Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 192

Search results for: grass

192 Segregation Patterns of Trees and Grass Based on a Modified Age-Structured Continuous-Space Forest Model

Authors: Jian Yang, Atsushi Yagi


Tree-grass coexistence system is of great importance for forest ecology. Mathematical models are being proposed to study the dynamics of tree-grass coexistence and the stability of the systems. However, few of the models concentrates on spatial dynamics of the tree-grass coexistence. In this study, we modified an age-structured continuous-space population model for forests, obtaining an age-structured continuous-space population model for the tree-grass competition model. In the model, for thermal competitions, adult trees can out-compete grass, and grass can out-compete seedlings. We mathematically studied the model to make sure tree-grass coexistence solutions exist. Numerical experiments demonstrated that a fraction of area that trees or grass occupies can affect whether the coexistence is stable or not. We also tried regulating the mortality of adult trees with other parameters and the fraction of area trees and grass occupies were fixed; results show that the mortality of adult trees is also a factor affecting the stability of the tree-grass coexistence in this model.

Keywords: population-structured models, stabilities of ecosystems, thermal competitions, tree-grass coexistence systems

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191 Phytoremediation of Cr from Tannery Effluent by Vetiver Grass

Authors: Mingizem Gashaw Seid


Phytoremediation of chromium metal by vetiver grass was investigated in hydroponic system. The removal efficiency for organic load, nutrient and chromium were evaluated as a function of concentration of waste effluent (40 and 50% dilution with distilled water). Under this conditions 64.49-94.06 % of chromium was removed. This shows vetiver grass has potential for accumulation of chromium metal from tannery waste water stream.

Keywords: chromium, phytoremediation, tannery effluent, vetiver grass

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
190 Assessment of Soil Contamination on the Content of Macro and Microelements and the Quality of Grass Pea Seeds (Lathyrus sativus L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova


Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the content of macro and microelements in the vegetative and reproductive organs of grass pea and the quality of grass pea seeds, as well as to identify the possibility of grass pea growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals. The experiment was conducted on an agricultural field subjected to contamination from the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances of 0.5 km and 8 km, respectively, from the source of pollution. On reaching commercial ripeness the grass pea plants were gathered. The composition of the macro and microelements in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds), and the dry matter content, sugars, proteins, fats and ash contained in the grass pea seeds were determined. Translocation factors (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out through inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The grass pea plant can successfully be grown on soils contaminated by heavy metals. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the grass pea seeds. The seeds of the grass pea contain significant amounts of nutrients (K, P, Cu, Fe Mn, Zn) and protein (23.18-29.54%). The distribution of heavy metals in the organs of the grass pea has a selective character, which reduces in the following order: leaves > roots > stems > seeds. BCF and TF values were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the above ground parts of grass pea plant. Grass pea is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the accumulator plants. The results provide valuable information about the chemical and nutritional composition of the seeds of the grass pea grown on contaminated soils in Bulgaria. The high content of macro and microelements and the low concentrations of toxic elements in the grass pea grown in contaminated soil make it possible to use the seeds of the grass pea as animal feed.

Keywords: Lathyrus sativus L, macroelements, microelements, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
189 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti


The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
188 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto


The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

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187 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar


The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: by-products, concentrate, digestibility, probiotics

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186 Optimization of Pretreatment Process of Napier Grass for Improved Sugar Yield

Authors: Shashikant Kumar, Chandraraj K.


Perennial grasses have presented interesting choices in the current demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources to alleviate the load of the global energy problem. The perennial grass Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is a promising feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The conversion of biomass into glucose and xylose is a crucial stage in the production of bioethanol, and it necessitates optimal pretreatment. Alkali treatment, among the several pretreatments available, effectively reduces lignin concentration and crystallinity of cellulose. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the alkali pretreatment of Napier grass for maximal reducing sugar production. The combined effects of three independent variables, viz. sodium hydroxide concentration, temperature, and reaction time, were studied. A second-order polynomial equation was used to fit the observed data. Maximum reducing sugar (590.54 mg/g) was obtained under the following conditions: 1.6 % sodium hydroxide, a reaction period of 30 min., and 120˚C. The results showed that Napier grass is a desirable feedstock for bioethanol production.

