Search results for: Bhanu Pant
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Bhanu Pant

41 Storage Study of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa.) Fruit and Pulp of Cv. Pant Sujata

Authors: B. R. Jana, Madhumita Singh

Abstract:

Storage study of bael fruit and pulp were conducted at ICAR-RCER, Research Centre Ranchi to find out suitable storage life to extent the availability of the fruit and produce the value added product in form of fruit. The cultivar under storage is Pant Sujata. CFB box packing resulted in minimum 21 % PLW during 2010-11 during its 28-35 days storage under ambient temperature. CFB box and Gunny bag retains maximum total sugar (17.3-17.4 °B) after 28 days storage. Bael pulp of cultivar Pant Sujata can be stored up to 2 months at 4 °C with good quality condition. Treatments were highly significant in the characters such as T.S.S., acidity, reducing sugar and total sugar. Storage conditions and treatments interaction were insignificant in all characters except acidity. The maximum T.S.S. of 21.87 °B has been found in sample treated with 800 ppm benzoic acid when kept for two months at 4 °C temperature. This treatment also resulted in retaining the maximum reducing sugar (8.09 %) and total sugar content (9.52 %) at same storage condition than other treatments. From the present experiments, it is concluded that CFB box packing and pulp storage with 800 ppm benzoic acid at 4 °C are important to extent the availability of bael for two months.

Keywords: bael, storage, fruits, pulp, benzoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
40 Titanium Alloys for Cryogenic Gas Bottle Applications: A Comparative Study

Authors: Bhanu Pant, Sanjay H. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Titanium alloys, owing to their high specific strength coupled with excellent resistance to corrosion in many severe environments, find extensive usage in the aerospace sector. Alpha and beta lean Titanium alloys have an additional characteristic of exhibiting high toughness with an NTS/ UTS ratio greater than one down to liquid oxygen and liquid helium temperatures. The cryogenic stage of high-performance rockets utilizes cryo-fluid submerged pressurizing tanks to improve volume to mass performance factor. A superior volume-to-mass ratio is achieved for LH2-submerged pressurizing tanks as compared to those submerged in LOX. Such high-efficiency tanks for LH2 submerged application necessitate the use of difficult to process alpha type Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy, which requires close control of process parameters to develop the tanks. In the present paper, a comparison of this alpha-type cryogenic Titanium alloy has been brought out with conventional alpha-beta Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy, which is usable up to LOX temperatures. Specific challenges faced during the development of these cryogenic pressurizing tanks for a launch vehicle based on the author's experience are included in the paper on the comparatively lesser-studied alpha Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy.

Keywords: cryogenic tanks, titanium Alloys, NTS/UTS ratio, alpha and alpha-beta ELI alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
39 Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers

Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant, Bhanu Gupta, S. R. Kale, S. V. Veeravalli

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In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.

Keywords: air flow, moving bus, open windows, vortex, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
38 Processing Studies and Challenges Faced in Development of High-Pressure Titanium Alloy Cryogenic Gas Bottles

Authors: Bhanu Pant, Sanjay H. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Frequently, the upper stage of high-performance launch vehicles utilizes cryogenic tank-submerged pressurization gas bottles with high volume-to-weight efficiency to achieve a direct gain in the satellite payload. Titanium alloys, owing to their high specific strength coupled with excellent compatibility with various fluids, are the materials of choice for these applications. Amongst the Titanium alloys, there are two alloys suitable for cryogenic applications, namely Ti6Al4V-ELI and Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI. The two-phase alpha-beta alloy Ti6Al4V-ELI is usable up to LOX temperature of 90K, while the single-phase alpha alloy Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI can be used down to LHe temperature of 4 K. The high-pressure gas bottles submerged in the LH2 (20K) can store more amount of gas in as compared to those submerged in LOX (90K) bottles the same volume. Thus, the use of these alpha alloy gas bottles stored at 20K gives a distinct advantage with respect to the need for a lesser number of gas bottles to store the same amount of high-pressure gas, which in turn leads to a one-to-one advantage in the payload in the satellite. The cost advantage to the tune of 15000$/ kg of weight is saved in the upper stages, and, thereby, the satellite payload gain is expected by this change. However, the processing of alpha Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy gas bottles poses challenges due to the lower forgeability of the alloy and mode of qualification for the critical severe application environment. The present paper describes the processing and challenges/ solutions during the development of these advanced gas bottles for LH2 (20K) applications.

