Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2690

Search results for: salicylic acid

2690 Influence of Salicylic Acid Seed Priming on Catalase and Peroxidase in Zea mays L. Plant (Var- Sc.704) under Water Stress Condition and Different Irrigation Regimes

Authors: Arash Azarpanah, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Shorangiz Javanmardi

Abstract:

Abiotic stresses are the principle threat to plant growth and crop productivity all over the world. In order to improve the germination of corn seeds in drought stress conditions, effect of seed priming by various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0.8 and 0.2 mM) on activities of catalase and peroxidase in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) was evaluated at Agriculture Research Center located in Arsenjan city in Iran, during summer 2013. A farm research was done in RCBD as factorial with three replications. We considered four irrigation was carried out once the cumulative evaporation from Pan Class A come to 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm. Results illustrated that drought stress significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase and also treatment with salicylic acid significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. In addition, treatment with salicylic acid enhances drought tolerance in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: catalase, corn, salicylic acid, water deficits stress, cumulative evaporation, Pan Class A

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
2689 Salicylic Acid Signalling in Relation to Root Colonization in Rice

Authors: Seema Garcha, Sheetal Chopra, Navraj Sarao

Abstract:

Plant hormones play a role in internal colonization by beneficial microbes and also systemic acquired resistance. They define qualitative and quantitative nature of root microbiome and also influence dynamics of root rhizospheric soil. The present study is an attempt to relate salicylic acid (signal molecule) content and qualitative nature of root endophytes at various stages in the growth of rice varieties of commercial value- Parmal 121 and Basmati 1121. Root seedlings of these varieties were raised using tissue culture techniques and then they were transplanted in the fields. Cultivation was done using conventional methods in agriculture. Field soil contained 0.39% N, 75.12 Kg/hectare of phosphorus and 163.0 Kg/hectare of potassium. Microfloral profiling of the root tissue was done using the selective microbiological medium. The salicylic acid content was estimated using HPLC-Agilent 1100 HPLC Series. Salicylic acid level of Basmati 1121 remained relatively low at the time of transplant and 90 days after transplant. It increased marginally at 60 days. A similar trend was observed with Parmal 121 as well. However, Parmal variety recorded 0.935 ug/g of salicylic acid at 60 days after transplant. Salicylic acid content decreased after 90 days as both the rice varieties remained disease free. The endophytic root microflora was established by 60 days after transplant in both the varieties after which their population became constant. Rhizobium spp dominated over Azotobacter spp. Genetic profiling of endophytes for nitrogen-fixing ability is underway.

Keywords: plant-microbe interaction, rice, root microbiome, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2688 Effect of Salicylic Acid and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Wheat Growth and Yield

Authors: Omar Ibrahim, Aly A. Gaafar, K. A. Ratib

Abstract:

Two field experiments in micro plots were carried out during the winter seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, Soil Salinity Laboratory, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of three levels of salicylic acid (SA) as a growth regulator (0, 50, 100 ppm) and three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (75, 100, 125 kg N/feddan) on growth and yield of a spring wheat (Giza 168). The experimental design was a split plot with the main plots in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and four replicates. The results indicated that increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates resulted in insignificant effect on both plant height (cm) and grain weight/spike only. However, a significant effect was observed in all the other studied characters due to the increase in nitrogen fertilizer. On the other hand, increasing salicylic acid rates resulted in insignificant effect in all the studied characters except for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, number of grain/spike, and grain yield (gm/ plot). The highest effects on grain yield in wheat were obtained by the rate of 125 kg/feddan of nitrogen fertilizer and 100 ppm of salicylic acid. In conclusion, the data indicated that a high grain yield could be obtained by adding 100 kg/feddan of nitrogen fertilizer and spraying of 50 ppm of salicylic acid with no significant difference with the highest rates. Finally, the interaction had no significant effect on all the studied characters.

