Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4692

Search results for: feed resources

4692 Assessment of Major Feed Resources and Its Utilization in Manaslu Conservation Area Nepal

Authors: Sabita Subedi, Bhojan Dhakal, Shankar Raj Pant, Naba Raj Devkota

Abstract:

An assessment was made about the available feed resources, its utilization pattern, specifically, roughage and concentrate, produced from the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal to formulate the appropriate strategies in satisfying the annual dietary requirements of the livestock covering its present production and management scenarios. A comparative study was done by employing a purposively conducted survey to deduct the distribution of forage sources in the area. Findings revealed that natural vegetation, seasonally available crop residues, and dried grasses were major feed resources, whereas their contribution to the total supply varied significantly (p < 0.01). The amount of feed obtained from various sources was calculated by standard conversion and using primary household data. Findings revealed that farmers practice significantly higher (p < 0.01) number of grazing days and hours per day for large ruminants such as Yak and Chauries as compared to small ruminants such as goats and sheep. The findings also indicated seasonal variations of feed supply, whereas January to March is the period of short supply (p < 0.01). It was relatively in good supply from June to September though average roughage and crude protein supplement for the animals was far below than optimum requirements. These scenarios suggest the need for immediate attention to improve the range productivity in the MCA as the deteriorating situations of the rangelands may raise questions on the sustainability of livestock herders.

Keywords: altitude, carrying capacity, dietary requirement, feed resources, rangeland, ruminant

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4691 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: feed, silage, dairy, production, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4690 Process Integration of Natural Gas Hydrate Production by CH₄-CO₂/H₂ Replacement Coupling Steam Methane Reforming

Authors: Mengying Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Chun Deng, Bei Liu, Changyu Sun, Guangjin Chen, Mahmoud El-Halwagi

Abstract:

Significant amounts of natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are considered potential new sustainable energy resources in the future. However, common used methods for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments require high investment but with low gas production efficiency, and may cause potential environment and security problems. Therefore, there is a need for effective gas production from hydrates. The natural gas hydrate production method by CO₂/H₂ replacement coupling steam methane reforming can improve the replacement effect and reduce the cost of gas separation. This paper develops a simulation model of the gas production process integrated with steam reforming and membrane separation. The process parameters (i.e., reactor temperature, pressure, H₂O/CH₄ ratio) and the composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are analyzed. Energy analysis is also conducted. Two design scenarios with different composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are proposed and evaluated to assess the energy efficiency of the novel system. Results show that when the composition of CO₂ in the feed gas is between 43 % and 72 %, there is a certain composition that can meet the requirement that the flow rate of recycled gas is equal to that of feed gas, so as to ensure that the subsequent production process does not need to add feed gas or discharge recycled gas. The energy efficiency of the CO₂ in feed gas at 43 % and 72 % is greater than 1, and the energy efficiency is relatively higher when the CO₂ mole fraction in feed gas is 72 %.

Keywords: Gas production, hydrate, process integration, steam reforming

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4689 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić

Abstract:

The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: microbiology, safety, hygiene, feed

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4688 Evolution of Germany’s Feed-in Tariff Policy

Authors: Gaafar Muhammed, N. T. Ersoy

Abstract:

The role of electricity in the economic development of any country is undeniable. The main goal of utilizing renewable sources in electricity generation, especially in the emerging countries, is to improve electricity access, economic development and energy sustainability. Germany’s recent transition from conventional to renewable energy technologies is overwhelming, this might not be associated with its abundant natural resources but owing to the policies in place. In line with the fast economic and technological developments recorded in recent years, Germany currently produces approximately 1059 GW of its energy from renewable sources. Hence, at the end of 2016, Germany is among the world leaders in terms of installed renewable energy capacity. As one of the most important factors that lead to renewable energy utilization in any nation is an effective policy, this study aims at examining the effect of policies on renewable energy (RE) development in Germany. Also, the study will focus on the evolution of the adopted feed-in tariff policies, as this evolution has affected the renewable energy capacity in Germany over a period of 15 years (2000 to 2015). The main contribution of the study is to establish a link between the feed-in tariff and the increase of RE in Germany’s energy mix. This is done by analyzing the characteristics of various feed-in tariff mechanisms adopted through the years. These characteristics include the feed-in-tariff rate, degression, special conditions, supported technology, etc. Then, the renewable energy development in Germany has been analyzed through the years along with the targets and the progress in reaching these targets. The study reveals that Germany’s renewable energy support policies (especially feed-in tariff) lead to several benefits and contribute towards the targets existing for renewable energy.