Keywords: Napier grass, optimization, pretreatment, sodium hydroxide

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185 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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184 Ethno-Botanical of Seaweeds and Sea Grass in Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Siegfried Berhimpon, Jein Dangeubun, Sandra Baulu, Rene Ch. Kepel


In Indonesia, macro-alga is known as seaweeds or rumput laut and sea grass or lamun, and have been used as vegetables and medicine since long time ago. This studies have been done, to collect data about utilization of seaweed and sea grass as food or medicine in Eastern Indonesia. Six regencies in two provinces have been chosen as sampling areas i.e. South-East Maluku, West-East Maluku, and Aru in province of Maluku; and Sangihe, Sitaro, and Minahasa in province of North Sulawesi. The results shown that in the pass, seaweeds and sea grass have been widely used as food and medicine, and there are similarity between one area and other areas in species and in the way to prepare or to cook the food. Ten species of alga and 2 species of sea grass were consumed as vegetables and desert, and one species of sea grass was used for traditional medicine. Nowadays, because of easier to get terrestrial vegetables, the people in the coastal area rarely consumed marine vegetables, and if there are no attempt to promote and to socialize the custom, the habits trend to disappear. Environmental degradation was another caused has been identified. Seaweed contained high content of Iodine and dietary fiber, therefore, this food can overcomes the problem of iodine deficiency, and to supply an exotic high-fiber foods. In addition, by consuming seaweeds, marine culture industry will be developed, especially in the number of species seaweeds to be cultivated.

Keywords: ethno-botany, seaweed, sea grass, exotic food

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183 Evaluating the Process of Biofuel Generation from Grass

Authors: Karan Bhandari


Almost quarter region of Indian terrain is covered by grasslands. Grass being a low maintenance perennial crop is in abundance. Farmers are well acquainted with its nature, yield and storage. The aim of this paper is to study and identify the applicability of grass as a source of bio fuel. Anaerobic break down is a well-recognized technology. This process is vital for harnessing bio fuel from grass. Grass is a lignocellulosic material which is fibrous and can readily cause problems with parts in motion. Further, it also has a tendency to float. This paper also deals with the ideal digester configuration for biogas generation from grass. Intensive analysis of the literature is studied on the optimum production of grass storage in accordance with bio digester specifications. Subsequent to this two different digester systems were designed, fabricated, analyzed. The first setup was a double stage wet continuous arrangement usually known as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). The next was a double stage, double phase system implementing Sequentially Fed Leach Beds using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (SLBR-UASB). The above methodologies were carried for the same feedstock acquired from the same field. Examination of grass silage was undertaken using Biomethane Potential values. The outcomes portrayed that the Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor system produced about 450 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids, at a detention period of 48 days. The second method involving Leach Beds produced about 340 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids with a detention period of 28 days. The results showcased that CSTR when designed exclusively for grass proved to be extremely efficient in methane production. The SLBR-UASB has significant potential to allow for lower detention times with significant levels of methane production. This technology has immense future for research and development in India in terms utilizing of grass crop as a non-conventional source of fuel.

Keywords: biomethane potential values, bio digester specifications, continuously stirred tank reactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

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182 Utilization of Complete Feed Based on Ammoniated Corn Waste on Bali Cattle Peformance

Authors: Elihasridas, Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ninggrat


This research aims to study the utilization of ammoniated corn waste complete ration for substitution basal ration of natural grass in Bali cattle. Four treatments (complete feed ration consisted of: R1=40% natural grass + 60% concentrate (control), R2= 50% natural grass+50% concentrate, R3=60% natural grass+40% concentrate and R4=40% ammoniated corn waste+60% concentrate) were employed in this experiment. This experiment was arranged in a latin square design. Observed variables included dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain and feed conversion. Data were analyzed by using the Analysis of Variance following a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The DMI for R1was 7,15kg/day which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2 (6,32 kg/day) and R3(6,07 kg/day), but was not significantly different (P < 0,05) from R4 (7,01 kg/day). Average daily gain for R1(0,75 kg/day) which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2(0,66 kg/day) and R3 (0,61 kg/day),but was not significantly different (P > 0,05) from R4(0,74 kg/day). Feed conversion was not significantly affected (P > 0,05) by ration. It was concluded that ammoniated corn waste complete ration (40% ammoniated corn waste + 60% concentrate) could be utilized for substitution natural grass basal ration.