Keywords: growth regulator, nitrogen fertilizer, spring wheat, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2687 Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Chromium Toxicity in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Ghazala Akhtar, M.Anwar-ul-Haq

Abstract:

Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while salicylic acid (SA) is signaling and ubiquitous bioactive molecule that regulates cellular mechanism in plants under stress condition. Therefore, exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) under chromium stress in two chickpea varieties were investigated in hydroponic experiment with five treatments comprising of control, 5 µM Cr + 5 mM SA, 5µM Cr + 10 mM SA, 10µM Cr + 5 mM SA, and 10µM Cr + 10 mM SA. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10 mM SA application under both 5 µM Cr and 10 µM Cr stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, membrane stability index and relative water contents) relative to 5 mM SA application in both chickpea varieties. Results regarding Cr concentration showed that Cr was more retained in roots followed by shoots and maximum reduction in Cr uptake was observed at 10 mM SA application. Chickpea variety BRC-61 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cr in root and shoot relative to BRC-390 variety.

Keywords: chromium, Chickpea, salicylic acid, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
2686 The Utilization of Salicylic Acid of the Extract from Avocado Skin as an Inhibitor of Ethylene Production to Keep the Quality of Banana in Storage

Authors: Adira Nofeadri Ryofi, Alvin Andrianus, Anna Khairunnisa, Anugrah Cahyo Widodo, Arbhyando Tri Putrananda, Arsy Imanda N. Raswati, Gita Rahmaningsih, Ina Agustina

Abstract:

The consumption level of fresh bananas from 2005 until 2010, increased from 8.2 to 10 kg/capita/year. The commercial scale of banana generally harvested when it still green to make the banana avoid physical damage, chemical, and disease after harvest and ripe fruit. That first metabolism activity can be used as a synthesis reaction. Ripening fruit was influenced by ethylene hormone that synthesized in fruit which is experiencing ripe and including hormone in the ripening fruit process in klimaterik phase. This ethylene hormone is affected by the respiration level that would speed up the restructuring of carbohydrates inside the fruit, so the weighting of fruit will be decreased. Compared to other klimaterik fruit, banana is a fruit that has a medium ethylene production rate and the rate of respiration is low. The salicylic acid can regulate the result number of the growth process or the development of fruits and plants. Salicylic acid serves to hinder biosynthesis ethylene and delay senses. The research aims to understand the influence of salicylic acid concentration that derived from the waste of avocado skin in inhibition process to ethylene production that the maturation can be controlled, so it can keep the quality of banana for storage. It is also to increase the potential value of the waste of avocado skin that were still used in industrial cosmetics.

Keywords: ethylene hormone, extract avocado skin, inhibitor, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
2685 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2684 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2683 Response of Barley Quality Traits, Yield and Antioxidant Enzymes to Water-Stress and Chemical Inducers

Authors: Emad Hafez, Mahmoud Seleiman

Abstract:

Two field experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of chemical inducers [benzothiadiazole 0.9 mM L-1, oxalic acid 1.0 mM L-1, salicylic acid 0.2 mM L-1] on physiological and technological traits as well as on yields and antioxidant enzyme activities of barley grown under abiotic stress (i.e. water surplus and deficit conditions). Results showed that relative water content, leaf area, chlorophyll and yield as well as technological properties of barley were improved with chemical inducers application under water surplus and water-stress conditions. Antioxidant enzymes activity (i.e. catalase and peroxidase) were significantly increased in barley grown under water-stress and treated with chemical inducers. Yield and related parameters of barley presented also significant decrease under water-stress treatment, while chemical inducers application enhanced the yield-related traits. Starch and protein contents were higher in plants treated with salicylic acid than in untreated plants when water-stress was applied. In conclusion, results show that chemical inducers application have a positive interaction and synergetic influence and should be suggested to improve plant growth, yield and technological properties of water stressed barley. Salicylic acid application was better than oxalic acid and benzothiadiazole in terms of plant growth and yield improvement.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, drought stress, Hordeum vulgare L., quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2682 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
2681 The Efficacy of Salicylic Acid and Puccinia Triticina Isolates Priming Wheat Plant to Diuraphis Noxia Damage

