Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Zeeshan Ayyub

22 Control Algorithm Design of Single-Phase Inverter For ZnO Breakdown Characteristics Tests

Authors: Kashif Habib, Zeeshan Ayyub

Abstract:

ZnO voltage dependent resistor was widely used as components of the electrical system for over-voltage protection. It has a wide application prospect in superconducting energy-removal, generator de-excitation, overvoltage protection of electrical & electronics equipment. At present, the research for the application of ZnO voltage dependent resistor stop, it uses just in the field of its nonlinear voltage current characteristic and overvoltage protection areas. There is no further study over the over-voltage breakdown characteristics, such as the combustion phenomena and the measure of the voltage/current when it breakdown, and the affect to its surrounding equipment. It is also a blind spot in its application. So, when we do the feature test of ZnO voltage dependent resistor, we need to design a reasonable test power supply, making the terminal voltage keep for sine wave, simulating the real use of PF voltage in power supply conditions. We put forward the solutions of using inverter to generate a controllable power. The paper mainly focuses on the breakdown characteristic test power supply of nonlinear ZnO voltage dependent resistor. According to the current mature switching power supply technology, we proposed power control system using the inverter as the core. The power mainly realize the sin-voltage output on the condition of three-phase PF-AC input, and 3 control modes (RMS, Peak, Average) of the current output. We choose TMS320F2812M as the control part of the hardware platform. It is used to convert the power from three-phase to a controlled single-phase sin-voltage through a rectifier, filter, and inverter. Design controller produce SPWM, to get the controlled voltage source via appropriate multi-loop control strategy, while execute data acquisition and display, system protection, start logic control, etc. The TMS320F2812M is able to complete the multi-loop control quickly and can be a good completion of the inverter output control.

Keywords: ZnO, multi-loop control, SPWM, non-linear load

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21 Parallel Hybrid Honeypot and IDS Architecture to Detect Network Attacks

Authors: Hafiz Gulfam Ahmad, Chuangdong Li, Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a parallel IDS and honeypot based approach to detect and analyze the unknown and known attack taxonomy for improving the IDS performance and protecting the network from intruders. The main theme of our approach is to record and analyze the intruder activities by using both the low and high interaction honeypots. Our architecture aims to achieve the required goals by combing signature based IDS, honeypots and generate the new signatures. The paper describes the basic component, design and implementation of this approach and also demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach reducing the probability of network attacks.

Keywords: network security, intrusion detection, honeypot, snort, nmap

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20 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir

Abstract:

Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

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19 A Case of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan

Abstract:

This case study is about a 54 years man named Mr. U, referred to Capital Hospital, Islamabad, with the presenting complaints of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Contrary to his complaints, the client reported psychological symptoms such as restlessness, low mood and fear of darkness and fear from closed places from the last 30 days. He also had a fear of death and his existence in the grave. His sleep was also disturbed due to excessive urination due to diabetes. He was also suffering from semantic symptoms such as headache, numbness of feet and pain in the chest and blockage of the nose. A complete history was taken and informal assessment (clinical interview and MSE) and formal testing (BAI) was applied that showed the clear diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. CBT, relaxation techniques, prayer chart and behavioural techniques were applied for the treatment purposes.

Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, presenting complaints, formal and informal assessment, diagnosis

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18 Digital Encoder Based Power Frequency Deviation Measurement

Authors: Syed Javed Arif, Mohd Ayyub Khan, Saleem Anwar Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple method is presented for measurement of power frequency deviations. A phase locked loop (PLL) is used to multiply the signal under test by a factor of 100. The number of pulses in this pulse train signal is counted over a stable known period, using decade driving assemblies (DDAs) and flip-flops. These signals are combined using logic gates and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded. These pulses are equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The experimental circuit developed gives a resolution of 1 Hz within the measurement period of 20 ms. The proposed circuit is also simulated in Verilog Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and implemented using Field Programing Gate Arrays (FPGAs). A Mixed signal Oscilloscope (MSO) is used to observe the results of FPGA implementation. These results are compared with the results of the proposed circuit of discrete components. The proposed system is useful for frequency deviation measurement and control in power systems.

