Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Adeela Ajmal

26 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: feed, silage, dairy, production, Pakistan

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25 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Sahiwal cattle, polymorphic SNPs, genotyping, Pakistan

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24 Assesment of SNP Variation and Distribution in Pakistani Cattle Breeds using High Density SNP Genotyping

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Heather J. Huson, Adeela Ajmal, Kim Euisoo, Tad S. Sonstegard

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In this study, 67 animals, representing six different cattle breeds of Pakistan, were genotyped with the Bovine high density (777K) SNP Beadchip. These include 13 Sahiwal, 09 Red Sindhi, 13 Tharparkar, 08 Achi, 13 Cholistani and 10 Dhanni cattle breeds. Analysis of 500, 939 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.21, 0.22, 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.22 for Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Achi, Cholistani and Dhanni respectively. Significant differences of minor allele frequency (MAF) were observed between the indigenous Pakistani cattle population (P<0.001). Across these Pakistani cattle breeds, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 75.71 % of the 500,939 SNPs and on the average 19.58 % of the markers were monomorphic. Mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities were 0.656 and 0.638, respectively. This primarily study of Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds indicate that this level of SNPs variation can potentially be used for genomic studies for future breeding plans and for farm animal conservation strategies.

Keywords: Pakistan, cattle, minor allele frequency, SNP, variation

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23 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

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22 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain

Abstract:

World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: buffalo, FSHR gene, bioinformatics, production

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21 Population Structure Analysis of Pakistani Indigenous Cattle Population by Using High Density SNP Array

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, McClure Matt, Khalid Javed, Talat Nasser Pasha, Afzal Ali1, Adeela Ajmal, Tad Sonstegard

Abstract:

Genetic differences associated with speciation, breed formation or local adaptation can help to preserve and effective utilization of animals in selection programs. Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among ten Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds. In total, 25 individuals from three cattle populations, including Achi (n=08), Bhagnari (n=04) and Cholistani (n=13) were genotyped for 777, 962 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE. After characterizing SNP polymorphism in the different populations, we performed a detailed analysis of genetic structure at both the individual and population levels. The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. We further searched for spatial patterns of genetic diversity among these breeds under the recently developed spatial principal component analysis framework. Overall, such high throughput genotyping data confirmed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.

Keywords: Pakistan, cattle, genetic diversity, population structure

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20 Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of Suaeda Heterophylla to Abiotic Stresses

Authors: Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Salman Gulzar, Bilquees Gul, Jan Alam, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Abdel Rehman A. Alatar, M. Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Seed germination and recovery from salt stress of an annual halophyte Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. and Kir.) Bunge to different iso-osmotic concentrations (0, -0.46, -0.92, -1.38, -1.84, and -2.30 MPa) of NaCl and PEG-6000 at 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35°C in both 12-h temperature and light regimes and in complete darkness were studied. Maximum number of seeds germinated in distilled water and increase in concentrations of both NaCl and PEG-6000 decreased germination at all temperature regimes, light and dark conditions, with higher inhibition in NaCl than PEG-6000. Recovery of germination and viability of seeds were lower in NaCl than PEG-6000 both in the light and dark. Moderate alternate temperatures (20/30°C) and 12-h photoperiod were found to be the optimal for seed germination and recovery. Better seed germination of S. heterophylla when osmotic potential caused both by NaCl and PEG 6000 is lower, temperature regime of 20/30°C and light regime is for 12 h.

Keywords: seed germination, abiotic stresses, Suaeda heterophylla, molecular biology

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19 Code-Switching among Local UCSI Stem and N-Stem Undergraduates during Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Adeela Abu Bakar, Minder Kaur, Parthaman Singh