Authors: Huzaifa Bilal

Abstract:

Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) is considered an economically important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest worldwide and in South Africa. The RWA damages wheat plants and reduces annual yields by more than 10%. Even though pest management by pesticides and resistance breeding is an attractive option, chemicals can cause harm to the environment. Furthermore, the evolution of resistance-breaking aphid biotypes has out-paced the release of resistant cultivars. An alternative strategy to reduce the impact of aphid damage on plants, such as priming, which sensitizes plants to respond effectively to subsequent attacks, is necessary. In this study, wheat plants at the seedling and flag leaf stages were primed by salicylic acid and isolate representative of two races of the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Pt), before RWA (South African RWA biotypes 1 and 4) infestation. Randomized complete block design experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to study plant-pest interaction in primed and non-primed plants. Analysis of induced aphid damage indicated salicylic acid differentially primed wheat cultivars for increased resistance to the RWASA biotypes. At the seedling stage, all cultivars were primed for enhanced resistance to RWASA1, while at the flag leaf stage, only PAN 3111, SST 356 and Makalote were primed for increased resistance. The Puccinia triticina efficaciously primed wheat cultivars for excellent resistance to RWASA1 at the seedling and flag leaf stages. However, Pt failed to enhance the four Lesotho cultivars' resistance to RWASA4 at the seedling stage and PAN 3118 at the flag leaf stage. The induced responses at the seedling and flag leaf stages were positively correlated in all the treatments. Primed plants induced high activity of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. High antioxidant activity indicates activation of resistant responses in primed plants (primed by salicylic acid and Puccina triticina). Isolates of avirulent Pt races can be a worthy priming agent for improved resistance to RWA infestation. Further confirmation of the priming effects needs to be evaluated at the field trials to investigate its application efficiency.

Keywords: Russian wheat aphis, salicylic acid, puccina triticina, priming

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2680 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. G. D. Phu, M. Helmis

Abstract:

A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: fish skin, model membrane, permeation, DSC, lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2679 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Farid Shekari

Abstract:

Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.

Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield component

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2678 A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Salicylic Acid, Trichloroacetic Acid and Glycolic Acid in Various Facial Melanosis