Keywords: titanium alloys, cryogenic gas bottles, alpha titanium alloy, alpha-beta titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
37 Efficacy of Bio-Control Agents against Colletotrichum falcatum Causing Red Rot Disease of Sugarcane

Authors: Geeta Sharma, Suma Chandra

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Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop playing roles in agriculture and industrial economy of India. Globally sugarcane is affected by approximately 240 diseases caused by various plant pathogenic organisms. Among them, red rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum, is one of the most important diseases. In the present investigation, one fungal bioagent of Trichoderma harzianum, Pant Bioagent 1 and one bacterial bioagent Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pant Bioagent 2 (PBAT 1 and PBAT 2, respectively) were tested by dual culture method against the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents was observed against four isolates of C. falcatum. In the case of PBAT1 maximum percent inhibition of pathogen was recorded in isolated Cf 0238 (61.05%), followed by Cf 09 (60.62%) whereas, minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 3220 (48.55%) and in case of PBAT2 maximum mycelial growth inhibition percent was recorded in Cf 767 (50.50%) followed by Cf 088230(48.83%), whereas minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 08 (40.16%) followed by Cf 0238 (41.83%). The present study showed that these biocontrol agents have the potential of controlling the pathogen and can further be used for the management of red rot disease in field.

Keywords: biocontrol agents, Colletotrichum falcatum, isolates, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
36 Variability Parameters for Growth and Yield Characters in Fenugreek, Trigonella spp. Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

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India is a leading producer and consumer of fenugreek for its culinary uses and medicinal application. In India, most of the people are of vegetarian class. In such a situation, a leafy vegetable, such as fenugreek is of chief concern due to its high nutritional property, medicinal values and industrial uses. One of the most important factors restricting their large scale production and development of superior varieties is that very scanty knowledge about their genetic diversity, inter and intraspecific variability and genetic relationship among the species. Improvement of the crop depends upon the magnitude of genetic variability for economic characters. Therefore, the present research work was carried out to analyse the variability parameters for growth and yield character in twenty-eight fenugreek genotypes along with two standard checks Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication during rabi season 2015-2016 at Pantnagar Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all the genotypes for all traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation were observed for characters, namely the number of primary branches per plant, number of leaves at 30, 45 and 60 DAS, green leaf yield per plant, green leaf yield q/ha . The genetic advance recorded highest in green leaf yield q/ha (33.93) followed by green leaf yield per plant (21.20g). Highest percent of heritability were shown by 1000 seed weight (99.12%) followed by the number of primary branches per plant (97.18%). Green leaf yield q/ha showed high heritability and high genetic advance. These superior genotypes can be further used in crop improvement programs of fenugreek.

Keywords: genetic advance, genotypic coefficient variation, heritability, phenotypic coefficient variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
35 Cost Effectiveness of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement vs Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in a Low-Middle Income Country

Authors: Vasuki Rayapati, Bhanu Duggal

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Trans catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is the recommended treatment over surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for high-risk groups, patients >75 years of age with severe symptomatic Aortic stenosis (AS). In high income countries TAVR is more cost effective because of – i) Reduction in total length of stay including less number of days in ICU ii) Non-procedural costs like cost of general anaesthesia are higher for SAVR. In India, there are two kinds of hospitals – Public and Private. Most patients visit public sector hospitals than private sector hospitals. In a LMIC like India, especially in the Public health sector cost of TAVR is prohibitive. In a small study from three (public) hospitals in India, it was envisaged that cost of TAVR should decrease at least by 2/3 to be a cost effective option in Public health sector for severe AS.

Keywords: cost effectiveness, TAVR vs SAVR, LMIC, HTA

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
34 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant

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The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
33 Eco-Friendly Preservative Treated Bamboo Culm: Compressive Strength Analysis

Authors: Perminder JitKaur, Santosh Satya, K. K. Pant, S. N. Naik

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Bamboo is extensively used in construction industry. Low durability of bamboo due to fungus infestation and termites attack under storage puts certain constrains for it usage as modern structural material. Looking at many chemical formulations for bamboo treatment leading to severe harmful environment effects, research on eco-friendly preservatives for bamboo treatment has been initiated world-over. In the present studies, eco-friendly preservative for bamboo treatment has been developed. To validate its application for structural purposes, investigation of effect of treatment on compressive strength has been investigated. Neem oil(25%) integrated with copper naphthenate (0.3%) on dilution with kerosene oil impregnated into bamboo culm at 2 bar pressure, has shown weight loss of only 3.15% in soil block analysis method. The results of compressive strength analysis using The results from compressive strength analysis using HEICO Automatic Compression Testing Machine, reveal that preservative treatment has not altered the structural properties of bamboo culms. Compressive strength of control (11.72 N/mm2) and above treated samples (11.71 N/mm2) was found to be comparable.