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In the Malaysian education system, a formal setting of English language learning takes place in a content-based classroom (CBC). Until recently, there is less study in Malaysia, which researched the effects of code-switching (CS) behaviour towards the students’ knowledge sharing (KS) with their peers. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency, reasons, and effect that CS, from the English language to Bahasa Melayu, has among local STEM and N-STEM undergraduates towards KS in a content-based classroom. The study implies a mixed-method research design with questionnaire and interviews as the instruments. The data is collected through distribution of questionnaires and interviews with the undergraduates. The quantitative data is analysed using SPSS in simple frequencies and percentages, whereas qualitative data involves organizing the data into themes, followed by analysis. Findings found that N-STEM undergraduates code-switch more as compared to STEM undergraduates. In addition to that, both the STEM and N-STEM undergraduates agree that CS acts as a catalyst towards KS in a content-based classroom. However, they also acknowledge that excess use of CS can be a hindrance towards KS. The findings of the study can benefit STEM and N-STEM undergraduates, education policymakers, language teachers, university educators, and students with significant insights into the role of CS towards KS in a content-based classroom. Some of the recommendations that can be applied for future studies are that the number of participants can be increased, an observation to be included for the data collection.

Keywords: switching, content-based classroom, content and language integrated learning, knowledge sharing, STEM and N-STEM undergraduates

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18 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

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The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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17 Glycation of Serum Albumin: Cause Remarkable Alteration in Protein Structure and Generation of Early Glycation End Products

Authors: Ishrat Jahan Saifi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, M. R. Ajmal

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Glycation of protein is very important as well as a harmful process, which may lead to develop DM in human body. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood and it is highly prone to glycation by the reducing sugars. 2-¬deoxy d-¬Ribose (dRib) is a highly reactive reducing sugar which is produced in cells as a product of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. It is generated during the degradation of DNA in human body. It may cause glycation in HSA rapidly and is involved in the development of DM. In present study, we did in¬vitro glycation of HSA with different concentrations of 2-¬deoxy d-¬ribose and found that dRib glycated HSA rapidly within 4h incubation at 37◦C. UV¬ Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) technique have been done to determine the structural changes in HSA upon glycation. Results of this study suggested that dRib is the potential glycating agent and it causes alteration in protein structure and biophysical properties which may lead to development and progression of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: 2-deoxy D-ribose, human serum albumin, glycation, diabetes mellitus

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16 Caste and Marriage: A Qualitative Study of Four Castes from City of Lahore

Authors: Huma Aly, M. Asir Ajmal, Maryam F Munir

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The present study explored the role of caste system in determining and understanding the positive and negative impact of within caste marriages. It analyzed various rituals and concept of dowry system across castes. Reasons for the emphasis on within caste marriage were identified. Qualitative research method was used and for this purpose semi structured interviews were conducted across four castes namely Arains, Jutts, Sayyads, and Kakezais. The sample consisted of eight individuals including a male and female from each caste. Grounded theory method was used to analyze the results. Codes, categories and themes were formulated. Findings revealed that rriage mrituals and dowry system varied across biradries. Parents and grandparents still feel reluctant to marry outside their own caste. One major reason which appeared was that while marrying across castes, individuals feel reluctant to marry in Jutts and Kakezais. On the contrary, modernization, education and urbanization is changing the mindset of new generation and some of them want to eradicate the negative aspects of this system. This study will play a significant part in changing the traditional viewpoint of majority of elders of our society who still have immense association with the caste they belong to.

Keywords: caste, codes, categories, themes, Pakistan

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15 Aggregation of Butanediyl-1,4-Bis(Tetradecyldimethylammonium Bromide) (14–4–14) Gemini Surfactants in Presence of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Authors: P. Ajmal Koya, Tariq Ahmad Wagay, K. Ismail

Abstract:

One of the fundamental property of surfactant molecules are their ability to aggregate in water or binary mixtures of water and organic solvents as an effort to minimize their unfavourable interaction with the medium. In this work, influence two co-solvents (ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)) on the aggregation properties of a cationic gemini surfactant, butanediyl-1,4-bis(tetradecyldimethylammonium bromide) (14–4–14), has been studied by conductance and steady state fluorescence at 298 K. The weight percentage of two co-solvents varied in between 0 and 50 % at an interval of 5 % up to 20 % and then 10 % up to 50 %. It was found that micellization process is delayed by the inclusion of both the co-solvents; consequently, a progressive increase was observed in critical micelle concentration (cmc) and Gibbs free energy of micellization (∆G0m), whereas a rough increase was observed in the values of degree of counter ion dissociation (α) and a decrease was obtained in values of average aggregation number (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (KSV). At low weight percentage (up to 15 %) of co-solvents, 14–4–14 geminis were found to be almost equally prone to micellization both in EG–water (EG–WR) and in PG–water (PG–WR) mixed media while at high weight percentages they are more prone to micellization in EG–WR than in PG–WR mixed media.

