Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: VEGF

54 The Differences of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Serum to Determine Follicular Adenoma and Follicular Carcinoma of Thyroid

Authors: Tery Nehemia Nugraha Joseph, J. D. P. Wisnubroto

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Thyroid cancer is a healthcare problem with high morbidity and mortality. Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are thyroid tumors from the thyroid follicular cells differentiation with a microfollicular pattern that consists of follicular cuboidal cells. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and powerful mitogen for endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability. Therefore, due to an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), VEGF production is activated in the thyroid that leads to the end of mitogenic TSH stimulation and initiation of angiogenesis. The differences in VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma of thyroid tissue with follicular adenoma thyroid can be used as a basis in differentiating the two types of neoplasms. This study aims to analyze VEGF in the serum so that it can be used to differentiate the types of thyroid carcinoma before surgery. This study uses a cross-sectional research design. Samples were carried out by taking serum samples, and the VEGF levels were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The results found a significant difference between VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma thyroid group and VEGF levels in the follicular adenoma thyroid group with a value of p = 0.007 (p < 0.05). The results obtained are 560,427 ± 160,506 ng/mL in the type of follicular carcinoma thyroid and 320.943 ± 134.573 ng/mL in the type of follicular adenoma thyroid. VEGF levels between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are different. VEGF levels are higher in follicular carcinoma thyroid than follicular adenoma thyroid.

Keywords: follicular adenoma thyroid, follicular carcinoma thyroid, thyroid, VEGF

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53 Effects of Valproate on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retina Associated with Choroidal Neovascularization

Authors: Zhang Zhenzhen

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Valproate (VPA) is commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. The mechanism is complicated, including its ability to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we show that VPA attenuated VEGF gene expression and the morphological changes in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by photocoagulation in retina. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously at 300mg/kg twice daily with VPA before insult. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-B were examined in the eyes of VPA-treated mice and in human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines (ARPE-19) exposed to VPA. In addition, CNV was induced by photocoagulation in mice injected with VPA, and the volume of CNV was compared by fluorescence-labeled choroidal flat mount. Morphological changes were analyzed on stained histological sections. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-B, and acetylation of histone H3 in each group. VPA injected intraperitoneally attenuated the VEGF-A and VEGF-B expression in the retina, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of retina tissue, indicating that VPA acts directly on retina tissues through acetylation to reduce the expression of VEGF. VPA also attenuated the VEGF-A mRNA expression in the retinal pigment epithelium showed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the administration of VPA significantly attenuated photocoagulation-induced CNV in mice. These results demonstrate that VPA attenuated VEGF production in retina associated with choroidal neovascularization possibly via the HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: retina, acetylation, chorodial neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor

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52 Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Raden Suhartono, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Patrianef Darwis, S. Dwi Anita, Luluk Yunaini, Kemas Dahlan

Abstract:

Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene shows association with various angiogenesis conditions including Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) disease. In this study, we performed this study to examine VEGF gene polymorphism associated with DFU. Methods: Case-control study of polymorphism of VEGF gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C, of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients without DFU. Forty-nine point 8 percent of total samples is male and 50,2% female with mean age 56,06 years. Distribution of the wild-type genotype VEGF +405 C>G wild type CC was found in 6,9% of respondents, the number of mutant heterozygote CG was 69,5% and mutant homozygote GG was 19,7%. Cumulatively, there were 6,9% wild-type and 85,2% mutant and 3,9% of total blood samples could not be detected on PCR-RFLP. Distribution of VEGF allele +405 C>G C alleles were 43% and G alleles were 57%. Distribution of genotype from VEGF gene -460 T>C is wild type TT 42,9%, mutant heterozygote TC 37,9% and mutant homozygote CC 13,3%. Cumulatively, there were 42,9% wild-type and 51% mutant type. Distribution of VEGF -460 T>C were 62% T allele and 38% C allele. Conclusion: In this study we found the distribution of alleles from VEGF +405 C>G is C 43% and G 57% and from VEGF -460 T>C; T 62% and C 38%. We propose that G allele in VEGF +405 C>G can act as a protective allele and on the other hands T allele in VEGF -460 T>C could be acted as a risk factor for DFU in diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, VEGF

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51 Development of a Novel Score for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Hossam Darwesh

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Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of VEGF and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: VEGF was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-VEGF score)=1.26 (numerical constant) + 0.05 ×AFP (U L-1)+0.038 × VEGF(ng ml-1)+0.004× INR –1.02 × Albumin (g l-1)–0.002 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-VEGF score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 4.4 (ie less than 4.4 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-VEGF score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, tumor markers

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50 The Influence of Aerobic Physical Exercise with Different Frequency to Concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Brain Tissue of Wistar Rat

Authors: Rostika Flora, Muhammad Zulkarnain, Syokumawena

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Background: Aerobic physical exercises are recommended to keep body fit and healthy although physical exercises themselves can increase body metabolism and oxygen and can lead into tissue hypoxia. Oxygen pressure can serve as Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulator. Hypoxia increases gene expression of VEGF through ascendant regulation of HIF-1. VEGF is involved in regulating angiogenesis process. Aerobic physical exercises can increase the concentration of VEGF in brain and enables angiogenesis process. We have investigated the influence of aerobic physical exercise to the VGEF concentration of wistar rat’s brain. Methods: This was experimental study using post test only control group design. Independent t-test was used as statistical test. The samples were twenty four wistar rat (Rattus Norvegicus) which were divided into four groups: group P1 (control group), group P2 (treatment group with once-a-week exercise), group P3 (treatment group with three time-a-week exercise), and group P4 (treatment group with seven time-a-week exercise). Group P2, P3, and P4 were treated with treadmil with speed of 20 m/minute for 30 minutes. The concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a significant increase of VEGF in treatment group compared with control one (<0.05). The maximum increase was found in group P2 (129.02±64.49) and the minimum increase was in group P4 (96.98±11.20). Conclusion: The frequency of aerobic physical exercises influenced the concentration of Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of brain tissue of Rattus Norvegicus.