Keywords: feed-in tariff, Germany, policy, penewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
4687 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

Abstract:

The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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4686 Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Efficacy of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus, Feed Experimental Diet with Several Dosages of Papain Enzyme

Authors: Zainal A. Muchlisin, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdullah A. Muhammadar

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed, 27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g, total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters was found in the dosage of 3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.

Keywords: betok, feed conversion ratio, freshwater fish, nutrition, feeding

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4685 The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler

Authors: Waode Nurmayani, Nikmatul Riswanda

Abstract:

Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.

Keywords: earthworm, broiler, protein, antibiotic

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4684 A Research About to Determination the Quality of Feed Oils Used as Mixedfeed Raw Material from Some Feed Factories in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Veysel Ayhan

Abstract:

Feed oil samples which are used as mixed feed raw material were taken from six different feed factories in March, May and July. All factories make production in Konya, Turkey and all of the samples were which taken are crude soybean oil. Some physical and chemical analysis, free radical scavenger effect and total phenol content were determined on these oil samples. Moisture content was found between 0.10-22.23 %, saponification number was determined 143.13 to 167.93 KOH/kg, free fatty acidity was varied 0.73 to 35.00 % , peroxide value was found between 1.53 and 28.43 meq/kg , unsaponifiable matter was determined from 0.40 to 17.10 % , viscosity was found between 34.30 and 625.67 mPas, sediment amount was determined between 0.60-18.16 % , free radical scavenger effect was varied 20.7 to 43.04 % inhibition of the extract and total phenol content was found between 1.20 and 2.69 mg/L extract. Different results were found between months and factories.

Keywords: crude soybean oil, feed oils, mixed feed, Konya

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4683 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex

Abstract:

Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, growth performance, bactocell

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4682 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed

Abstract:

Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial, camel, toxicity

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4681 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: broiler, diet, dietary, potato leaves, wheat offal

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4680 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents, rice bran

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4679 Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Feed Intake and Average Weight of Pullets

Authors: Cajethan U. Ugwuoke, Hyginus O. Omeje, Emmanuel C. Osinem

Abstract:

The study was carried out to determine the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder additive on the feed intake and average weight of pullets. A completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted for the study. On the procedure of the experiment, 240 chicks were randomly selected from 252 Isa Brown day-old chicks. The chicks were equally randomly allotted to 12 pens with 20 chicks each. The pens were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups with three replicates each. T1 was fed with control feed while T2, T3, and T4 were fed with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Moringa oleifera leaf powder fortified feed respectively. The chicks were fed with uniform feed up to week four. From week five, experimental feeds were given to the pullet up to 20 weeks of age. The birds were placed on the same treatment conditions except different experimental feeds given to different groups. Data on the feed intake were collected daily while the average weight of the pullets was collected weekly using weighing scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, bar charts and Analysis of Variance. The layers fed with control feed consumed the highest amount of feed in most of the weeks under study. The average weights of all the treatment groups were equal from week 1 to week 4. Little variation in average weight started in week 5 with T2 topping the groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake and average weight of layers fed with different inclusion rates of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in feeds.

Keywords: average weight, feed intake, Moringa oleifera, pullets

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4678 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani

Abstract:

Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: pectin, xanthan gum, guar gum, laying hen, cholesterol

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4677 Effect of Feed Rate on Grinding Circuits and Cyclone Efficiency

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of change in feed rate on grinding circuit and cyclone efficiency in case of lead-zinc ore. The following experiments and analysis were conducted on beneficiation circuit of Sindesar Khurd (SK) mines under Hindustan Zinc Ltd. subsidiary of Vedanta Group of Companies, a leading producer of lead-Zinc, silver and cadmium (as by products) in India. Feed rate is an important variable in beneficiation circuit operation. Optimizing feed rate is indispensable for any grinding circuit and directly effects cyclone efficiency. The size analysis of ore in grinding circuit along with cyclone efficiency on varying feed rates establishes their interdependence. Feed rate determines retention time ore gets within grinding circuit. Retention time in turn determines degree of liberation of mineral. Inadequate liberation causes decreased circuit efficiency. In this paper we have studied the effect of varying feed rate on (1) D80 particle size of different sections of different streams of grinding circuit (2) Re-circulating load (3) Cyclone efficiency. As a conclusion, this study gives some clues to operate grinding circuits and hydro-cyclones in more efficient way regarding beneficiation of Lead-zinc ore.