Keywords: frequency measurement, digital control, phase locked loop, encoder, Verilog HDL

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17 Comparison of Various Response Spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant at Chashma Site

Authors: J. Iqbal, A. Shah, M. Zeeshan

Abstract:

UBC-97, USNRC, chines origin code GB50011-2011 and site response spectrum was used to make comparison between them for Chashma site and most conservative one was selected and the USNRC was the most conservative one. The dynamic analysis of CHASNUPP-2 containment building was performed using SAP-2000 for dead load, live load (crane), pre stressed loads, wind load, temperature load, accidental pressure during LOCA, earthquake loads and the conservative response spectrum. After applying selected response spectrum on model, detail comparison was made against area of steal calculated from the analysis and the actually provided. Then prepared curve of area of steal vs. g value which shows that if the particular site was design on that spectrum that much steel needed for structural integrity.

Keywords: response spectrum, USNRC, LOCA, area of steel, structure integrity

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16 Mobile Based Long Range Weather Prediction System for the Farmers of Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Zeeshan Muzammal, Usama Latif, Fouzia Younas, Syed Muhammad Hassan, Samia Razaq

Abstract:

Unexpected rainfall has always been an issue in the lifetime of crops and brings destruction for the farmers who harvest them. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the countries in which untimely rain impacts badly on crops like wash out of seeds and pesticides etc. Pakistan’s GDP is related to agriculture, especially in rural areas farmers sometimes quit farming because leverage of huge loss to their crops. Through our surveys and research, we came to know that farmers in the rural areas of Pakistan need rain information to avoid damages to their crops from rain. We developed a prototype using ICTs to inform the farmers about rain one week in advance. Our proposed solution has two ways of informing the farmers. In first we send daily messages about weekly prediction and also designed a helpline where they can call us to ask about possibility of rain.

Keywords: ICTD, farmers, mobile based, Pakistan, rural areas, weather prediction

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15 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity and CO₂ Level Assessment in a Publically Managed Hospital Building

Authors: Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan

Abstract:

The sensitivity of hospital-microenvironments for all types of pollutants, due to the presence of patients with immune deficiencies, makes them complex indoor spaces. Keeping in view, this study investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) of two most sensitive places, i.e., operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU), of a publically managed hospital. Taking CO₂ concentration as air quality indicator and temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) as thermal comfort parameters, continuous monitoring of the three variables was carried out. Measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 min for weekdays and weekends, including occupational and non-occupational hours. Outdoor T and RH measurements were also used in the analysis. Results show significant variation (p < 0.05) in CO₂, T and RH values over the day during weekdays while no significant variation (p > 0.05) have been observed during weekends of both the monitored sites. Maximum observed values of CO₂ in OT and ICU were found to be 2430 and 624 ppm, T as 24.7ºC and 28.9ºC and RH as 29.6% and 32.2% respectively.

Keywords: indoor air quality, CO₂ concentration, hospital building, comfort assessment

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14 Counterfeit Drugs Prevention in Pharmaceutical Industry with RFID: A Framework Based On Literature Review

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Asher Ramish

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to focus on security and safety issues facing by pharmaceutical industry globally when counterfeit drugs are in question. Hence, there is an intense need to secure and authenticate pharmaceutical products in the emerging counterfeit product market. This paper will elaborate the application of radio frequency identification (RFID) in pharmaceutical industry and to identify its key benefits for patient’s care. The benefits are: help to co-ordinate the stream of supplies, accuracy in chains of supplies, maintaining trustworthy information, to manage the operations in appropriate and timely manners and finally deliver the genuine drug to patient. It is discussed that how RFID supported supply chain information sharing (SCIS) helps to combat against counterfeit drugs. And a solution how to tag pharmaceutical products; since, some products prevent RFID implementation in this industry. In this paper, a proposed model for pharma industry distribution suggested to combat against the counterfeit drugs when they are in supply chain.