Authors: Shivani Dhande, Sanjiv Choudhary, Adarshlata Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive day procedure and generally safe method for treatment of pigmentary skin disorders and for skin rejuvenation. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels.Various facial pigmentary conditions have significant impact on quality of life causing psychological stress, necessitating its safe and effective treatment.Aim & Objectives:To compare the efficacy of Salicylic acid, Trichloroaceticacid & Glycolic Acid in facial melanosis(melasma,photomelanosis& post acne pigmentation).To study the side effects of above mentioned peeling agents. Method and Materials:It was a randomized parallel control single blind study consisting of total of 36 cases, 12 cases each of melasma, photo melanosis and post acne pigmentation within age group 20-50 years having fitzpatrick’s skin type4. Woods lamp examination was done to confirm the type of melasma.Patients with keloidal tendency, active herpes infection or past history of hypersensitivity to salicylic acid, trichloroaceticand glycolic acid as well aspatients on systemic isotretinoin were excluded.Clinical photographs at the beginning of therapy and then serially, were taken to assess the clinical response. Prior to application a written informed consent was obtained. A post auricular test peel was performed. Patients were divided into 3 groups, containing 12 patients each of melasma, photomelanosis and post acnepigmentation.All the three peels SA peel 20% (done once in 2 weeks), GA peel 50% (done once in 3 weeks) and TCA 15% (done once in 3 weeks) were used with total six settings for each patient. Before application of peel patients were counseled to wash the face with soap and water. Then face was dried and cleaned with spirit and acetone to remove all cutaneous oils. GA, TCA, SA were applied with cotton buds/gauze withmild strokes. After a contact period off 5-10mins neutralization was done with cold water. Post peel topical sunscreen application was mandatory. MASI was used pre and post treatment to assess melasma. Investigator’s global improvement scale- overall hyperpigmentation (4-significant, 3-moderate, 2-mild, 1-minimal, 0-no change ) and Patient’s satisfaction grading scale (>70%- excellent response, 50-70%- good response, <50%- average response) was used to assess improvement in all the three facial melanosis.Results:In our study of 12 patients of melasma, 4 (33.33%)patients showed excellent results;3 (25%) with GAand 1(8.33%) of TCA.Good response was seen in 4 (33.33%) patients;1(8.33%) each for GA & SA and 2(16.66%) for TCA.Poor response was seen in 4(33.33%) patients;1(8.33%) for TCA and 3 (25%) for SA.Of 12 patients of photomelanosis, excellent resultswas seen in 3(25%)patients of TCA. Good response was seen in 4 (33.33%) patients, 1(8.33%) each of TCA &SA and 2(16.66%) of GA.Poor responsewas seen in 5(41.66%) patients;3 (25%) for SA and 2(16.66%) of GA.Of 12 patients of post acne pigmentation, excellent responsein 3 (25%) patients;2(16.66%) of SA and 1(8.33%) of TCA.Good responsewas seen in 5(41.66%) patients;2(16.66%) of SA and GA and1(8.33%) of TCA.Poor response was seen in 4 (33.33%) patients; 2 (16.66%) for SA and TCA both. No major side effects in the form of scarring or persistant pigmentation was seen. Transient blackening of skin with burning sensation was seen in cases treated with TCA and SA. Post procedural itching and redness was noted with GA peel. Conclusion- In our study GA(50%),TCA(15%) & SA(20%) peels showed excellent response in melasma, photomelanosis and post-acne pigmentation respectively.All the 3 peeling agents were well tolerated without any significant side-effects in the above specified concentrations.

Keywords: facial melanosis, gycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
2677 Alleviation of Salt Stress Effects on Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Plants Grown in a Saline Soil by Foliar Spray with Salicylic Acid

Authors: Saad Howladar

Abstract:

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses, restricting plant growth and crop productivity in different world regions, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, including Saudi Arabia. The tomato plant is proven to be moderately sensitive to salt stress. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted using tomato plants (Hybrid 6130) to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of salicylic acid (SA; 0, 20, 40, and 60 µM) applied as foliar spraying in improving plant tolerance to saline soil conditions. Tomato plant growth, yield, osmoprotectants, chloeophyll fluorescence, and ionic contents were determined. The results of this study displayed that growth and yield components and physiological attributes of water-sprayed plants (the control) grown under saline soil conditions were negatively impacted. However, under the adverse conditions of salinity, SA-treated plants had enhanced growth and yield components of tomato plants compared to the control. Free proline, soluble sugars, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content, membrane stability index, and nutrients contents (e.g., N, P, K⁺, and Ca²⁺) were also improved significantly, while Na⁺ content was significantly reduced in SA-applied tomato plants. SA at 40 µM was the best treatment, which could be recommended to use for salt-stressed tomato plants to enable them to tolerate the adverse conditions of saline soils.