Keywords: aggregation number, gemini surfactant, micellization, non aqueous solvent

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14 Screening the Best Integrated Pest Management Treatments against Helicoverpa armigera

Authors: Ajmal Khan Kassi, Humayun Javed, Tariq Mukhtar

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The research was conducted to screen out resistance and susceptibility of okra varieties against Helicoverpa armigera under field conditions 2016. In this experiment, the different management practices viz. release Trichogramma chilonis, hoeing, and weeding, clipping, and lufenuron were tested individually and with all possible combinations for the controlling of American bollworm at 3 diverse localities viz. University research farm Koont, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) and farmer field Taxila by using resistant variety Arka Anamika. All the treatment combinations regarding damage of shoot and fruit showed significant results. The minimum fruit infestation, i.e., 3.20% and 3.58% was recorded with combined treatment (i.e., T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) in two different localities. The minimum shoot infestation, i.e., 7.18%, 7.08%, and 6.85% was also observed with (T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) combined treatment at all three different localities. The above-combined treatment (T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) also resulted in maximum yield at NARC and Taxila, i.e., 57.67 and 62.66 q/ha respectively. On the basis of combined treatment (i.e., T. chilonis + hoeing + weeding + lufenuron) in three different localities, Arka Anamika variety proved to be comparatively resistant against H. armigera. So this variety is recommended for the cultivation in Pothwar region to get maximum yield and minimum losses against H. armigera.

Keywords: okra, screening, combine treatment, Helicoverpa armigera

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13 Modifiable Poly Methacrylic Acid-Co-Acrylonitrile Microgels Fabricated with Cu and Co Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Catalytic Reduction of Multiple Compounds

Authors: Muhammad Ajmal, Muhammad Siddiq, Nurettin Sahiner

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We prepared poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (p(MAc-co-AN)) microgels by inverse suspension polymerization, and converted the nitrile groups into amidoxime groups to obtain more hydrophilic amidoximated poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylonitile) (amid-p(MAc-co-AN)) microgels. Amid-microgels were used as microreactors for in situ synthesis of copper and cobalt nanoparticles. Cu (II) and Co (II) ions were loaded into microgels from their aqueous metal salt solutions and then converted to corresponding metal nanoparticle (MNP) by treating the loaded metal ions with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The characterization of the prepared microgels and microgel metal nanoparticle composites was carried out by SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The amounts of metal nanoparticles within microgels were estimated by AAS measurements by dissolving the MNP entrapped within microgels by concentrated HCl acid treatment. Catalytic performances of the prepared amid-p(MAc-co-AN)-M (M: Cu, Co) microgel composites were investigated by using them as catalyst for the degradation of cationic and anionic organic dyes such as eosin Y (EY), methylene blue (MB) and methyl Orange (MO), and for the reduction of nitro aromatic pollutants like 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to their corresponding amino phenols. Here, we also report for the first time, the simultaneous degradation/reduction of MB, EY, and 4-NP by amid-p(MAc-co-AN)-Cu microgel composites. Different parameters affecting the reduction rates such as metal types, amount of catalysts, temperature and the amount of reducing agent were investigated.