Keywords: supply chain, RFID, pharmaceutical industry, counterfeit drugs, patients care

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13 Foliar Feeding of Methyl Jasmonate Induces Resistance in Normal and Salinity Stressed Tomato Plants, at Different Stages

Authors: Abdul Manan, Choudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Rashid Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari

Abstract:

A project was designed to investigate the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on physiological, biochemical and ionic attributes of salinity stressed and normal tomato plants at different stages. Salinity stress at every stage markedly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water relations parameters, protein contents, total free aminoacids and potassium (K+) contents. While, antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT)), sodium (Na+) contents and proline contents were increased substantially. Foliar application of MeJA ameliorated the drastic effects of salinity regime by recovery of physiological and biochemical attributes by enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectants. The efficacy of MeJA at very initial stage (15 days after sowing (15 DAS)).proved effective for attenuating the deleterious effects of salinity stress than other stages (15 days after transplanting (15 DAT) and 30 days after transplanting (30 DAT)). To the best of our knowledge, different times of foliar feeding of MeJA was observed first time for amelioration of salinity stress in tomato plants that would be of pivotal significance for scientist to better understand the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in tomato.

Keywords: methyl jasmonate, osmoregulation, salinity stress, stress tolerance, tomato

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12 Cytotoxic Effect of Neem Seed Extract (Azadirachta indica) in Comparison with Artificial Insecticide Novastar on Haemocytes (THC and DHC) of Musca domestica

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Awan, Adnan Qadir, Zeeshan Anjum

Abstract:

Housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus is ubiquitous and hazardous for Homo sapiens and livestock in sundry venerations. Musca domestica cart 100 different pathogens, such as typhoid, salmonella, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax and parasitic worms. The flies in rural areas usually carry more pathogens. Houseflies feed on liquid or semi-liquid substances besides solid materials which are softened by saliva. Neem botanically known as Azadirachta indica belongs to the family Meliaceae and is an indigenous tree to Pakistan. The neem tree is also one such tree which has been revered by the Pakistanis and Kashmiris for its medicinal properties. Present study showed neem seed extract has potentially toxic ability that affect Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Haemocytes Count (DHC) in insect’s blood cells, of the housefly. A significant variation in haemolymph density was observed just after application, 30 minutes and 60 minutes post treatment in term of THC and DHC in comparison with novastar. The study strappingly acclaim use of neem seed extract as insecticide as compare to artificial insecticides.

Keywords: neem, Azadirachta indica, Musca domestica, differential haemocyte count (DHC), total haemocytes count (DHC), novastar

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11 Site Suitability Analysis for Multipurpose Dams Using Geospatial Technologies

Authors: Saima Iftikhar Rida Shabbir, Zeeshan Hassan

Abstract:

Water shortage, energy crisis and natural misfortunes are the glitches which reduce the efficacy of agricultural ecosystems especially in Pakistan where these are more frequent besides being intense. Accordingly, the agricultural water resources, food security and country’s economy are at risk. To address this, we have used Geospatial techniques incorporating ASTER Global DEM, Geological map, rainfall data, discharge data, Landsat 5 image of Swat valley in order to assess the viability of selected sites. The sites have been studied via GIS tools, Hydrological investigation and multiparametric analysis for their potentialities of collecting and securing the rain water; regulating floods by storing the surplus water bulks by check dams and developing them for power generation. Our results showed that Siat1-1 was very useful for low-cost dam with main objective of as Debris dam; Site-2 and Site 3 were check dams sites having adequate storing reservoir so as to arrest the inconsistent flow accompanied by catering the sedimentation effects and the debris flows; Site 4 had a huge reservoir capacity but it entails enormous edifice cost over very great flood plain. Thus, there is necessity of active Hydrological developments to estimate the flooded area using advanced and multifarious GIS and remote sensing approaches so that the sites could be developed for harnessing those sites for agricultural and energy drives.