Keywords: D. strictus, bamboo, neem oil, presure treatment, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
32 Modeling and Design of Rectenna for Low Power Medical Implants

Authors: Madhav Pant, Khem N. Poudel

Abstract:

Wireless power transfer is continuously becoming more powerful and compact in medical implantable devices and the wide range of applications. A rectenna is designed for wireless power transfer technique that can be applied to medical implant devices. The experiment is performed using ANSYS HFSS, a full wave electromagnetic simulation. The dipole antenna combinations operating at 2.4 GHz are used for wireless power transfer and the maximum DC voltage reception by the implant considering International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulation. The power receiving dipole antenna is placed inside the cylindrical geometry having the similar properties of the human body at the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Our design can provide the power at the depth of 5 mm skin and 5mm of bone for the implant. The voltage doubler/quadrupler rectifier in ANSYS Simplorer is used to calculate the exact DC current utilized by implant inside the human body. The qualitative design and analysis of this wireless power transfer method could also be used for other biomedical implants systems such as cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, and retinal implants.

Keywords: dipole antenna, medical implants, wireless power transfer, rectifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
31 Meiobenthic Diversity off Pudimadaka, Bay of Bengal, East Coast of India with Special Reference to Free-Living Marine Nematodes

Authors: C. Annapurna, Rao M. Srinivasa, Bhanu C. H. Vijaya, M. Sivalakshmi, Rao P. V. Surya

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A study on the community structure of meiobenthic fauna was undertaken during three cruises (June 2008, October 2008 and March 2009). Ten stations at depth between 10 and 40 m off Pudimadaka in Visakhapatnam (Lat.17º29′12″N and Long. 83º00′09″), East coast of India were investigated. Ninety species representing 3 major (meiofaunal) taxa namely foraminifera (2), copepoda (9), nematoda (58) and polychaeta (21) were encountered. Overall, meiofaunal (mean) abundance ranged from 2 individuals to 63 ind. 10cm-² with an average of 24.3 ind.10cm-2. The meiobenthic biomass varied between 0.135 to 0.48 mg.10cm-2 with an average 0.27 ± 0.12. On the whole, nematodes constituted 73.62% of the meiofauna in terms of numerical abundance. Shannon –Wiener index values were 2.053 ± 0.64 (June, 2008), 2.477 ± 0.177 (October 2008) and 2.2815±0.24 (March 2009). Multivariate analyses were used to define the most important taxon in nematode assemblages. Three nematode associations could be recognized off Pudimadaka coast, namely Laimella longicaudata, Euchromodora vulgaris and Sabatieria elongata assemblage (June, 2008); Catanema sp. and Leptosomatum sp. assemblage (October 2008) assemblage; Sabatieria sp. and Setosabatieria sp. assemblage (March 2009). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, organic matter, silt and mean particle diameter were important in controlling nematode community structure.

Keywords: meiofauna, marine nematode, biodiversity, community structure, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
30 Progressive Loading Effect of Co Over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

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Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to CO/CO2 free hydrogen and carbon nano materials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800 oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, TPR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity and stability up to 10 h time-on-stream at 750 oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at a higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs, and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, were obtained. The TG data showed that a higher yield of MWCNTs was achieved over 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst compared to other catalysts.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cobalt, hydrogen production, methane decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
29 Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti, Bhanu Pratap Singh, S. R. Dhakate

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In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.