Keywords: microgels, nanoparticles, catalyst, pollutants

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12 A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Marvel Comics

Authors: Onaza Ajmal

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The purpose of the study is to explore the power relations linguistically and visually with reference to the representation of gender, race, violence, and empowerment through male characters and female superheroes from the two selected Marvel comics, Ms. Marvel (2014) and Captain Marvel (2019-). The study also aims to elaborate on the different cultural backgrounds of female superheroes and their choices and behaviors concerning the male characters. Moreover, it also seeks to explore whether the female superheroes reassert or resists the established gender roles. Using the tenets of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA) by Lazar (2005), the study analyzed the power relations from a feminist viewpoint. The linguistic analysis of textual features such as ‘adjectives’, ‘lexical items’, ‘metaphors’, and ‘use of pronouns’, etc., found in the selected comics is carried out under the framework of CDA given by Fairclough (1989). Kress and van Leeuwen's model of reading images (2006) are used to analyze the visual images in this study. The findings of the study show that despite the empowering nature of female superheroes, the unequal power relations between male and female characters are established linguistically and visually, which further sustains and reinforces the racial and patriarchal gender ideologies in the selected comics. Moreover, it is recommended that the female representations in the feminist themes of empowerment with respect to the Pakistani female superheroes should also be explored for further research.

Keywords: feminist critical discourse analysis, patriarchal gender ideology, power relations, superhero comics

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11 Assessment of Alteration in High Density Lipo Protein, Apolipoprotein A1, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase and Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients

Authors: Marina Lazar Chandy, N. Kannan, Rajendra Patil, Vinod Mathew, Ajmal Mohamed, P. K. Sreeja, Renju Jose

Abstract:

Introduction- Arecoline, a major constituent of arecanut has shown to have some effect on liver. The use of arecanut is found to be the most common etiological factor for the development of Oral Submucous fibrosis (O.S.M.F). The effect of arecanut usage on liver in patients with O.S.M.F needs to be assessed. Lipids play a role in structural maintenance of cell. Alterations of lipid profile were noted in cancer patients. O.S.M.F being a precancerous lesion can have some effect on the level of lipids in the body. Objectives: This study was done to assess the alterations in liver enzymes (Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase(S.G.P.T ,Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase(S.G.O.T)) and lipid metabolism (High Density Lipoprotien(H.D.L) and Apo Lipoprotien A1 (Apo A1)) in patients with O.S.M.F. Methods-130 patients were taken for the study,100 patients with O.S.M.F and 30 as control group without O.S.M.F. Fasting blood sugar levels were taken, centrifuged and analyzed for S.G.P.T,S.G.O.T, H.D.L and Apo A1 using semi automated spectrophotometer. Results: After statistical analysis, it was concluded that there is an elevation of levels of S.G.P.T, S.G.O.T, and decreased levels of H.D.L, Apo A1 for O.S.M.F group when compared with control group. With increased grade of O.S.M.F. and duration of habit, S.G.P.T. & S.G.O.T. increased whereas, H.D.L. & Apo A1 decreased. All the values were statistically significant at p<0.01.

Keywords: apolipoprotien A1, high density lipoprotien, oral submucous fibrosis, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

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10 Metaphorical Devices in Political Cartoons with Reference to Political Confrontation in Pakistan after Panama Leaks

Authors: Ayesha Ashfaq, Muhammad Ajmal Ashfaq

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It has been assumed that metaphorical and symbolic contests are waged with metaphors, captions, and signs in political cartoons that play a significant role in image construction of political actors, situations or events in the political arena. This paper is an effort to explore the metaphorical devices in political cartoons related to the political confrontation in Pakistan between the ruling party Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and opposition parties especially after Panama leaks. For this purpose, political cartoons sketched by five renowned political cartoonists on the basis of their belongings to the most highly circulated mainstream English newspapers of Pakistan and their professional experiences in their genre, were selected. The cartoons were analyzed through the Barthes’s model of Semiotics under the umbrella of the first level of agenda setting theory ‘framing’. It was observed that metaphorical devices in political cartoons are one of the key weapons of cartoonists’ armory. These devices are used to attack the candidates and contribute to the image and character building. It was found that all the selected political cartoonists used different forms of metaphors including situational metaphors and embodying metaphors. Not only the physical stature but also the debates and their activities were depicted metaphorically in the cartoons that create the scenario of comparison between the cartoons and their real political confrontation. It was examined that both forms of metaphors shed light on cartoonist’s perception and newspaper’s policy about political candidates, political parties and particular events. In addition, it was found that zoomorphic metaphors and metaphors of diminishments were also predominantly used to depict the conflict between two said political actors.

