined of two locations for seed yield and its components. Mean data clearly show exceeded determine genotypes in seed yield while indeterminate genotypes had higher biological yield that divided cowpea genotypes to two main groups 1- forage genotypes (KSU-CO98, KSU-CO99, KSU-CO100, and KSU-CO104) that were taller and produce higher branches, biological yield and these are suitable to feed on haulm 2- food genotypes (KSU-CO101, KSU-CO102, and KSU-CO103) that produce higher seed yield with lower haulm and also these genotypes characters by high seed index and light seed color. Highly significant differences were recorded for locations in all studied characters except the number of branches, seed index, and biological yield, however, the interaction of genotype x location was significant only for plant height, the number of pods and seed yield per plant.

Keywords: Cowpea, genotypes, antioxidant contents, yield

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64 Economic Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use into Tropical Pastures for Beef Cattle in Brazil

Authors: Elieder P. Romanzini, Lutti M. Delevatti, Rhaony G. Leite, Ricardo A. Reis, Euclides B. Malheiros


Brazilian beef cattle production systems are an important profitability source for the national gross domestic product. The main characteristic of these systems is forage utilization as the exclusive feed source. Forage utilization had been causing on owners the false feeling of low production costs. However, this low cost is followed to low profit causing a lot times worst animal index what can result in activities changes or until land sold. Aiming to evaluate economic impacts into Brazilian beef cattle systems were evaluated four nitrogen fertilizer (N) application levels (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg per hectare [kg.ha-1]). Research was developed during 2015 into Forage Crops and Grasslands section of São Paulo State University, “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp) (Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil). Pastures were seeded with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. ‘Marandu’ (Palisade grass) handled using continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate, sward height maintained at 25 cm. The economic evaluation was developed in rearing e finishing phases. We evaluated the cash flows inside each phase on different N levels. Economic valuations were considering: cost-effective operating (CEO), cost-total operating (CTO), gross revenue (GR), operating profit (OP) and net income (NI), every measured in US$. Complementary analyses were developed, profitability was calculated by [OP/GR]. Pay back (measured in years) was calculated considering average capital stocktaking pondered by area in use (ACS) divided by [GR-CEO]. And the internal rate of return (IRR) was calculated by 100/(pay back). Input prices were prices during 2015 and were obtained from Anuário Brasileiro da Pecuária, Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada and quotation in the same region of animal production (northeast São Paulo State) during the period above mentioned. Values were calculated in US$ according exchange rate US$1.00 equal R$3.34. The CEO, CTO, GR, OP and NI per hectare for each N level were respectively US$1,919.66; US$2,048.47; US$2,905.72; US$857.25 and US$986.06 to 0 kg.ha-1; US$2,403.20; US$2,551.80; US$3,530.19; US$978.39 and US$1,126.99 to 90 kg.ha-1; US$3,180.42; US$3,364.81; US$4,985.03; US$1,620.23 and US$1,804.62 to 180 kg.ha-1andUS$3,709.14; US$3,915.15; US$5,554.95; US$1,639.80 and US$1,845.81 to 270 kg.ha-1. Relationship to another economic indexes, profitability, pay back and IRR, the results were respectively 29.50%, 6.44 and 15.54% to 0 kg.ha-1; 27.72%, 6.88 and 14.54% to 90 kg.ha-1; 32.50%, 4.08 and 24.50% to 180 kg.ha-1 and 29.52%, 3.42 and 29.27% to 270 kg.ha-1. Values previously presented in this evaluation allowing to affirm that the best result was obtained to N level 270 kg.ha-1. These results among all N levels evaluated could be explained by improve occurred on stocking rate caused by increase on N level. However, a crucial information about high N level application into pastures is the efficiency of N utilization (associated to environmental impacts) that normally decrease with the increase on N level. Hence, considering all situations (efficiency of N utilization and economic results) into tropical pastures used to beef cattle production could be recommended N level equal to 180kg.ha-1, which had better profitability and cause lesser environmental impacts, proved by other studies developed in the same area.

Keywords: Brachiaria brizantha, cost-total operating, gross revenue, profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
63 Effect of Supplementation with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Growth Performance, Slaughter Traits and Mortality in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Carlos Minguez, Christian F. Sagbay, Erika E. Ordoñez


Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) play prominent roles as experimental models for medical research and as pets. However, in developing countries like South America, the Philippines, and sub-Saharan Africa, the meat of guinea pigs is an economic source of animal protein for the poor and malnourished humans because guinea pigs are mainly fed with forage and do not compete directly with human beings for food resources, such as corn or wheat. To achieve efficient production of guinea pigs, it is essential to provide insurance against vitamin C deficiency. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa with fresh citrus pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet of guinea pigs on the growth performance, slaughter traits and mortality during the fattening period (between 20 and 74 days of age). A total of 300 guinea pigs were housed in collective cages of about ten animals (2 x 1 x 0.4 m) and were distributed into two completely randomized groups. Guinea pigs in both groups were fed ad libitum, with a standard commercial pellet diet (10 MJ of digestible energy/kg, 17% crude protein, 11% crude fiber, and 4.5% crude fat). Control group was supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage. In the treatment group, 30% of alfalfa was replaced by fresh citrus pulp. Growth traits, including body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured weekly. On day 74, the animals were slaughtered, and slaughter traits, including live weight at slaughter (LWS), full gastrointestinal tract weight (FGTW), hot carcass weight (with head; HCW), cold carcass weight (with head; CCW), drip loss percentage (DLP) and dressing out carcass yield percentage (DCY), were evaluated. Contrasts between groups were obtained by calculated generalized least squares values. Mortality was evaluated by Fisher's exact test due to low numbers in some cells. In the first week, there were significant differences in the growth traits BW, ADG, FI, and FCR, which were superior in control group. These differences may have been due to the origin of the young guinea pigs, which, before weaning, were all raised without fresh citrus pulp, and they were not familiarized with the new supplement. In the second week, treatment group had significantly increased ADG compared with control group, which may have been the result of a process of compensatory growth. During subsequent weeks, no significant differences were observed between animals raised in the two groups. Neither were any significant differences observed across the total fattening period. No significant differences in slaughter traits or mortality rate were observed between animals from the two groups. In conclusion, although there were no significant differences in growth performance, slaughter traits, or mortality, the use of fresh citrus pulp is recommended. Fresh citrus pulp is a by-product of orange juice industry and it is cheap or free. Forage made with fresh citrus pulp could reduce about of 30 % the quantity of alfalfa in guinea pig for meat and as consequence, reduce the production costs.

Keywords: fresh citrus, growth, Guinea pig, mortality

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62 Ruminal Fermentation of Biologically Active Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages

Authors: Robin Anderson, David Nisbet


Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) are biologically active chemicals that can accumulate naturally in rangeland grasses forages consumed by grazing cattle, sheep and goats. While toxic to livestock if accumulations and amounts consumed are high enough, particularly in animals having no recent exposure to the forages, these chemicals are known to be potent inhibitors of methane-producing bacteria inhabiting the rumen. Consequently, there is interest in examining their potential use as anti-methanogenic compounds to decrease methane emissions by grazing ruminants. Presently, rumen microbes, collected freshly from a cannulated Holstein cow maintained on 50:50 corn based concentrate:alfalfa diet were mixed (10 mL fluid) in 18 x 150 mm crimp top tubes with 0.5 of high nitrate-containing barley (Hordeum vulgare; containing 272 µmol nitrate per g forage dry matter), and NPA- or NPOH- containing milkvetch forages (Astragalus canadensis and Astragalus miser containing 80 and 174 soluble µmol NPA or NPOH/g forage dry matter respectively). Incubations containing 0.5 g alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were used as controls. Tubes (3 per each respective forage) were capped and incubated anaerobically (using oxygen free carbon dioxide) for 24 h at 39oC after which time amounts of total gas produced were measured via volume displacement and headspace samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine concentrations of hydrogen and methane. Fluid samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to measure accumulations of fermentation acids. A completely randomized analysis of variance revealed that the nitrate-containing barley and both the NPA- and the NPOH-containing milkvetches significantly decreased methane production, by > 50%, when compared to methane produced by populations incubated similarly with alfalfa (70.4 ± 3.6 µmol/ml incubation fluid). Accumulations of hydrogen, which are typically increased when methane production is inhibited, by incubations with the nitrate-containing barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches did not differ from accumulations observed in the alfalfa controls (0.09 ± 0.04 µmol/mL incubation fluid). Accumulations of fermentation acids produced in the incubations containing the high-nitrate barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches likewise did not differ from accumulations observed in incubations containing alfalfa (123.5 ± 10.8, 36.0 ± 3.0, 17.1 ± 1.5, 3.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mL incubation fluid for acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, respectively). This finding indicates the microbial populations did not compensate for the decreased methane production via compensatory changes in production of fermentative acids. Stoichiometric estimation of fermentation balance revealed that > 77% of reducing equivalents generated during fermentation of the forages were recovered in fermentation products and the recoveries did not differ between the alfalfa incubations and those with the high-nitrate barley or the NPA- or NPOH-containing milkvetches. Stoichiometric estimates of amounts of hexose fermented similarly did not differ between the nitrate-, NPA and NPOH-containing incubations and those with the alfalfa, averaging 99.6 ± 37.2 µmol hexose consumed/mL of incubation fluid. These results suggest that forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH may be useful to reduce methane emissions of grazing ruminants provided risks of toxicity can be effectively managed.