Keywords: ABS, EMI shielding, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide, graphene, oxide-carbon nanotube (GCNTs), twin screw extruder, multiwall carbon nanotube, electrical conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
28 Catalytic Conversion of Methane into Benzene over CZO Promoted Mo/HZSM-5 for Methane Dehydroaromatization

Authors: Deepti Mishra, Arindam Modak, K. K. Pant, Xiu Song Zhao

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The promotional effect of mixed ceria-zirconia oxides (CZO) over the Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst for methane dehydroaromatization (MDA) reaction was studied. The surface and structural properties of the synthesized catalyst were characterized using a range of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, and the correlation between catalytic properties and its performance for MDA reaction is discussed. The impregnation of CZO solid solution on Mo/HZSM-5 was observed to give an excellent catalytic performance and improved benzene formation rate (4.5 μmol/gcat. s) as compared to the conventional Mo/HZSM-5 (3.1 μmol/gcat. s) catalyst. In addition, a significant reduction in coke formation was observed in the CZO-modified Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst. The prevailing comprehension for higher catalytic activity could be because of the redox properties of CZO deposited Mo/HZSM-5, which acts as a selective oxygen supplier and performs hydrogen combustion during the reaction, which is indirectly probed by O₂-TPD and H₂-TPR analysis. The selective hydrogen combustion prevents the over-oxidation of aromatic species formed during the reaction while the generated steam helps in reducing the amount of coke generated in the MDA reaction. Thus, the advantage of CZO incorporated Mo/HZSM-5 is manifested as it promotes the reaction equilibrium to shift towards the formation of benzene which is favourable for MDA reaction.

Keywords: Mo/HZSM-5, ceria-zirconia (CZO), in-situ combustion, methane dehydroaromatization

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
27 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

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Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
26 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
25 A C/T Polymorphism at the 5’ Untranslated Region of CD40 Gene in Patients Associated with Graves’ Disease in Kumaon Region

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla, Govind Singh, Prabhat Pant Shahzad Ahmad

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Background: Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder with a genetic predisposition, and CD40 plays a pathogenic role in various autoimmune diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism at position –1 of the Kozak sequence of the 5 untranslated regions of the CD40 gene of exon 1 has been reported to be associated with the development of Graves’ Disease. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CD40 gene polymorphism confers susceptibility to Graves’ disease in the Kumaon region. CD40 gene polymorphisms were studied in Graves’ Disease patients (n=50) and healthy control subjects without anti-thyroid autoantibodies or a family history of autoimmune disorders (n=50). Material and Method: CD40 gene polymorphisms were studied in fifty Graves’ Disease patients and fifty healthy control subjects. All samples were collected from STG Hospital, Haldwani, Nainital. A C/T polymorphism at position –1 of the CD40 gene was measured using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: There was no significant difference in allele or genotype frequency of the CD40 SNP between Graves’ Disease and control subjects. There was a significant decrease in the TT genotype frequency in the Graves’ Disease patients who developed Graves’ Disease after 40 years old than those under 40 years of age. These data suggest that the SNP of the CD40 gene is associated with susceptibility to the later onset of Graves’ Disease. Conclusion: The CD40 gene was a different susceptibility gene for Graves’ Disease within certain families because it was both linked and associated with Graves’ Disease.

Keywords: autoimmune diseases, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy

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24 Impact of Fly Ash on Soil Quality in Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Anjuri Srivastava, Akhouri Nishant Bhanu

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Soil is a natural material with a distinctive form. It is regarded to be a natural source of nutrients and minerals for plants. It meets many of our needs through the crops, trees, and inhabited places that have grown on or underneath it. Productive and rich soil plays a crucial role in both its wealth and well-being. If any external substance changes the soil's composition, it directly impacts the plant that was grown in that soil. If the soil is deficient in one or more essential components, fly ash can be utilized as fertilizer by incorporating it into the soil. This can also increase the porosity of the soil. Fly ash has a sufficient concentration of essential components to promote the growth of plants. The high concentration of elements in fly ash, including C, Na, K, Fe, and Zn, increases crop yields. Hazardous compounds harm plant life as soon as they get into the soil. The US Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies have found it as non-hazardous. By employing fly ash as a potential fertilizer supplement for degraded soils, the problem of disposing of solid waste can be partially handled. Fly ash's rapid growth can slow down mineralization because it contains a higher proportion of harmful heavy metals. The chemical characteristics, inclusion ratio, and composting process of fly ash have a significant impact on the fly ash compost’s potential to improve soil nutrition. Research institutions and regulatory agencies have been thoroughly investigating fly ash for a long time. Guard cells on plant leaves that accumulate fly ash trigger the regulatory system. Fly ash increases both chemical and physical damage at certain humidity levels. The lengthy sowing period is caused by the high levels of fly ash in the soil, which also slows down seedling germination and growth. For the sake of human health, it is crucial to consider the bioaccumulation of dangerous heavy metals and their necessary concentrations in plant tissues and soil.