Keywords: site suitability, check dams, SHP, terrain analysis, volume estimation

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10 Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM

Authors: Zhuoneng Li, Zeeshan A. Rana, Karl W. Jenkins

Abstract:

In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.

Keywords: mesh sensitivity, turbulence models, OpenFOAM, RANS

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9 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee

Abstract:

The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular dynamics simulation, molecular interfacial layer, thermal conductivity

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8 Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Zeeshan Khan, Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noureen

Abstract:

European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.

Keywords: rabbit, LTR retrotransposons, genome, chromosome

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7 Work demand and Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study of Pakistan Aviation Maintenance Workers

Authors: Muzamil Mahmood, Afshan Naseem, Muhammad Zeeshan Mirza, Yasir Ahmad, Masood Raza

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The purpose of this research is to analyze how aviation maintenance workers’ characteristics and work demand affect their development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Guided by literature on task characteristics, work demand, and WMSDs, data is collected from 128 aviation maintenance workers of private and public airlines. Data is then analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. It is found that task characteristics have a significant positive effect on WMSDs and an increase in tasks performed by aviation maintenance workers leads to increase in WMSDs. Work demand did not have a significant effect on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers moderates the relationship between their work demand and WMSDs. This reveals that task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers enhance the effect of work demand on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers are challenging and unpredictable. Subsequently, WMSDs are prevalent among aviation maintenance workers. The work demand of aviation maintenance workers does not influence their development of WMSDs. Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority should minimize the intensity of tasks assigned to aviation maintenance workers by introducing work dynamisms such as task sharing, job rotation, and probably teleworking to enhance flexibility. Human Resource and Recruitment Department need to consider the ability and fitness levels of potential aviation maintenance workers during recruitment. In addition, regular physical activities and ergonomic policies should be put in place by the management of the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority to reduce the incidences of WMSDs.

Keywords: work related musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics, occupational health and safety, human factors

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6 Performance of High Efficiency Video Codec over Wireless Channels

Authors: Mohd Ayyub Khan, Nadeem Akhtar

Abstract:

Due to recent advances in wireless communication technologies and hand-held devices, there is a huge demand for video-based applications such as video surveillance, video conferencing, remote surgery, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), IPTV, online learning courses, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Interactive Video Games. However, the raw videos posses very high bandwidth which makes the compression a must before its transmission over the wireless channels. The High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) (also called H.265) is latest state-of-the-art video coding standard developed by the Joint effort of ITU-T and ISO/IEC teams. HEVC is targeted for high resolution videos such as 4K or 8K resolutions that can fulfil the recent demands for video services. The compression ratio achieved by the HEVC is twice as compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC for same quality level. The compression efficiency is generally increased by removing more correlation between the frames/pixels using complex techniques such as extensive intra and inter prediction techniques. As more correlation is removed, the chances of interdependency among coded bits increases. Thus, bit errors may have large effect on the reconstructed video. Sometimes even single bit error can lead to catastrophic failure of the reconstructed video. In this paper, we study the performance of HEVC bitstream over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Moreover, HEVC over Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combined with forward error correction (FEC) schemes are also explored over the noisy channel. The video will be encoded using HEVC, and the coded bitstream is channel coded to provide some redundancies. The channel coded bitstream is then modulated using QAM and transmitted over AWGN channel. At the receiver, the symbols are demodulated and channel decoded to obtain the video bitstream. The bitstream is then used to reconstruct the video using HEVC decoder. It is observed that as the signal to noise ratio of channel is decreased the quality of the reconstructed video decreases drastically. Using proper FEC codes, the quality of the video can be restored up to certain extent. Thus, the performance analysis of HEVC presented in this paper may assist in designing the optimized code rate of FEC such that the quality of the reconstructed video is maximized over wireless channels.