Keywords: ammoniated corn waste, bali cattle, complete feed, daily gain

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181 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit


Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Pennisetum polystachion, lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol production, detoxification, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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180 Toxicological Effects of Heavy Metals; Copper, Lead and Chromium on Brain and Liver Tissue of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Authors: Ahsan Khan, Nazish Shah, Muhammad Salman


The present study deals with the toxicological effects of copper, lead and chromium on brain and liver tissues of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The average length of experimental fish was 8.5 ± 5.5 cm and weighed 9.5 ± 6.5 g. Grass carp was exposed to lethal concentration (LC₁₅) of copper, lead and chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. (LC₁₅) for copper was 1.5, 1.4, 1.2 and 1mgL⁻¹. Similarly, LC₁₅ of lead was 250, 235, 225 and 216mgL⁻¹ while (LC₁₅) for chromium was 25.5, 22.5, 20 and 18mgL⁻¹ respectively. During the time of exposure against various doses of heavy metals the grass carp showed some behavioral changes. In the initial stages of experiment, the rapid movements and gulping of air were observed. Several times the fish tried to jump to scat from the toxic median. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of grass carp particularly in liver and brain tissues were observed. Lead was highly accumulated in brain tissue after the exposure of fish for 24 and 48 hours, while highly accumulated in liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 72 and 96 hours. Chromium was highly accumulated in the liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 24 hours while its accumulation was found highly in the brain tissues after the exposure of fish for 48, 72 and 96 hours. Similarly, accumulation of copper concentration was found highly in brain tissues after the exposure of 48 and 96 hours while its accumulation was high in liver tissues after the exposure of 24 and 72 hours. Comparatively maximum accumulation of lead was found in brain and liver tissues of grass carp followed by chromium and copper. Furthermore, accumulation of these metals caused many abnormalities like gliosis, destruction of cell, change in cell shape and shrinkage of cells in brain tissue while in liver tissues aggregation in hepatocytes, widen space between cells and also destruction of cell was observed. These experiments and observations can be useful to monitor the aquatic pollution and quality of aquatic environment system.

Keywords: brain, grass carp, liver, lethal concentration, toxicity

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179 The Performance of Six Exotic Perennial Grass Species in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alsoqeer


The establishment, dry matter production and feeding value of six perennial grasses were measured over two growing seasons in a field experiments. The experiments were conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2009 and 2010 seasons. The six perennial grasses were: creeping bluegrass (Bothriochloa insculpta cv. Bisset), digit grass (Digitaria smutsi), Jarra digit grass (Digitaria milanjiana), panic (Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsii), Sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula). The experimental design used was a completely randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed significant differences among plant species of all agronomic characters and quality traits in the first year, while in the second year, plant species differed significantly for quality traits only. D. smutsi had a superior performance for all agronomic characters, however, it had the lowest values in protein content in the two years comparing with other genotypes. D. milanjiana and U. mosambicensis showed high values in dry matter yield and protein content in the first year, but showed a very poor performance in the second year because most of plants were die due to the low temperatures in the winter. These two species appear to be suitable for annual cultivation. The other species tolerate the cold winter and were a highly productive in the second year.

Keywords: dry mater yield, grass species, cuts, quality traits, crude protein content

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
178 Bioethanol Production from Wild Sorghum (Sorghum arundinacieum) and Spear Grass (Heteropogon contortus)

Authors: Adeyinka Adesanya, Isaac Bamgboye


There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economic, political, and environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is an excellent renewable feedstock because it is both abundant and inexpensive. This project aims at producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic plants (Sorghum Arundinacieum and Heteropogon Contortus) by biochemical means, computing the energy audit of the process and determining the fuel properties of the produced ethanol. Acid pretreatment (0.5% H2SO4 solution) and enzymatic hydrolysis (using malted barley as enzyme source) were employed. The ethanol yield of wild sorghum was found to be 20% while that of spear grass was 15%. The fuel properties of the bioethanol from wild sorghum are 1.227 centipoise for viscosity, 1.10 g/cm3 for density, 0.90 for specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was found to be below -30 °C. That of spear grass was 1.206 centipoise for viscosity, 0.93 g/cm3 for density 1.08 specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was also found to be below -30 °C. The energy audit shows that about 64 % of the total energy was used up during pretreatment, while product recovery which was done manually demanded about 31 % of the total energy. Enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation total energy input were 1.95 %, 1.49 % and 1.04 % respectively, the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from wild sorghum was found to be 47 % and the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from spear grass was 72 %. Also, the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production for both grasses was 3.85 %.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, wild sorghum, spear grass, biochemical conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
177 The Effect on Some Plant Traits of Cutting Frequency Applied in Species of Grass