Keywords: metaphor, Panama leaks, political cartoons, political communication

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9 Memristor-A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems

Authors: Juhi Faridi, Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel

Abstract:

The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology has led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having the computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor are a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS.  Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analog and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.

Keywords: analog circuits, digital circuits, memristors, neuromorphic computing systems

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8 Towards a Scientific Intepretation of the Theory of Rasa in Indian Classical Music

Authors: Ajmal Hussain

Abstract:

In Indian music parlance, Rasa denotes a distinct aesthetic experience that builds up in the mind of the listeners while listening to a piece of Indian classical music. The distinction of the experience is rooted in the concept that it gives rise to an enhanced awareness about the Self or God and creates a mental state detached from mundane issues of everyday life. The theory of Rasa was initially proposed in the context of theatre but became a part of Indian musicological discourse roughly two thousand years ago, however, to this day, it remains shrouded in mystery due to its religious associations and connotations. This paper attempts to demystify the theory of Rasa in the light of available scientific knowledge fund particularly in Brain and Mind sciences. The paper initially describes the religious context of the theory of Rasa and then discusses its classical formulations by Bharata and Abhinavagupta including the steps and stages laid down by the latter to explain the creation of musical experience. The classical formulations are then interpreted with reference to the scientific knowledge fund about the human mind and mechanics of perception. The study uses the model of human mind as proposed by Portuguese-American neuroscientist Antonio Damasio in his theory ‘A Nesting Principle’. On the basis of the findings by Damasio, the paper interprets the experience of Rasa from a scientific perspective and clarifies the sequence of steps and stages involved in the making of musical experience. The study concludes that although the classical formulations of Rasa identify key aspects of musical experience, the association of Rasa with religion is misleading. The association with religion does not depend upon musical stimulus but the intellectual orientation of the listener. It further establishes that the function of Rasa is more profound as, from an evolutionary perspective, it can be seen as a catalyst for higher consciousness.

Keywords: aesthetic, consciousness, music, Rasa

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7 Building Resilience through Inclusion of Global Citizenship Education in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Pakistan

Authors: Fouzia Ajmal

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Global Citizenship Education (GCED) could prove to be the best solution to prevent violent extremism as it will sustain a respect for all and build up a feeling of having a place with humankind. To meet the target 4.7 of sustainable development goals, it is important to focus on global citizenship education at all levels of education in general and in pre-service teacher education in particular so that the message and practices reach the young masses. The pre-service education is imperative to develop knowledge, skills and disposition of prospective teachers. The current study was conducted to investigate the integration of GCED in pre-service teacher education curriculum of Pakistan. The study was delimited to B.Ed (hons) Elementary Education programme. The curriculum of B.Ed Elementary developed by Higher Education Commission was analyzed through Curriculum Alignment Matrix. 31 course outlines were analyzed, and percentage was used to analyze the level of integration of GCED in courses. The analyses depicted that the concepts of civic sense, tolerance, duties and rights of citizens and fundamental rights of humans are partially aligned in a few of the courses. The tolerance, active citizenship, and respect for cultural diversity and religious harmony are evident in Pakistan Studies and teaching of social studies courses. The relevant books are also mentioned as resources in these courses. The intercultural understanding is not very evident while globalization is mentioned in a few courses. It is recommended that a deliberate effort may be made to integrate concepts of Global Citizenship Education so as to enable the prospective teachers in developing necessary skills to play their active role in promoting peace and building resilience to extremism in elementary school students.