Keywords: tomatoes, salt stress, chlorophyll fluorescence, dehydration tolerance, osmoprotectants

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2676 Development of Site-Specific Colonic Drug Delivery System (Nanoparticles) of Chitosan Coated with pH Sensitive Polymer for the Management of Colonic Inflammation

Authors: Pooja Mongia Raj, Rakesh Raj, Alpana Ram

Abstract:

Background: The use of multiparticulate drug delivery systems in preference to single unit dosage forms for colon targeting purposes dates back to 1985 when Hardy and co-workers showed that multiparticulate systems enabled the drug to reach the colon quickly and were retained in the ascending colon for a relatively long period of time. Methods: Site-specific colonic drug delivery system (nanoparticles) of 5-ASA were prepared and coated with pH sensitive polymer. Chitosan nanoparticles (CTNP) bearing 5-Amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) were prepared, by ionotropic gelation method. Nanoparticulate dosage form consisting of a hydrophobic core enteric coated with pH-dependent polymer Eudragit S-100 by solvent evaporation method, for the effective delivery of drug to the colon for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Results: The mean diameter of CTNP and ECTNP formulations were 159 and 661 nm, respectively. Also optimum value of polydispersity index was found to be 0.249 [count rate (kcps) was 251.2] and 0.170 [count rate (kcps) was 173.9] was obtained for both the formulations respectively. Conclusion: CTNP and Eudragit chitosan nanoparticles (ECTNP) was characterized for shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) appeared to be spherical in shape. The in vitro drug release was investigated using USP dissolution test apparatus in different simulated GIT fluids showed promising release. In vivo experiments are in further proceeding for fruitful results.

Keywords: colon targeting, nanoparticles, polymer, 5-amino salicylic acid, edragit

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2675 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Pyrazole Derivatives

Authors: Afifa Hafidh, Hedia Chaabane

Abstract:

This work mainly focused on the synthetic strategies and biological activities associated with pyrazoles. Pyrazole derivatives have been successfully synthesized by simple and facile method and studied for their antibacterial activity. These compounds were prepared from pyrazolic difunctional compounds as starting materials, by reaction with salicylic acid, paracetamol and thiosemicarbazide respectively. Structure of all the prepared compounds confirmation were proved using (FT-IR), (1H-NMR) and (13C-NMR) spectra in addition to melting points. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of the pyrazolic derivatives was examined against different microorganisms in the present study. They were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The synthesized compounds were found to exhibit high antibacterial and antifungal efficiency against several tested bacterial strains, using agar diffusion method and filter paper disc-diffusion method. Ampicillin was used as positive control for all strains except Candida albicans for which Nystatin was used. The obtained results reveal that the antibacterial activity of some pyrazolic derivatives is comparable to that observed for the control samples (Ampicilin and Nystatin), suggesting a strong antibacterial activity. The analysis of these results shows that synthesized products react on the surfaces cell walls that are disrupted. When these products are in contact with the bacteria, they damage the membrane, leading to the perturbation of different cellular processes and then leakage of cytoplasm, resulting in the death of the cells. The results will be presented in details. The obtained products constitute effective antibacterial agents and important compounds for biological systems.

Keywords: salicylic acid, antimicrobial activities, antioxidant activity, paracetamol, pyrazole, thiosemicarbazide

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2674 The Role of Time-Dependent Treatment of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Endogenous Phytohormone Levels under Salinity Stress

Authors: Hülya Torun, Ondřej Novák, Jaromír Mikulík, Miroslav Strnad, Faik A. Ayaz

Abstract:

World climate is changing. Millions of people in the world still face chronic undernourishment for conducting a healthy life and the world’s population is growing steadily. To meet this growing demand, agriculture and food systems must adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and become more resilient, productive and sustainable. From this perspective, to determine tolerant cultivars for undesirable environmental conditions will be necessary food production for sustainable development. Among abiotic stresses, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental global fact restricting plant sources. Development of salt-tolerant lines is required in order to increase the crop productivity and quality in salt-treated lands. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of barley cultivars accessions to salinity stress by NaCl. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the crosstalk between some endogenous phytohormones and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in two different vegetative parts (leaves and roots) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poaceae; 2n=14; Ince-04) which is detected salt-tolerant. The effects of SA on growth parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC), endogenous phytohormones; including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene were investigated in barley cultivars under salinity stress. SA was applied to 17-day-old seedlings of barley in two different ways including before (pre-treated for 24 h) and simultaneously with NaCl stress treatment. NaCl (0, 150, 300 mM) exposure in the hydrophonic system was associated with a rapid decrease in growth parameters and RWC, which is an indicator of plant water status, resulted in a strong up-regulation of ABA as a stress indicator. Roots were more dramatically affected than leaves. Water conservation in 150 mM NaCl treated-barley plants did not change, but decreased in 300 mM NaCl treated plants. Pre- and simultaneously treatment of SA did not significantly alter growth parameters and RWC. ABA, JA and ethylene are known to be related with stress. In the present work, ethylene also increased, similarly to ABA, but not with the same intensity. While ABA and ethylene increased by the increment of salt concentrations, JA levels rapidly decreased especially in roots. Both pre- and simultaneously SA applications alleviated salt-induced decreases in 300 mM NaCl resulted in the increment of ABA levels. CKs and IAA are related to cell growth and development. At high salinity (300 mM NaCl), CKs (cZ+cZR) contents increased in both vegetative organs while IAA levels stayed at the same level with control groups. However, IAA increased and cZ+cZR rapidly decreased in leaves of barley plants with SA treatments before salt applications (in pre- SA treated groups). Simultaneously application of SA decreased CKs levels in both leaves and roots of the cultivar. Due to increasing concentrations of NaCl in association with decreasing ABA, JA and ethylene content and increments in CKs and IAA were recorded with SA treatments. As results of the study, in view of all the phytohormones that we tested, exogenous SA induced greater tolerance to salinity particularly when applied before salinity stress.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare, phytohormones, salicylic acid, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
2673 Effect of Hormones Priming on Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Seed under Accelerated Aging

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi

Abstract:

Seed aging during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological processes that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during aging. To study the effects of hormones on seed aging, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, Salicylic Acid, and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system were investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigor. The results showed that, seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX, and GPX activates. Maximum germination percentage achieve in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also aging increased MDA, H2O2 content. MDA is considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2result in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the aging time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in Salicylic Acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activity was obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 showed in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased Antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under aging treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatments have a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedling. Generally aging seed, increase ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

Keywords: hormones priming, wheat, aging seed, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
2672 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini

Abstract:

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles

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2671 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

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2670 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi

Abstract:

Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

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2669 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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2668 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA, cholesterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2667 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst, cell death, plant defense

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2666 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil

Abstract:

Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: cardioprotection, doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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2665 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: acetic acid, hydrogenation, operating condition, PtSn

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2664 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread

Authors: Sibel Silici

Abstract:

Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.

Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2663 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

Abstract:

Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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2662 Physico-Chemical, GC-MS Analysis and Cold Saponification of Onion (Allium cepa L) Seed Oil

Authors: A. A Warra, S. Fatima

Abstract:

The experimental investigation revealed that the hexane extract of onion seed oil has acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index of 0.03±0.01 mgKOH/g, 129.80±0.21 gI2/100g, 3.00± 0.00 meq H2O2 203.00±0.71 mgKOH/g, 0.82±0.01and 1.44±0.00 respectively. The percentage yield was 50.28±0.01%. The colour of the oil was light green. We restricted our GC-MS spectra interpretation to compounds identification, particularly fatty acids and they are identified as palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, linolenic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid. The pH , foam ability (cm³), total fatty matter, total alkali and percentage chloride of the onion oil soap were 11.03± 0.02, 75.13±0.15 (cm³), 36.66 ± 0.02 %, 0.92 ± 0.02% and 0.53 ± 0.15 % respectively. The texture was soft and the colour was lighter green. The results indicated that the hexane extract of the onion seed oil has potential for cosmetic industries.

Keywords: onion seeds, soxhlet extraction, physicochemical, GC-MS, cold saponification

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2661 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha

Abstract:

A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazotization, mesalazine, nitrite, acetylacetone

Procedia PDF Downloads 62