Authors: Mehmet Ali Avcı, Medine Çopur Doğrusöz


This study has been carried out in the Selcuk University, Department of Fields Crops Research and Application Greenhouse. 4 different grass genotypes (1 Lolium perenne L., 1 Poa trivialis L., 1 Festuca ovina L., and 1 Festuca arundinacea Scheb.) have been used in the application. It has been done with four repetition according to design of random parcel test. The research have been started with the implementation of 3 clones to each pot of each kind on 07.12.2009. It has been processed normally. When the plants have filled % 80 of the pot and have grown to the height of 7-10 cm, 5 cm has cut. After the first cutting, there have been applied 4 cutting frequency within the periods of 5, 10, 15, 20 days. Number of tillers, the degree of filling the bottom, the height of plant, the length of leaf and the width of the leaf have been measured. This procedure have been repeated in once a-five-day-periods, once a-ten-day-periods, once a-fifteen-day-periods, once a-twenty-day-periods, the data have been taken, and it has completed in 60 days. All the plants in the pots have been reaped from the 5cm height on 16.08.2010. The first measures have been taken for each quality. It is aimed to set the effects of different cutting frequency on the some grass kinds’ some plant characteristics.

Keywords: cutting frequency, Festuca, Lolium, Poa

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176 The Effect of Substitution Concentrate with Leguminose Indigofera Zollingeriana in Lactation Goat Ration of Dry Matter, Organic Matter Intake, Milk Production, PUFA and CLA Content of Milk

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Elihasridas, Yolani Utami, Muhammad Taufic, Bima Bagaskara


The purpose of this study is to formulate a ratio that an increased concentration of bioactive compounds in the form of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk to produce functional milk that is beneficial for health. It has been proven that forage-based feeds (grass and legumes) are able to increase the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, conjugated linoleic acid CLA in milk. The presence of bioactive compounds in product fat of ruminant origin these have generated great interest because they are associated with their potential as anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetogenic and stimulant of the immune response. PUFA and CLA and especially n-3 fatty acids, only 4% of the fatty acids present in milk. For that, efforts need to be made to change the fatty acid composition of milk to increase the nutritional value for consumers through increasing the concentration of PUFA and CLA. This is very important in the midst of the covid pandemic 19, which is increasing, it is necessary to drink and food that can improve the system body immunity. The study was conducted in vivo using a randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. This experiment used 16 heads of 40-55 kg lactating goats. Goats were fed a basal diet containing (dry matter basis) 60% native grass and 40% concentrate. The treatment was A. 60% native grass + 40% concentrate, B. 60% native grass + 30% concentrate + 10% I. zollengeriana C. 60% native grass + 20% concentrate + 20% I. zollengeriana, D, 60% native grass + 10% concentrate + 30% I. zollengeriana.The results showed that the use of I. zollengeriana until 30% in ration gave the same result with using a concentrate of nutrient intake and milk production but increased the CLA dan PUFA content in milk. The results of this study concluded that I. zollengeriana could increase the content of CLA and PUFA at the use of 75% substitute concentrate in the diet of lactating goats

Keywords: Indigofera zollengeriana, lactation goat, milk production, CLA, PUFA

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175 Estimation of Microbial-N Supply to Small Intestine in Angora Goats Fed by Different Roughage Sources