Keywords: soil, fly ash, plant, fertilizer, composts

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
23 Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value of Clinical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical (p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67) Parameters

Authors: Sujata Chaturvedi, Ishita Pant, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi

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Objective: To describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of glioblastoma in patients and to correlate these findings with patient survival. Material and methods: 30 cases of histopathologically diagnosed glioblastomas were included in this study. These cases were analysed in detail for certain clinical and histopathological parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Ki67 was done and scores were calculated. Results of these findings were correlated with patient survival. Results: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in 30 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). The mean age of presentation was 50.6 years with a male predilection. The most common involved site was the frontal lobe. Amongst the clinical parameters, age of the patient and extent of surgical resection showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Histopathological parameters showed no significant correlation with the patient survival, while amongst the immunohistochemical parameters expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Conclusion: In this study incorporating clinical, histopathological and basic panel of immunohistochemistry, age of the patient, extent of the surgical resection and expression of MDM2 showed significant correlation with the patient survival.

Keywords: glioblastoma, p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67

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22 Assessment of Major Feed Resources and Its Utilization in Manaslu Conservation Area Nepal

Authors: Sabita Subedi, Bhojan Dhakal, Shankar Raj Pant, Naba Raj Devkota

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An assessment was made about the available feed resources, its utilization pattern, specifically, roughage and concentrate, produced from the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal to formulate the appropriate strategies in satisfying the annual dietary requirements of the livestock covering its present production and management scenarios. A comparative study was done by employing a purposively conducted survey to deduct the distribution of forage sources in the area. Findings revealed that natural vegetation, seasonally available crop residues, and dried grasses were major feed resources, whereas their contribution to the total supply varied significantly (p < 0.01). The amount of feed obtained from various sources was calculated by standard conversion and using primary household data. Findings revealed that farmers practice significantly higher (p < 0.01) number of grazing days and hours per day for large ruminants such as Yak and Chauries as compared to small ruminants such as goats and sheep. The findings also indicated seasonal variations of feed supply, whereas January to March is the period of short supply (p < 0.01). It was relatively in good supply from June to September though average roughage and crude protein supplement for the animals was far below than optimum requirements. These scenarios suggest the need for immediate attention to improve the range productivity in the MCA as the deteriorating situations of the rangelands may raise questions on the sustainability of livestock herders.

Keywords: altitude, carrying capacity, dietary requirement, feed resources, rangeland, ruminant

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21 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

Abstract:

Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
20 Photophysics and Rotational Relaxation Dynamics of 6-Methoxyquinoline Fluorophore in Cationic Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelles

Authors: Tej Varma Y, Debi D. Pant

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Photophysics and rotational dynamics of the fluorescent probe, 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ) with cationic surfactant, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (nTAB) micelle solutions have been investigated (n = 12, 14 and 16). Absorption and emission peaks of the dye have been observed to shift at concentrations around critical micellar concentration (cmc) of nTAB compared to that of bulk solutions suggesting probe is in a lower polar environment. The probe senses changes in polarity (ET (30)) brought about by variation of surfactant chain length concentration and is invariably solubilized in the aqueous interface or palisade layer. The order of change in polarity observed was DTAB > CTAB > TTAB. The binding constant study shows that the probe binds strongest with TTAB (is of the order TTAB > CTAB > DTAB) due to deeper penetration into the micelle. The anisotropy decay for the probe in all the nTAB micelles studied have been rationalized based on a two-step model consisting of fast-restricted rotation of the probe and slow lateral diffusion of the probe in the micelle that is coupled to the overall rotation of the micelle. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of probe in the cationic micelles demonstrate the close proximity of the 6MQ to the Br - counterions. The fluorescence lifetimes of TTAB and DTAB are much shorter than in CTAB. These results indicate that 6MQ resides to a substantial degree in the head group region of the micelles. All the changes observed in the steady state fluorescence, microenvironment, fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence anisotropy, and other calculations are in agreement with each other suggesting binding of the cationic surfactant with the neutral dye molecule.