Keywords: curriculum analysis, global citizenship education, preservice teacher education, resilience building

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6 Field Evaluation of Different Aubergine Cultivars against Infestation of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer

Authors: Ajmal Khan Kassi, Humayun Javed, Muhammad Asif Aziz

Abstract:

Response of different aubergine cultivars against Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee.) was evaluated at research farm of PMAS, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, during 2013. Field trials were conducted in randomized completed block design with four replications for the screening of five cultivars of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L) (Short Purpal, Singhnath 666, Brinjal long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602, Round Egg Plant White). Cultivar Round White Brinjal showed maximum fruit infestation (54.44%) followed by Singhnath 666 (53.19%), while minimum fruit infestation was observed in Round Brinjal 86602 (42.39%). Cultivar Short Purpal showed maximum larval population (0.43) followed by Round White Brinjal (0.39), while the minimum larval population was observed in Round Brinjal 86602 with (0.27). It was observed that Round Brinjal 86602 cultivar showed comparatively minimum (L. orbonalis) larval population per leaf. The correlation of Brinjal fruit infestation and larval population of (L. orbonalis) with the different environmental factors showed that, the average relative humidity was positively and significantly correlated with fruit infestation on cultivars average precipitation showed positive but non- significant correlation on all the cultivars except Singhnath 666 with the value of (0.79) which was positive and significant. The average temperature showed non-significant and negative correlation with Brinjal long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602 and Singhnath 666, but significant negative correlation with Short Purpal and Round White Brinjal. Maximum temperature also showed the significant and negative correlation on all the five Brinjal cultivars which were significant and highly significant. Minimum temperature showed negative correlation and not significant correlation with all the cultivars. Consequently, based on the (L. orbonalis) larval density and Brinjal fruit infestation, the Round Brinjal 86602 proved least susceptible and Short Purpal highly susceptible cultivar.

Keywords: evaluation, Brinjal (Solanum melongena L), Cultivars, L. orbonalis

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5 Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of Methotrexate Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in vitro Model System Using Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muhammad Ajmal, Uzma Yunus, Noaman-ul Haq, Hafiz M. Shohaib, Ambreen G. Muazzam

Abstract:

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique properties that are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their precise properties like small size (ideal for delivery within the body) stability in solvent and tunable surface chemistry for targeted delivery. Here, highly fluorescent, monodispersed and water-soluble CNPs were synthesized directly from a suitable carbohydrate source (glucose and sucrose) by one-step acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35 KHz for 4 hours. This method is green, simple, rapid and economical and can be used for large scale production and applications. The average particle sizes of CNPs are less than 10nm and they emit bright and colorful green-blue fluorescence under the irradiation of UV-light at 365nm. The CNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and TGA analysis. Fluorescent CNPs were used as fluorescent probe and nano-carriers for anticancer drug. Functionalized CNPs (with ethylene diamine) were attached with anticancer drug-Methotrexate. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of CNPs-drug conjugates was evaluated by LDH assay and Sulforhodamine B assay using human lung carcinoma cell lines (H157). Our results reveled that CNPs showed biocompatibility and CNPs-anticancer drug conjugates have shown potent cytotoxic effects and high antitumor activities in lung cancer cell lines. CNPs are proved to be excellent substitute for conventional drug delivery cargo systems and anticancer therapeutics in vitro. Our future studies will be more focused on using the same nanoparticles in vivo model system.

Keywords: carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles-methotrexate conjugates, human lung carcinoma cell lines, lactate dehydrogenase, methotrexate