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya


The aim of the study was to estimate the microbial-N flow to small intestine based on daily urinary purine derivatives(PD) mainly xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and allantoin excretion in Angora goats fed by grass hay and concentrate (Period I); barley straw and concentrate (Period II). Daily urine samples were collected during last 3 days of each period from 10 individually penned Angora bucks( LW 30-35 Kg, 2-3 years old) receiving ad libitum grass hay or barley straw and 300 g/d concentrate. Fresh water was always available. 4N H2SO4 was added to collected daily urine .samples to keep pH under 3 to avoid of uric acid precipitation. Diluted urine samples were stored at -20°C until analysis. Urine samples were analyzed for xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin and creatinine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method (HPLC). Urine was diluted 1:15 in ratio with water and duplicate samples were prepared for HPLC analysis. Calculated mean levels (n=60) for urinary xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin, total PD and creatinine excretion were 0.39±0.02 , 0.26±0.03, 0.59±0.06, 5.91±0.50, 7.15±0.57 and 3.75±0.40 mmol/L for Period I respectively; 0.35±0.03, 0.21±0.02, 0.55±0.05, 5.60±0.47, 6.71±0.46 and 3.73±0.41 mmol/L for Period II respectively.Mean values of Period I and II were significantly different (P< 0.05) except creatinine excretion. Estimated mean microbial-N supply to the small intestine for Period I and II in Angora goats were 5.72±0.46 and 5.41±0.61 g N/d respectively. The effects of grass hay and barley straw feeding on microbial-N supply to small intestine were found significantly different (P< 0.05). In conclusion, grass hay showed a better effect on the ruminal microbial protein synthesis compared to barley straw, therefore; grass hay is suggested as roughage source in Angora goat feeding.

Keywords: angora goat, HPLC method, microbial-N supply to small intestine, urinary purine derivatives

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
174 The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches

Authors: Mark De Ste Croix, Jonathan Hughes, Francisco Ayala, Michal Lehnert


There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.

Keywords: coach education, injury prevention, knowledge, and understanding, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
173 Growth Response of the Fry of Major and Chinese Carp to the Dietary Ingredients in Polyculture System

Authors: Anjum-Zubair, Muhammad, Muhammad Shoaib Alam, Muhammad Samee Mubarik, Iftikhar Ahmad


The aim of present research was to evaluate the effect of dietary protein (soybean) formulated feed on the growth performance of carp fish seed (Rohu, Mori, Grass, and Gulfam) in ponds under polyculture system. Keeping in view the protein requirements of these four carps, they were fed with formulated feed contains 30% of crude protein. The fingerlings were fed once on daily basis at 5% of their wet body weight. A 90 days experiment was conducted in two cemented ponds situated at Fish Seed Hatchery and Research Centre, Rawal Town, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pond1 contain major carps i.e. Rohu and Mori while pond 2 was stocked with Chinese carps i.e. Grass carp and Gulfam. Random sampling of five individuals of each species was done fortnightly to measure the body weight and total body length. Maximum growth was observed in fingerling of Grass carp followed by Mori, Rohu and Gulfam. Total fish production was recorded as Grass 623.45 gm followed by Mori 260.3 gm, Rohu 243.08 gm and Gulfam 181.165 gm respectively. Significantly results were obtained among these four fish species when the corresponding data was subjected to statistical analysis by using two sample t-test. The survival rate was 100%. Study shows that soybean as plant based protein can be easily used as substitute to fish meal without any adverse effect on fish health and fish production.

Keywords: carps, fry growth, poly culture, soybean meal

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172 Use of Vegetative Coverage for Slope Stability in the Brazilian Midwest: Case Study

Authors: Weber A. R. Souza, Andre A. N. Dantas, Marcio A. Medeiros, Rafaella F. Costa


The erosive processes are natural phenomena that cause changes in the soil continuously due to the actions of natural erosive agents and their speed can be intensified or retarded by factors such as climate, inclination, type of matrix rock, vegetation and anthropic activities, the latter being very relevant in occupied areas without planning and urban infrastructure. Inadequate housing sites associated with an inefficient urban drainage network and lack of vegetation cover potentiate the erosive processes that, over time, are gaining alarming proportions, as is the case of the erosion in Planaltina in Federal district, a Brazilian state in the central west. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the use of Vetiver grass and Alfalfa as vegetation cover to slope protection. For that, a study was carried out in the scientific literature about the improvement of the soil properties provided by them and verification of the safety factor through the simulation of slopes with different heights and inclination using SLOPE / W software. The Vetiver grass presented little more satisfactory results than the Alfalfa, but these obtained results slightly closer to that of the vetiver grass in less time of planting.