Keywords: photophysics, chain length, ntaB, micelles

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19 Nanoprecipitation with Ultrasonication for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability of Fursemide: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Study in Rat Model

Authors: Malay K. Das, Bhanu P. Sahu

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Furosemide is a weakly acidic diuretic indicated for treatment of edema and hypertension. It has very poor solubility but high permeability through stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to its limited solubility it has poor and variable oral bioavailability of 10-90%. The aim of this study was to enhance the oral bioavailability of furosemide by preparation of nanosuspensions. The nanosuspensions were prepared by nanoprecipitation with sonication using DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) as a solvent and water as an antisolvent (NA). The prepared nanosuspensions were sterically stabilized with polyvinyl acetate (PVA).These were characterized for particle size, ζ potential, polydispersity index, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and release behavior. The effect of nanoprecipitation on oral bioavailability of furosemide nanosuspension was studied by in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption study in rats and compared to pure drug. The stable nanosuspension was obtained with average size range of the precipitated nanoparticles between 150-300 nm and was found to be homogenous showing a narrow polydispersity index of 0.3±0.1. DSC and XRD studies indicated that the crystalline furosemide drug was converted to amorphous form upon precipitation into nanoparticles. The release profiles of nanosuspension formulation showed up to 81.2% release in 4 h. The in vivo studies on rats revealed a significant increase in the oral absorption of furosemide in the nanosuspension compared to pure drug. The AUC0→24 and Cmax values of nanosuspension were approximately 1.38 and 1.68-fold greater than that of pure drug, respectively. Furosemide nanosuspension showed 20.06±0.02 % decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to 13.37±0.02 % in plain furosemide suspension, respectively. The improved oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamics effect of furosemide may be due to the improved dissolution of furosemide in simulated gastric fluid which results in enhanced oral systemic absorption of furosemide from stomach region where it has better permeability.

Keywords: furosemide, nanosuspension, bioavailability enhancement, nanoprecipitation, oral drug delivery

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18 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma

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Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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17 A Deep Learning Approach to Calculate Cardiothoracic Ratio From Chest Radiographs

Authors: Pranav Ajmera, Amit Kharat, Tanveer Gupte, Richa Pant, Viraj Kulkarni, Vinay Duddalwar, Purnachandra Lamghare

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The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is the ratio of the diameter of the heart to the diameter of the thorax. An abnormal CTR, that is, a value greater than 0.55, is often an indicator of an underlying pathological condition. The accurate prediction of an abnormal CTR from chest X-rays (CXRs) aids in the early diagnosis of clinical conditions. We propose a deep learning-based model for automatic CTR calculation that can assist the radiologist with the diagnosis of cardiomegaly and optimize the radiology flow. The study population included 1012 posteroanterior (PA) CXRs from a single institution. The Attention U-Net deep learning (DL) architecture was used for the automatic calculation of CTR. A CTR of 0.55 was used as a cut-off to categorize the condition as cardiomegaly present or absent. An observer performance test was conducted to assess the radiologist's performance in diagnosing cardiomegaly with and without artificial intelligence (AI) assistance. The Attention U-Net model was highly specific in calculating the CTR. The model exhibited a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.85], precision of 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98, 1], and a F1 score of 0.88 [95% CI: 0.85, 0.91]. During the analysis, we observed that 51 out of 1012 samples were misclassified by the model when compared to annotations made by the expert radiologist. We further observed that the sensitivity of the reviewing radiologist in identifying cardiomegaly increased from 40.50% to 88.4% when aided by the AI-generated CTR. Our segmentation-based AI model demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for CTR calculation. The performance of the radiologist on the observer performance test improved significantly with AI assistance. A DL-based segmentation model for rapid quantification of CTR can therefore have significant potential to be used in clinical workflows.