Keywords: cyclone efficiency, feed rate, grinding circuit, re-circulating load

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4676 The Influence of Feedgas Ratio on the Ethene Hydroformylation using Rh-Co Bimetallic Catalyst Supported by Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: Jianli Chang, Yusheng Zhang, Yali Yao, Diane Hildebrandt, Xinying Liu

Abstract:

The influence of feed-gas ratio on the ethene hydroformylation over an Rh-Co bimetallic catalyst supported by reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been investigated in a tubular fixed bed reactor. Argon was used as balance gas when the feed-gas ratio was changed, which can keep the partial pressure of the other two kinds of gas constant while the ratio of one component in feed-gas was changed. First, the effect of single-component gas ratio on the performance of ethene hydroformylation was studied one by one (H₂, C₂H₄ and CO). Then an optimized ratio was found to obtain a high selectivity to C₃ oxygenates. The results showed that: (1) 0.5%Rh-20%Co/RGO is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for ethene hydroformylation. (2) H₂ and CO have a more significant influence than C₂H₄ on selectivity to oxygenates. (3) A lower H₂ ratio and a higher CO ratio in feed-gas can lead to a higher selectivity to oxygenates. (4) The highest selectivity to oxygenates, 61.70%, was obtained at the feed-gas ratio CO: C₂H₄: H₂ = 4: 2: 1.

Keywords: ethene hydroformylation, reduced graphene oxide, rhodium cobalt bimetallic catalyst, the effect of feed-gas ratio

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4675 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP

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4674 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

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4673 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

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4672 Effect in Animal Nutrition of Genetical Modified Plant(GM)

Authors: Abdullah Özbilgin, Oguzhan Kahraman, Mustafa Selçuk Alataş

Abstract:

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The land area devoted to the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has increased in recent years: in 2012 such plants were grown on over 170 million hectares globally, in 28 different countries, and are at resent used by 17.3 million farmers worldwide. The majority of GM plants are used as feed material for food-producing farm animals. Despite the facts that GM plants have been used as feed for years and a number of feeding studies have proved their safety for animals, they still give rise to emotional public discussion.

Keywords: crops, genetical modified plant(GM), plant, safety

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4671 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

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4670 A Review on Potential Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Livestock Feed with Particular Emphasis to Developing Countries in Africa

Authors: Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Firew Tegegne, A. Tsunekawa, Dereje Tewabe

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive review on the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential livestock feed and argue its utilization as complementary strategy to other control methods. Water Hyacinth is one of the most noxious plant invaders of rivers and lakes. Such weeds cause environmental disaster and interfere with economic and recreational activities such as water transportation and fishing. Economic impacts of the weed in seven African countries have been estimated at between 20-50 million US$ every year. It would, therefore, be prudent to suggest utilization as a complementary control method. The majority of people in developing countries are dependent on traditional and inefficient crop-livestock production system that constrains their ability to enhance economic productivity and quality of life. Livestock in developing countries faces shortage of feed, especially during the long dry seasons. Existing literature shows the use of water hyacinth as livestock and fish feed. The chemical composition of water hyacinth varies considerably. Due to its relatively high crude protein (CP) content (5.8-20.0%), water hyacinth can be considered as a potential protein supplement for livestock which commonly feed cereal crop residues whose contribution as source of feed is increasing in Africa. Though the effects of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) present in water hyacinth is not investigated, their concentrations are not above threshold hinder its utilization as livestock feed. In conclusion, water hyacinth could provide large quantities of nutritious feed for animals. Like other feeds, water hyacinth may not be offered as a sole feed and based on existing literature its optimum inclusion level reaches 50%.

Keywords: Africa, livestock feed, water bodies, water hyacinth and weed control method

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4669 Impact of Length of Straw by the Use of a Straw Mill on the Selective Feeding of Young Cattle and Their Effects for the Cattle

Authors: Heiko Scholz

Abstract:

When feeding high qualitysilagetoheifersfromthe age of two, there is a riskofenergyoversupply. Depending on the feeding valueorscarceavailability ofsilageorcorn silage diets withhighproportionsof straw is often incorporated. Foran energetically standardized young cattle supply of strawproportion can be more than 20% of dry matter. It was investigated whether the grinding of straw with the strawmillselective feeding significantly limits. The investigation has been carried out with young cattle in the second year. 78 animals were kept and fed under similar conditions in two groups. The experimental group (EG) consisted of cattle 12 to 15 months, and in the control group (CG), the cattle were 15 to 20 months old. The experimental feeding took place in five days of feed distribution, and residual feed were weighed. The ration of EG contained ground with the straw mill straw, and CG was further fed rotor-cut pressed straw. To determine the selective seizure samples of feed distributionandtheremainingfood with the particle separator boxandthecrude protein-and energy-content have been determined. The grinding of the straw increased the daily feed intake.IntheEGan increase infeed intakewas observedby grinding of the straw. Feed intakedirectlyon the day for changing the dietoflongonground straw increased by more than 2.0 kgofDMper animal. In the following days, the feed intakewasincreasedby 0.9kg DMper animal and day on average (7.4 vs. 8.3 kg DM per day). The results of the screen distribution of residual feed point to a differentiated feeding behavior between the groups. In the EG, the particle length of the residual feed to a large extent with the template matches. The acid-base-balance (NSBA)valuesofEGarewithin normal limits. Ifstrawsharesof25% and more are federations to young cattle (heifers), the theparticlelengthof straw has significant impact ontheselectivefeeding behavior. Aparticlelength of 1.5cmcompared to7.5 cmlongpreventedstrawcertainly discarding of the straw on the feeding barn. The feed intake increases whenshortstrawis mixed into theTMR.

Keywords: straw mill, heifer, feed selection, dry matter intake

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4668 Effect of Supplementing Different Sources and Levels of Phytase Enzyme to Diets on Productive Performance for Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sunbul Jassim Hamodi, Muna Khalid Khudayer, Firas Muzahem Hussein

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement sources of Phytase enzyme (bacterial, fungal, enzymes mixture) using levels (250, 500, 750) FTY/ kg feed to diets compared with control on the performance for one thousand fifty broiler chicks (Ross 308) from 1day old with initial weight 39.78 gm till 42 days. The study involved 10 treatments, three replicates per treatment (35 chicks/replicate). Treatments were as follows: T1: control diet (without any addition). T2: added bacterial phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T3: added bacterial phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T4: added bacterial phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T5: added fungal phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T6: added fungal phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T7: added fungal phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T8 added enzymes mixture 250U/ kg feed. T9: added enzymes mixture 500U/ kg feed. T10: added enzymes mixture 750U/ kg feed. The results revealed that supplementing 750 U from enzymes mixture to broiler diet increased significantly (p <0.05) body weight compared with (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (750 FTY bacterial phytase/Kg feed), (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) at 6 weeks, also supplemented different sources and levels from phytase enzyme improved a cumulative weight gain for (500 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (250FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (500FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed), (500 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) and (750 U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) treatments compared with (750 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed)treatment, about accumulative feed consumption (500 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) and (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) increased significantly compared with control group and (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) during 1-6 weeks. There were significantly improved in cumulative feed conversion for (500U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) compared with the worse feed conversion ratio that recorded in (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed). No significant differences between treatments in internal organs relative weights, carcass cuts, dressing percentage and production index. Mortality was increased in (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) compared with other treatments.

Keywords: phytase, phytic acid, broiler, productive performance

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4667 Energy Efficient Recycling of In-Plant Fines

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Persson, L. Sundqvist, B. Biorkman

Abstract:

Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steel making processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent. In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

Keywords: iron and steel wastes, recycling, self-reducing briquettes, thermogravimetry

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4666 Effects of Feed Forms on Growth Pattern, Behavioural Responses and Fecal Microbial Load of Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae Probiotics

Authors: O. A. Adebiyi, A. O. Oni, A. O. K. Adeshehinwa, I. O. Adejumo

Abstract:

In forty nine (49) days, twenty four (24) growing pigs (Landrace x Large white) with an average weight of 17 ±2.1kg were allocated to four experimental treatments T1 (dry mash without probiotics), T2 (wet feed without probiotics), T3 (dry mash + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) and T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) which were replicated three times with two pigs per replicate in a completely randomised design. The basal feed (dry feed) was formulated to meet the nutritional requirement of the animal with crude protein of 18.00% and metabolisable energy of 2784.00kcal/kgME. Growth pattern, faecal microbial load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and frequency of visiting the drinking troughs) were accessed. Pigs fed dry mash without probiotics (T1) had the highest daily feed intake among the experimental animals (1.10kg) while pigs on supplemented diets (T3 and T4) had an average daily feed intake of 0.95kg. However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p < 0.05) affected with pigs on T3 having least value of 6.26 compared those on T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae) with means of 7.41. Total organism counts varied significantly (p < 0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, T3 and T4 with mean values of 179.50 x106cfu; 132.00 x 106cfu; 32.00 x 106cfu and 64.50 x 106cfu respectively. Coliform count was also significantly (p < 0.05) different among the treatments with corresponding values of 117.50 x 106cfu; 49.00 x 106cfu, 8.00 x 106cfu for pigs in T1, T2 and T4 respectively. The faecal Saccaromyces cereviseae was significantly lower in pigs fed supplemented diets compared to their counterparts on unsupplemented diets. This could be due to the inability of yeast organisms to be voided easily through feaces. The pigs in T1 spent the most time eating (7.88%) while their counterparts on T3 spent the least time eating. The corresponding physical pen interaction times expressed in percentage of a day for pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4 are 6.22%, 5.92%, 4.04% and 4.80% respectively. These behavioural responses exhibited by these pigs (T3) showed that little amount of dry feed supplemented with probiotics is needed for better performance. The water intake increases as a result of the dryness of the feed with consequent decrease in pen interaction and more time was spent resting than engaging in other possible vice-habit like fighting or tail biting. Pigs fed dry feed (T3) which was supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics had a better overall performance, least faecal microbial load than wet fed pigs either supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae or non-supplemented.