Keywords: erosive processes, planting, slope protection, vegetation cover

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171 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya


The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality

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170 Role of ABC Transporters in Non-Target Site Herbicide Resistance in Black Grass (Alopecurus myosuroides)

Authors: Alina Goldberg Cavalleri, Sara Franco Ortega, Nawaporn Onkokesung, Richard Dale, Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Robert Edwards


Non-target site based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides in weeds is a polygenic trait associated with the upregulation of proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification and translocation we have termed the xenome. Among the xenome proteins, ABC transporters play a key role in enhancing herbicide metabolism by effluxing conjugated xenobiotics from the cytoplasm into the vacuole. The importance of ABC transporters is emphasized by the fact that they often contribute to multidrug resistance in human cells and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. They also play a key role in insecticide resistance in major vectors of human diseases and crop pests. By surveying available databases, transcripts encoding ABCs have been identified as being enhanced in populations exhibiting NTSR in several weed species. Based on a transcriptomics data in black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Am), we have identified three proteins from the ABC-C subfamily that are upregulated in NTSR populations. ABC-C transporters are poorly characterized proteins in plants, but in Arabidopsis localize to the vacuolar membrane and have functional roles in transporting glutathionylated (GSH)-xenobiotic conjugates. We found that the up-regulation of AmABCs strongly correlates with the up-regulation of a glutathione transferase termed AmGSTU2, which can conjugate GSH to herbicides. The expression profile of the ABC transcripts was profiled in populations of black grass showing different degree of resistance to herbicides. This, together with a phylogenetic analysis, revealed that AmABCs cluster in different groups which might indicate different substrate and roles in the herbicide resistance phenotype in the different populations

Keywords: black grass, herbicide, resistance, transporters

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169 The Pitfalls of Short-Range Endemism: High Vulnerability to Ecological and Landscape Traps

Authors: Leanda Denise Mason, Philip William Bateman, Grant Wardell-Johnson


Ecological traps attract biota to low-quality habitats. Landscape traps are zones caught in a vortex of spiraling degradation. Here, we demonstrate how short-range endemic traits may make such taxa vulnerable to ecological and landscape traps. Three short-range endemic mygalomorph spider species were used in this study. Mygalomorphs can be long-lived ( > 40 years) and select sites for permanent burrows in their early dispersal phase. Spiderlings from two species demonstrated choice for microhabitats that correspond to where adults typically occur. An invasive veldt grass microhabitat was selected almost exclusively by spiderlings of the third species. Habitat dominated by veldt grass has lower prey diversity and abundance than undisturbed habitats and therefore acts as an ecological trap for this species. Furthermore, as a homogenising force, veldt grass can spread to form a landscape trap in naturally heterogeneous ecosystems. Selection of specialised microhabitats of short-range endemics may explain high extinction rates in old, stable landscapes undergoing (human-induced) rapid change.

Keywords: biotic homogenization, invasive species, mygalomorph, short-range endemic

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168 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan


There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: rearing systems, stylosanthes, cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen

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167 Impact Force Difference on Natural Grass Versus Synthetic Turf Football Fields

Authors: Nathaniel C. Villanueva, Ian K. H. Chun, Alyssa S. Fujiwara, Emily R. Leibovitch, Brennan E. Yamamoto, Loren G. Yamamoto


Introduction: In previous studies of high school sports, over 15% of concussions were attributed to contact with the playing surface. While artificial turf fields are increasing in popularity due to lower maintenance costs, artificial turf has been associated with more ankle and knee injuries, with inconclusive data on concussions. In this study, natural grass and artificial football fields were compared in terms of deceleration on fall impact. Methods: Accelerometers were placed on the forehead, apex of the head, and right ear of a Century Body Opponent Bag (BOB) manikin. A Riddell HITS football helmet was secured onto the head of the manikin over the accelerometers. This manikin was dropped onto natural grass (n = 10) and artificial turf (n = 9) high school football fields. The manikin was dropped from a stationary position at a height of 60 cm onto its front, back, and left side. Each of these drops was conducted 10 times at the 40-yard line, 20-yard line, and endzone. The net deceleration on impact was calculated as a net vector from each of the three accelerometers’ x, y, and z vectors from the three different locations on the manikin’s head (9 vector measurements per drop). Results: Mean values for the multiple drops were calculated for each accelerometer and drop type for each field. All accelerometers in forward and backward falls and one accelerometer in side falls showed significantly greater impact force on synthetic turf compared to the natural grass surfaces. Conclusion: Impact force was higher on synthetic fields for all drop types for at least one of the accelerometer locations. These findings suggest that concussion risk might be higher for athletes playing on artificial turf fields.