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4 A Cross Culture Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapies: Highly Effective for Gastropathic Disorders among Three Ethnic Communities of South West Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shayan Jamshed, Humera Jabeen, Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Gastropathic disorders are increasing rapidly and millions patients are reported every years across the world. Herbal medicines and traditional phytotherapies are very effective for many diseases including gastropathic ailments. Many communities and study region have their own unique remedies for such diseases. The current study was aimed to investigate and document high valued medicinal plants and folk remedies for different gastropathic disorders among the three ethnic groups of three regions in South West Pakistan. A total of 104 semi-structured interviews involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (D.I. Khan, Zhob and Mianwali) were conducted. The interviews were especially focused on the documentation of folk herbal remedies. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative methods. The highly effective plants from all localities were identified with the help of local interviewers and collected for proper taxonomic identification. A total of 56 medicinal plants and 33 effective recipes for 12 gastropathic diseases were documented from all the three ethnic groups in 21 localities. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were most prominently used for different gastropathic diseases. Diarrhea, vomiting and dysentery were the most commonly diseases treated with herbal remedies. It was observed that the three communities shared knowledge about the use of medicinal plants, 35 species were commonly reported from all three areas. However, each community had also their own unique uses of medicinal plants, e.g. 23 plants species were only used in Zhob, 20 plant species were only reported in D.I. Khan and 16 species in Mianwali. The present study reveals that different communities and ethnic groups share some traditional knowledge and also have their own unique knowledge of plants utilization. Gastropathic disorder is increasing very rapidly and the traditional cross-cultural knowledge of medicinal plants use can be very effective for its cure.

Keywords: cross cultural, ethnic groups, gastropathy, phytotherapies, South West Pakistan

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3 Transition in Protein Profile, Maillard Reaction Products and Lipid Oxidation of Flavored Ultra High Temperature Treated Milk

Authors: Muhammad Ajmal

Abstract:

- Thermal processing and subsequent storage of ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk leads to alteration in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation. Concentration of carbohydrates in normal and flavored version of UHT milk is considerably different. Transition in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation in UHT flavored milk was determined for 90 days at ambient conditions and analyzed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. Protein profile, hydroxymethyl furfural, furosine, Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine, fatty acid profile, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were determined. After 90 days of storage, fat, protein, total solids contents and pH were significantly less than the initial values determined at 0 day. As compared to protein profile normal UHT milk, more pronounced changes were recorded in different fractions of protein in UHT milk at 45 and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 3.5, 6.9 and 15.2 µg tyrosine/ml. After 45 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 3.35%, 10.5%, 7.89%, 18.8%, 53.6%, 20.1%, 26.9 and 37.5%. After 90 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 11.2%, 34.8%, 14.3%, 33.9%, 56.9%, 24.8%, 36.5% and 43.1%. Hydroxy methyl furfural content of UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 1.56, 4.18 and 7.61 (µmol/L). Furosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage intervals were 278, 392 and 561 mg/100g protein. Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine content of UHT flavored milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 67, 135 and 343mg/kg protein. After 90 days of storage of flavored UHT milk, the loss of unsaturated fatty acids 45.7% from the initial values. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, free fatty acids of flavored UHT milk were 0.08%, 0.11% and 0.16% (p<0.05). Peroxide value of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 0.22, 0.65 and 2.88 (MeqO²/kg). Sensory analysis of flavored UHT milk after 90 days indicated that appearance, flavor and mouth feel score significantly decreased from the initial values recorded at 0 day. Findings of this investigation evidenced that in flavored UHT milk more pronounced changes take place in protein profile, Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation as compared to normal UHT milk.

Keywords: UHT flavored milk , hydroxymethyl furfural, lipid oxidation, sensory properties

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2 Tracheal Stenting to Relieve Respiratory Distress in Patient with Advanced Esophageal Malignancy and Its Anaesthetic Management