Keywords: nitrate, nitropropanol, nitropropionic acid, rumen methane emissions

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61 Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets

Authors: Tiago N. P. Valente, Erico S. Lima, Roberto O. Roça


Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, unsaturated fatty acids

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60 Effects of Nutrients Supply on Milk Yield, Composition and Enteric Methane Gas Emissions from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Rwanda

Authors: Jean De Dieu Ayabagabo, Paul A.Onjoro, Karubiu P. Migwi, Marie C. Dusingize


This study investigated the effects of feed on milk yield and quality through feed monitoring and quality assessment, and the consequent enteric methane gas emissions from smallholder dairy farms in drier areas of Rwanda, using the Tier II approach for four seasons in three zones, namely; Mayaga and peripheral Bugesera (MPB), Eastern Savanna and Central Bugesera (ESCB), and Eastern plateau (EP). The study was carried out using 186 dairy cows with a mean live weight of 292 Kg in three communal cowsheds. The milk quality analysis was carried out on 418 samples. Methane emission was estimated using prediction equations. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA. The dry matter intake was lower (p<0.05) in the long dry season (7.24 Kg), with the ESCB zone having the highest value of 9.10 Kg, explained by the practice of crop-livestock integration agriculture in that zone. The Dry matter digestibility varied between seasons and zones, ranging from 52.5 to 56.4% for seasons and from 51.9 to 57.5% for zones. The daily protein supply was higher (p<0.05) in the long rain season with 969 g. The mean daily milk production of lactating cows was 5.6 L with a lower value (p<0.05) during the long dry season (4.76 L), and the MPB zone having the lowest value of 4.65 L. The yearly milk production per cow was 1179 L. The milk fat varied from 3.79 to 5.49% with a seasonal and zone variation. No variation was observed with milk protein. The seasonal daily methane emission varied from 150 g for the long dry season to 174 g for the long rain season (p<0.05). The rain season had the highest methane emission as it is associated with high forage intake. The mean emission factor was 59.4 Kg of methane/year. The present EFs were higher than the default IPPC value of 41 Kg from developing countries in African, the Middle East, and other tropical regions livestock EFs using Tier I approach due to the higher live weight in the current study. The methane emission per unit of milk production was lower in the EP zone (46.8 g/L) due to the feed efficiency observed in that zone. Farmers should use high-quality feeds to increase the milk yield and reduce the methane gas produced per unit of milk. For an accurate assessment of the methane produced from dairy farms, there is a need for the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach that considers all the sources of emissions.

Keywords: footprint, forage, girinka, tier

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
59 Variation in pH Values and Tenderness of Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipids

Authors: Erico Da Silva Lima, Tiago Neves Pereira Valente, Roberto De Oliveira Roça


Introduction: Over the last few years the market has increased its demand for high quality meat. Based on this premise some producers have continuously improved their efficiency in breeding beef cattle with the purpose to support this demand. It is well recognized that final quality of beef is intimately linked to animal’s diet. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of feeding animals with cottonseed and its lipids and the final results in terms of pH and shear forces of the meat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 h at 2°C. Using pH meter was determined post-mortem pH in Longissimus thoracis muscle between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. After, part of each animal was removed, and divided in three samples (steaks). Steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored individually in plastic bags under vacuum. Samples were frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The same samples cooked were refrigerated by 12 h the 4°C, and then cut into cylinders 1.10 Øcm with the support of a drill press avoiding fats and nerves. Shear force was calculated in these samples cut into cylinders through the Brookfield texture CT3 Texture Analyzer 25 k equipped with a set of blade Warner-Bratzler. Results and Discussion: No differences (P > 0.05) in pH 24 h after slaughter were observed in the meat of Nellore cattle fed different sources of fat, and mean value for this variable was 5.59. However, for the shear force differences (P < 0.05) were founded. For diet with 2,50% cottonseed the lowest value found 5.10 (kg) while for the treatment with 11.50% cottonseed the great value found was 6.30 (kg). High shear force values mean greater texture of meat that indicates less tenderness. The texture of the meat can be influenced by age, weight to the slaughter of animals. For cattle breed Nellore Bos taurus indicus more high value of shear force. Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected pH values in meat. The whole cottonseed does not contribute to the improvement of tenderness of the meat. Acknowledgments: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, shear force

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58 Range Suitability Model for Livestock Grazing in Taleghan Rangelands

Authors: Hossein Arzani, Masoud Jafari Shalamzari, Z. Arzani


This paper follows FAO model of suitability analysis. Influential factors affecting extensive grazing were determined and converted into a model. Taleghan rangelands were examined for common types of grazing animals as an example. Advantages and limitations were elicited. All range ecosystems’ components affect range suitability but due to the time and money restrictions, the most important and feasible elements were investigated. From which three sub-models including water accessibility, forage production and erosion sensitivity were considered. Suitable areas in four levels of suitability were calculated using GIS. This suitability modeling approach was adopted due to its simplicity and the minimal time that is required for transforming and analyzing the data sets. Managers could be benefited from the model to devise the measures more wisely to cope with the limitations and enhance the rangelands health and condition.

Keywords: range suitability, land-use, extensive grazing, modeling, land evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237