Keywords: concussion, football, biomechanics, sports

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166 Studies on the Ecology of Sea Grasses in Uppanar Estuary, South East Coast of India

Authors: N. Veerappan


Seasonal variations of sea grasses and physico-chemical parameters were studied from April 2011 to March 2012. Samples were collected in four different seasons, namely post monsoon (January-March), summer (April-June) premonsoon (July-September) and monsoon (October-December) from the Uppanar estuary. Three species of sea grass biomass were measured during the study period: Halophila ovalis (215.3 g/m2 - 38.5 g/m2), Halophila beccarii (75.2 g/m2 –30.1 g/m2) and Halodule pinifolia (65.4 g/m2 - 26.5 g/m2), respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that NO2, NO3 PO4, and SiO4 influenced Halophila ovalis biomass distribution, whereas for Halophila beccarii and Halodule pinifolia, atmospheric temperature, water temperature, salinity, pH and DO proved important.

Keywords: sea grass, species biomass, Uppanar estuary, water quality

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165 Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State

Authors: Ugbajah Maryjane


The study examined the production of grass cutter and the constraints in Anambra state, Nigeria. Specifically, it described socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, determinants of net farm income and constraints to grass cutter production. Multistage and random sampling methods were used to select 50 respondents for this study. Primary data were collected by means of structured questionnaire. Non-parametric and parametric statistical tools including frequency percentage mean ranking counts, cost and returns and returns and multiple regression were deployed for data analysis. Majority 84% produce on small scale, 64 % had formal education 68% had 3-4 years of farming experience hence small scaled production were common. The income (returns) on investment was used as index of profitability, gross margin (#5,972,280), net farm income (#5,327,055.2) net return on investment (2.5) and return on investment 3.1. Net farm income was significantly influence by stock size and years of farming experience. Grass cutter farmers production problem would be ameliorated by the expression of extension education awareness campaigns to discourage unhealthy practices such as indiscriminant bush burning, use of toxic chemicals as baits, and provision of credits to the farmers.

Keywords: socio-economic factors, profitability, awareness, toxic chemicals, credits

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164 Development of the Squamate Egg Tooth on the Basis of Grass Snake Natrix natrix Studies

Authors: Mateusz Hermyt, Pawel Kaczmarek, Weronika Rupik


The egg tooth is a crucial structure during hatching of lizards and snakes. In contrast to birds, turtles, crocodiles, and monotremes, egg tooth of squamate reptiles is a true tooth sharing common features of structure and development with all the other teeth of vertebrates. The egg tooth; however, due to its function, exhibits structural differences in relation to regular teeth. External morphology seems to be important in the context of phylogenetic relationships within Squamata but up to date, there is scarce information concerning structure and development of the egg tooth at the submicroscopical level. In presented studies detailed analysis of the egg tooth development in grass snake has been performed with the usage of light (including fluorescent), transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Grass snake embryo’s heads have been used in our studies. Grass snake is common snake species occurring in most of Europe including Poland. The grass snake is characterized by the presence of single unpaired egg tooth (as in most squamates) in contrast to geckos and dibamids possessing paired egg teeth. Studies show changes occurring on the external morphology, tissue and cellular levels of differentiating egg tooth. The egg tooth during its development changes its curvature. Initially, faces directly downward and in the course of its differentiation, it gradually changes to rostro-ventral orientation. Additionally, it forms conical dentinal protrusions on the sides. Histological analysis showed that egg tooth development occurs in similar steps in relation to regular teeth. It undergoes initiation, bud, cap and bell morphological stages. Analyses focused on describing morphological changes in hard tissues (mainly dentin and predentin) of egg tooth and in cells which enamel organ consists of. It included: outer enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts, and cells of dental pulp. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).

Keywords: hatching, organogenesis, reptile, Squamata

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163 Effect of Amount of Crude Fiber in Grass or Silage to the Digestibility of Organic Matter in Suckler Cow Feeding Systems

Authors: Scholz Heiko, Kuhne Petra, Heckenberger Gerd


Problems during the calving period (December to May) often result in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significant influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with the high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: suckler cow, feeding systems, crude fiber, digestibilty of organic matter

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