Keywords: behaviour, feed forms, feed utilization, growth, microbial

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4665 The Effect of Rosella Flower Flour (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Utilization in Ration on Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Nurlisa Uke Dessy, Dwi Septian Erwinsyah, Zuprizal

Abstract:

This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rosella flower flour in diet on broiler chicken Performace. The materials used in this experiment were 72 broiler chickens and were divided into six treatments, those were R0 = without rosella flower flour addition, R1 = 0.5% rosella flower flour addition, R2 = 1.0% rosella flower flour addition, R3 = 1.5% rosella flower flour addition, R4 = 2.0% rosella flower flour addition, and R5 = 2.5% rosella flower flour addition. Each treatment consisted of three replications and each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. This research took 35 days to collect the data. Parameters measured were feed intake, rosella flower flour consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and mortality. The collected data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the differences of mean were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed the average of feed consumption were 2154; 2154; 2034; 2154; 2034 and 2154 g/bird on broiler chicken that were feed respectively by 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5% rosella flower flour level. The average consumptions of rosella flower flour respectively were 0; 10.77; 20.34; 32.31; 40.68; and 53.85 g/bird. The body weight gains were 1263.33±70.40; 1422.42±36.33; 1443.75±30.00; 1387.42± 35.30; 1411.17±29.58 and 1457.08±40.75 g/bird. Feed conversion results were 1.71±0.94; 1.51±0.37; 1.47±0.62; 1.55±0.40; 1.53±0.30 and 1.48±0.40. The conclusion of the experiment was known that using rosella flower flour until 2.5% level in diet was able to increase broiler chicken performance, and also to decrease broiler chicken feed conversion.

Keywords: feed intake, consumptions rosella flower flour, broiler chickens, body weight gain, feed conversion

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4664 The Inclusion of the Cabbage Waste in Buffalo Ration Made of Sugarcane Waste and Its Effect on Characteristics of the Silage

Authors: Adrizal, Irsan Ryanto, Sri Juwita, Adika Sugara, Tino Bapirco

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to study the influence of the inclusion of the cabbage waste into a buffalo rations made of sugarcane waste on the feed formula and characteristic of complete feed silage. Research carried out a two-stage i.e. the feed formulation and experiment of making complete feed silage. Feed formulation is done by linear programming. Data input is the price of feed stuffs and their nutrient contents as well as requirements for rations, while the output is the use of each feed stuff and the price of complete feed. The experiment of complete feed silage was done by a completely random design 4 x 4. The treatments were 4 inclusion levels of the cabbage waste i.e. 0%,(T1) 5%(T2), 10%(T3) and 15% (T4), with 4 replications. The result of feed formulation for T1 was cabbage (0%), sugarcane top (17.9%), bagasse (33.3%), Molasses (5.0%), cabagge (0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (2.7%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (9.1%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T2 was cabagge (5%), sugarcane top (1.7%), bagasse (45.2%), Molasses (5.0%), , Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.6%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (7.5%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T3 was cabbage (10%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (45.3%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.8%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (3.9%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt(0.5%). The formula of T4 was cabagge (15.0%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (44.1%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.9%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (0%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). An increase in the level of inclusion of the cabbage waste can decrease the cost of rations. The cost of rations (IDR/kg on DM basis) were 1442, 1367, 1333, and 1300 respectively. The rations formula were not significantly (P > 0.05) influent the on fungal colonies, smell, texture and color of the complete ration silage, but the pH increased significantly (P < 0.05). It concluded that inclusion of cabbage waste can minimize the cost of buffalo ration, without decreasing the silage quality of complete feed.

Keywords: buffalo, cabbage, complete feed, sillage characteristic, sugarcane waste

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4663 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 58