Keywords: cardiomegaly, deep learning, chest radiograph, artificial intelligence, cardiothoracic ratio

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16 Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud: A Method for Inclusion of ID-PKC Schemes in OpenStack Cloud

Authors: N. Nalini, Bhanu Prakash Gopularam

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The term data security refers to the degree of resistance or protection given to information from unintended or unauthorized access. The core principles of information security are the confidentiality, integrity and availability, also referred as CIA triad. Cloud computing services are classified as SaaS, IaaS and PaaS services. With cloud adoption the confidential enterprise data are moved from organization premises to untrusted public network and due to this the attack surface has increased manifold. Several cloud computing platforms like OpenStack, Eucalyptus, Amazon EC2 offer users to build and configure public, hybrid and private clouds. While the traditional encryption based on PKI infrastructure still works in cloud scenario, the management of public-private keys and trust certificates is difficult. The Identity based Public Key Cryptography (also referred as ID-PKC) overcomes this problem by using publicly identifiable information for generating the keys and works well with decentralized systems. The users can exchange information securely without having to manage any trust information. Another advantage is that access control (role based access control policy) information can be embedded into data unlike in PKI where it is handled by separate component or system. In OpenStack cloud platform the keystone service acts as identity service for authentication and authorization and has support for public key infrastructure for auto services. In this paper, we explain OpenStack security architecture and evaluate the PKI infrastructure piece for data confidentiality. We provide method to integrate ID-PKC schemes for securing data while in transit and stored and explain the key measures for safe guarding data against security attacks. The proposed approach uses JPBC crypto library for key-pair generation based on IEEE P1636.3 standard and secure communication to other cloud services.

Keywords: data confidentiality, identity based cryptography, secure communication, open stack key stone, token scoping

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15 ChaQra: A Cellular Unit of the Indian Quantum Network

Authors: Shashank Gupta, Iteash Agarwal, Vijayalaxmi Mogiligidda, Rajesh Kumar Krishnan, Sruthi Chennuri, Deepika Aggarwal, Anwesha Hoodati, Sheroy Cooper, Ranjan, Mohammad Bilal Sheik, Bhavya K. M., Manasa Hegde, M. Naveen Krishna, Amit Kumar Chauhan, Mallikarjun Korrapati, Sumit Singh, J. B. Singh, Sunil Sud, Sunil Gupta, Sidhartha Pant, Sankar, Neha Agrawal, Ashish Ranjan, Piyush Mohapatra, Roopak T., Arsh Ahmad, Nanjunda M., Dilip Singh

Abstract:

Major research interests on quantum key distribution (QKD) are primarily focussed on increasing 1. point-to-point transmission distance (1000 Km), 2. secure key rate (Mbps), 3. security of quantum layer (device-independence). It is great to push the boundaries on these fronts, but these isolated approaches are neither scalable nor cost-effective due to the requirements of specialised hardware and different infrastructure. Current and future QKD network requires addressing different sets of challenges apart from distance, key rate, and quantum security. In this regard, we present ChaQra -a sub-quantum network with core features as 1) Crypto agility (integration in the already deployed telecommunication fibres), 2) Software defined networking (SDN paradigm for routing different nodes), 3) reliability (addressing denial-of-service with hybrid quantum safe cryptography), 4) upgradability (modules upgradation based on scientific and technological advancements), 5) Beyond QKD (using QKD network for distributed computing, multi-party computation etc). Our results demonstrate a clear path to create and accelerate quantum secure Indian subcontinent under the national quantum mission.

Keywords: quantum network, quantum key distribution, quantum security, quantum information

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14 One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Hexose Sugar over Chromium Impregnated Zeolite Based Catalyst, Cr/H-ZSM-5

Authors: Samuel K. Degife, Kamal K. Pant, Sapna Jain

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The world´s population and industrialization of countries continued to grow in an alarming rate irrespective of the security for food, energy supply, and pure water availability. As a result, the global energy consumption is observed to increase significantly. Fossil energy resources that mainly comprised of crude oil, coal, and natural gas have been used by mankind as the main energy source for almost two centuries. However, sufficient evidences are revealing that the consumption of fossil resource as transportation fuel emits environmental pollutants such as CO2, NOx, and SOx. These resources are dwindling rapidly besides enormous amount of problems associated such as fluctuation of oil price and instability of oil-rich regions. Biomass is a promising renewable energy candidate to replace fossil-based transportation fuel and chemical production. The present study aims at valorization of hexose sugars (glucose and fructose) using zeolite based catalysts in imidazolium based ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [BMIM] Cl) reaction media. The catalytic effect chromium impregnated H-ZSM-5 (Cr/H-ZSM-5) was studied for dehydration of hexose sugars. The wet impregnation method was used to prepare Cr/H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The characterization of the prepared catalyst was performed using techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and BET-surface area analysis. The dehydration product, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cr/H-ZSM-5 was effective in dehydrating fructose with 87% conversion and 55% yield 5-HMF at 180 oC for 30 min of reaction time compared with H-ZSM-5 catalyst which yielded only 31% of 5-HMF at identical reaction condition.