Authors: Aarti Agarwal, Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Breathing difficulty is most distressing symptom for the patient and their caregivers providing palliative care to individuals with advanced malignancy. It needs to be tackled effectively and sometimes preemptively to provide relief from respiratory obstruction. Interventional procedures like tracheal stenting are becoming increasingly popular as a part of palliation for respiratory symptoms. We present a case of esophageal tumor earlier stented by Gastroenterologist to maintain esophageal patency, but the tumor outgrew to produce tracheal infiltration and thereby causing airway obstruction. Method and Result: 62-year-old man presented with unresectable Carcinoma oesophagus with inability to swallow. A metallic stent was placed by the gastroenterologist, to maintain esophageal patency and enable patient to swallow. Two months later, the patient returned to hospital in emergency with respiratory distress. CT neck and thorax revealed tumor infiltration through posterior tracheal wall. Lower extent of the tumor was till 1 cm above the carina. Airway stenting with Tracheo bronchial stent with Y configuration was planned under general anaesthesia with airway blocks. Superior Laryngeal Nerve Block, Glossopharyngeal block and Trans tracheal infiltration of local anaesthetics were performed. The patient was sedated with Fentanyl, Midazolam and propofol infusion but was breathing spontaneously. Once the rigid bronchoscope was placed inside trachea, breathing was supported with oxygen and sevoflurane. Initially, the trachea was cleared of tumor by coring. After creating space, tracheal stent was positioned and deployed. After stent placement patient was awakened, suctioned and nebulized. His respiratory stridor relieved instantaneously and was shifted to recovery. Conclusion: Airway blocks help in decreasing the incidence and severity of coughing during airway instrumentation thereby help in proper stent placement. They also reduce the requirement of general anaesthetics and hasten the post stenting recovery. Airway stent provided immediate relief to patient from symptoms of respiratory difficulty. Decision for early tracheal stenting may be taken for a select group of patients with high propensity for local spread, thereby avoiding respiratory complications and providing better quality of life in patients with inoperable malignancy.

Keywords: tracheal stent, respiratory difficulty, esophageal tumor, anaesthetic management

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1 An Integrated Solid Waste Management Strategy for Semi-Urban and Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Z. Zaman Asam, M. Ajmal, R. Saeed, H. Miraj, M. Muhammad Ahtisham, B. Hameed, A. -Sattar Nizami

Abstract:

In Pakistan, environmental degradation and consequent human health deterioration has rapidly accelerated in the past decade due to solid waste mismanagement. As the situation worsens with time, establishment of proper waste management practices is urgently needed especially in semi urban and rural areas of Pakistan. This study uses a concept of Waste Bank, which involves a transfer station for collection of sorted waste fractions and its delivery to the targeted market such as recycling industries, biogas plants, composting facilities etc. The management efficiency and effectiveness of Waste Bank depend strongly on the proficient sorting and collection of solid waste fractions at household level. However, the social attitude towards such a solution in semi urban/rural areas of Pakistan demands certain prerequisites to make it workable. Considering these factors the objectives of this study are to: [A] Obtain reliable data about quantity and characteristics of generated waste to define feasibility of business and design factors, such as required storage area, retention time, transportation frequency of the system etc. [B] Analyze the effects of various social factors on waste generation to foresee future projections. [C] Quantify the improvement in waste sorting efficiency after awareness campaign. We selected Gujrat city of Central Punjab province of Pakistan as it is semi urban adjoined by rural areas. A total of 60 houses (20 from each of the three selected colonies), belonging to different social status were selected. Awareness sessions about waste segregation were given through brochures and individual lectures in each selected household. Sampling of waste, that households had attempted to sort, was then carried out in the three colored bags that were provided as part of the awareness campaign. Finally, refined waste sorting, weighing of various fractions and measurement of dry mass was performed in environmental laboratory using standard methods. It was calculated that sorting efficiency of waste improved from 0 to 52% as a result of the awareness campaign. The generation of waste (dry mass basis) on average from one household was 460 kg/year whereas per capita generation was 68 kg/year. Extrapolating these values for Gujrat Tehsil, the total waste generation per year is calculated to be 101921 tons dry mass (DM). Characteristics found in waste were (i) organic decomposable (29.2%, 29710 tons/year DM), (ii) recyclables (37.0%, 37726 tons/year DM) that included plastic, paper, metal and glass, and (iii) trash (33.8%, 34485 tons/year DM) that mainly comprised of polythene bags, medicine packaging, pampers and wrappers. Waste generation was more in colonies with comparatively higher income and better living standards. In future, data collection for all four seasons and improvements due to expansion of awareness campaign to educational institutes will be quantified. This waste management system can potentially fulfill vital sustainable development goals (e.g. clean water and sanitation), reduce the need to harvest fresh resources from the ecosystem, create business and job opportunities and consequently solve one of the most pressing environmental issues of the country.

Keywords: integrated solid waste management, waste segregation, waste bank, community development

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