Keywords: AWGN, forward error correction, HEVC, video coding, QAM

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5 The Problem of Suffering: Job, The Servant and Prophet of God

Authors: Barbara Pemberton

Abstract:

Now that people of all faiths are experiencing suffering due to many global issues, shared narratives may provide common ground in which true understanding of each other may take root. This paper will consider the all too common problem of suffering and address how adherents of the three great monotheistic religions seek understanding and the appropriate believer’s response from the same story found within their respective sacred texts. Most scholars from each of these three traditions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam— consider the writings of the Tanakh/Old Testament to at least contain divine revelation. While they may not agree on the extent of the revelation or the method of its delivery, they do share stories as well as a common desire to glean God’s message for God’s people from the pages of the text. One such shared story is that of Job, the servant of Yahweh--called Ayyub, the prophet of Allah, in the Qur’an. Job is described as a pious, righteous man who loses everything—family, possessions, and health—when his faith is tested. Three friends come to console him. Through it, all Job remains faithful to his God who rewards him by restoring all that was lost. All three hermeneutic communities consider Job to be an archetype of human response to suffering, regarding Job’s response to his situation as exemplary. The story of Job addresses more than the distribution of the evil problem. At stake in the story is Job’s very relationship to his God. Some exegetes believe that Job was adapted into the Jewish milieu by a gifted redactor who used the original ancient tale as the “frame” for the biblical account (chapters 1, 2, and 4:7-17) and then enlarged the story with the complex center section of poetic dialogues creating a complex work with numerous possible interpretations. Within the poetic center, Job goes so far as to question God, a response to which Jews relate, finding strength in dialogue—even in wrestling with God. Muslims only embrace the Job of the biblical narrative frame, as further identified through the Qur’an and the prophetic traditions, considering the center section an errant human addition not representative of a true prophet of Islam. The Qur’anic injunction against questioning God also renders the center theologically suspect. Christians also draw various responses from the story of Job. While many believers may agree with the Islamic perspective of God’s ultimate sovereignty, others would join their Jewish neighbors in questioning God, not anticipating answers but rather an awareness of his presence—peace and hope becoming a reality experienced through the indwelling presence of God’s Holy Spirit. Related questions are as endless as the possible responses. This paper will consider a few of the many Jewish, Christian, and Islamic insights from the ancient story, in hopes adherents within each tradition will use it to better understand the other faiths’ approach to suffering.

Keywords: suffering, Job, Qur'an, tanakh

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4 Evaluation of Properties of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Blended with Polypropylene Shredding and Admixture

Authors: Jagannath Prasad Tegar, Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract:

The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a major constituent of concrete, which is being used extensively since last half century. The production of cement is impacting not only environment alone, but depleting natural materials. During the past 3 decades, the scholars have carried out studies and researches to explore the supplementary cementatious materials such as Ground granulated Blast furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fumes (SF), metakaolin or fly ash (FA). This has contributed towards improved cementatious materials which are being used in construction, but not the way it is supposed to be. The alkali activated slag concrete is another innovation which has constituents of cementatious materials like Ground Granuled Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fumes (SF) or Metakaolin. Alkaline activators like Sodium Silicate (Na₂SiO₃) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is utilized. In view of evaluating properties of alkali activated slag concrete blended with polypropylene shredding and accelerator, research study is being carried out. This research study is proposed to evaluate the effect of polypropylene shredding and accelerating admixture on mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag concrete. The mechanical properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and workability. The outcomes of this research are matched with the hypothesis and it is found that 27% of cement can be replaced with the ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and for split tensile strength 20% replacement is achieved. Overall it is found that 20% of cement can be replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag. The tests conducted in the laboratory for evaluating properties such as compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, and slump cone test. On the aspect of cost, it is substantially benefitted.