Keywords: chromium, hexose, ionic liquid, , zeolite

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13 Novel Uses of Discarded Work Rolls of Cold Rolling Mills in Hot Strip Mill of Tata Steel India

Authors: Uday Shanker Goel, Vinay Vasant Mahashabde, Biswajit Ghosh, Arvind Jha, Amit Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Patel, Uma Shanker Pattanaik, Vinit Kumar Shah, Chaitanya Bhanu

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Pinch rolls of the Hot Mills must possess resistance to wear, thermal stability, high thermal conductivity and through hardness. Conventionally, pinch rolls have been procured either as new ones or refurbished ones. Discarded Work Rolls from the Cold Mill were taken and machined inhouse at Tata Steel to be used subsequently as the bottom pinch rolls of the Hot Mill. The hardness of the scrapped work rolls from CRM is close to 55HRC and the typical composition is ( C - 0.8% , Mn - 0.40 % , Si - 0.40% , Cr - 3.5% , Mo - 0.5% & V - 0.1% ).The Innovation was the use of a roll which would otherwise have been otherwise discarded as scrap. Also, the innovation helped in using the scrapped roll which had better wear and heat resistance. In a conventional Pinch roil (Hardness 50 HRC and typical chemistry - C - 10% , Mo+Co+V+Nb ~ 5 % ) , Pick-up is a condition whereby foreign material becomes adhered to the surface of the pinch roll during service. The foreign material is usually adhered metal from the actual product being rolled. The main attributes of the weld overlay rolls are wear resistance and crack resistance. However, the weld overlay roll has a strong tendency for strip pick-up particularly in the area of bead overlap. However, the greatest disadvantage is the depth of weld deposit, which is less than half of the usable shell thickness in most mills. Because of this, the stainless rolls require re-welding on a routine basis. By providing a significantly cheaper in house and more robust alternative of the existing bottom pinch rolls , this innovation results in significant lower worries for the roll shop. Pinch rolls now don't have to be sent outside Jamshedpur for refurbishment or for procuring new ones. Scrapped rolls from adjacent Cold Mill are procured and sent for machining to our Machine Shop inside Tata Steel works in Jamshedpur. This is far more convenient than the older methodology. The idea is also being deployed to the other hot mills of Tata Steel. Multiple campaigns have been tried out at both down coilers of Hot Strip with significantly lower wear.

Keywords: hot rolling flat, cold mill work roll, hot strip pinch roll, strip surface

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12 Seed Yield and Quality of Late Planted Rabi Wheat Crop as Influenced by Basal and Foliar Application of Urea

Authors: Omvati Verma, Shyamashrre Roy

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A field experiment was conducted with three basal nitrogen levels (90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) and five foliar application of urea (absolute control, water spray, 3% urea spray at anthesis, 7 and 14 days after anthesis) at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand) during rabi season in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that nitrogen application of 150 kg/ha produced the highest seed yield, straw and biological yield and it was significantly superior to 90 kg N/ha and was at par with 120 kg N/ha. The number of tillers increased significantly with increase in nitrogen doses up to 150 kg N/ha. Spike length, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and thousand seed weight showed significantly higher values with 120 kg N/ha than 90 kg N/ha and were at par with that of 150 kg N/ha. Also, plant height showed similar trend. Leaf area index and chlorophyll content showed significant increase with an increase in nitrogen levels at different stages. In the case of foliar spray treatments, urea spray at anthesis showed highest value for yield and yield attributes. In case of spike length and thousand seed weight, it was similar with the urea spray at 7 and 14 days after anthesis, but for rest of the yield attributes, it was significantly higher than rest of the treatments. Among seed quality parameters protein and sedimentation value showed significant increase due to increase in nitrogen rates whereas, starch and hectolitre weight had a decreasing trend. Wet gluten content was not influenced by nitrogen levels. Foliar urea spray at anthesis resulted in highest value of protein and hectolitre weight whereas, urea spray at 7 days after anthesis showed highest value of sedimentation value and wet gluten content.

Keywords: foliar application, nitrogenous fertilizer, seed quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 257