Keywords: ordinary Portland cement, activated slag concrete, ground granule blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fumes

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3 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen

Abstract:

The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy milk, nanoparticles, NSIDs, plant extracts, resistance modulation, S. aureus

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2 Pattern of External Injuries Sustained during Bomb Blast Attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007

Authors: Arif Anwar Surani, Salman Ali, Asif Surani, Sohaib Zahid, Akbar Shoukat Ali, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan Usmani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani

Abstract:

Objective: Terrorism and suicidal bomb blast attacks are commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan. During the years 2000 to 2007, there were over 60 bomb explosions resulting in more than 1500 casualties. These explosions produce a wide variety of external injuries. We undertook this study to evaluate pattern of external injury produced after bomb blast attacks and to compare injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional, study was conducted to review injuries sustained after bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2000 to October 2007. Emergency medical records and medico legal certificates of patients presented to three major public sector hospitals of Karachi were evaluated using self-design proforma. Results: Data of 481 victims meet inclusion criteria and were incorporated for final analysis. Of these, 63.6% were injured in open spaces and 36.4% were injured in semi-confined blast environments. Lacerations were commonly encountered as external injury (47.7%) followed by penetrating wounds (15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were most commonly affected (38.6% and 19% respectively). Open and semi-confined blast environments produced a specific injury pattern and profile (p=<0.001). Conclusions: Bomb blast attacks in Karachi produce an external injury pattern consistent with other studies, with exception of an increased frequency in penetrating wounds. Semi-confined blast environments were associated with severe injuries. Further studies are required to better classify injuries and their severity based on standardized scoring systems. Effective emergency response systems must be designed to cope with mass causalities following bomb explosions.

Keywords: bomb blast attacks, injury pattern, external injury, open space, semi-confined space, blast environment

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1 Vegetation Assessment Under the Influence of Environmental Variables; A Case Study from the Yakhtangay Hill of Himalayan Range, Pakistan

Authors: Hameed Ullah, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Zahid Ullah, Zeeshan Ahmad Sadia Jahangir, Abdullah, Amin Ur Rahman, Muhammad Suliman, Dost Muhammad

Abstract:

The interrelationship between vegetation and abiotic variables inside an ecosystem is one of the main jobs of plant scientists. This study was designed to investigate the vegetation structure and species diversity along with the environmental variables in the Yakhtangay hill district Shangla of the Himalayan Mountain series Pakistan by using multivariate statistical analysis. Quadrat’s method was used and a total of 171 Quadrats were laid down 57 for Tree, Shrubs and Herbs, respectively, to analyze the phytosociological attributes of the vegetation. The vegetation of the selected area was classified into different Life and leaf-forms according to Raunkiaer classification, while PCORD software version 5 was used to classify the vegetation into different plants communities by Two-way indicator species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The CANOCCO version 4.5 was used for DCA and CCA analysis to find out variation directories of vegetation with different environmental variables. A total of 114 plants species belonging to 45 different families was investigated inside the area. The Rosaceae (12 species) was the dominant family followed by Poaceae (10 species) and then Asteraceae (7 species). Monocots were more dominant than Dicots and Angiosperms were more dominant than Gymnosperms. Among the life forms the Hemicryptophytes and Nanophanerophytes were dominant, followed by Therophytes, while among the leaf forms Microphylls were dominant, followed by Leptophylls. It is concluded that among the edaphic factors such as soil pH, the concentration of soil organic matter, Calcium Carbonates concentration in soil, soil EC, soil TDS, and physiographic factors such as Altitude and slope are affecting the structure of vegetation, species composition and species diversity at the significant level with p-value ≤0.05. The Vegetation of the selected area was classified into four major plants communities and the indicator species for each community was recorded. Classification of plants into 4 different communities based upon edaphic gradients favors the individualistic hypothesis. Indicator Species Analysis (ISA) shows the indicators of the study area are mostly indicators to the Himalayan or moist temperate ecosystem, furthermore, these indicators could be considered for micro-habitat conservation and respective ecosystem management plans.

Keywords: species richness, edaphic gradients, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), TWCA

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