Keywords: brain tissue, hypoxia, physical exercises, vascular endhothelial growth factor

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49 Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) on the Level of Ifn Γ (Interferon Gamma), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Caspase 3 Expression

Authors: Chodidjah, Edi Dharmana, Hardhono, Sarjadi

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Breast cancer treatment options including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy have not been effective. Besides, they have side effects. Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) has been shown to improve immune system, suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis. One of the parameters for immune system, tumor growth and apoptosis is IFNγ (Interferon γ), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and Caspase 3 respectively. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the administration of Keladi Tikus tuber extract at the dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/KgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW on the level of IFNγ, VEGF and caspase 3 expression. In this experimental study using post test randomized control group design, 24 CH3 mice with tumor were randomly divided into 4 groups including control group and treated groups: Treated with 0.2 cc extract of Keladi Tikus at the dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, 800 mg/kgBW, respectively for 30 days. On day 31 the lymphatic tissue was taken and evaluated for its level of IFNγ, using ELISA. The tumor tissue was taken and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for VEGF and caspase 3 expression evaluation. The data on IFNγ, VEGF and Caspase 3 expression were analyzed using One Way Anova with significant level of 0.05. One Way Anova resulted in p<0.05. LSD test showed that the level of IFNγ and Caspase 3 for control group was different from that of treated groups. There was no significant different between the treated group of 400 mg/KgBW and 800mg/KgBW. VEGF expressions for all the treated groups were significant. In conclusion, the oral administration of ethanolic extract of Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) at the dose of 200mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW,800 mg/kgBW increases IFNγ, Caspase 3 and decreases VEGF expression in C3H mice with adenocarsinoma mamma.

Keywords: Typhonium flagelliforme, IFNγ, caspase 3, VEGF

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48 The Effect of Endurance Training and Ginseng Consumption on VEGF and PDGF Plasma in Untrained Females

Authors: Barari Alireza, Seyed Hossein Alavi, Ghasemi Mohamad

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Objectives: VEGF and PDGF play central role in the processes of angiogenesis and vascular changes in most body tissues. The aim of the present study to determine effect of endurance training with ginseng on VEGF and PDGF levels is untrained female. Methods: Statistic society of this study was untraining male students of Azad University of Sari Branch in year of 2012-2013. Forty young untrained female (age 21.3 ± 0.90 year, height162.08±8.07cm , body weight 65.45± 7.6 kg and body mass index [BMI] 23.23 ± 2.64 kg/m2) were randomly divided into four groups: control(C), endurance(E), ginseng (G), endurance and ginseng (EG). Participants in training groups performed endurance training for 6 weeks and three sessions per week with 60-80% HRmax. Subjects perform endurance training and consumed ginseng for six weeks. Blood samples from the subjects before and after the test was performed. One wey ANOVA were used to test for differences between group and pair T-test were used for differences within groups. In all cases, P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A higher and significant Vo2 max was found in E and EG groups, while no change in other groups. BMI and Fat% were significantly decreased in EG group. No significant difference was found between and within groups in VEGF level. A higher and significant PDGF was only in endurance group, while there was significant reduction observed in G and EG groups. One-way ANOVA for PDGF showed significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicated that ginseng likely could through reducing of angiogenesis factors Such as VEGF and PDGF and reduced activity of tumor necrosis factor and inhibited inflammatory process.

Keywords: endurance, ginseng, VEGF, PDGF, untrained female

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47 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

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The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child

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46 The Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy), control (cancer), training (cancer), Aloe Vera (cancer) and Aloe Vera + training (cancer). Induction of breast cancer tumors were done in mice by planting method. The training program includes six weeks of swimming training was done in three sessions per week. Training time from 10 minutes on the first day increased to 60 minutes in second week, and by stabilizing this time, the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute. 300 mg per kg body weight of Aloe Vera extract was injected into the peritoneal. Sampling was done 48 hours after the last exercise session. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey test was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0.05 accepted. The results showed that induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 in aloe group and VEGF in training and Aloe Vera + training groups. The results suggest that swimming exercise and Aloe Vera can reduce levels of COX-2 and VEGF in mice with breast cancer.The results of this study, Induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 and MMP-9 in the control group compared with the cancer control group. The results suggest that Aloe Vera can probably inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway and thus production of prostaglandin E2 decrease of arachidonic acid.

Keywords: endurance training, aloe vera, COX-2, VEGF

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45 Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes from Laggera alata Inhibiting Angiogenesis

Authors: Liang Ning, Chung Hau Yin

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Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel development. It has been recognized as a therapeutic target for blocking cancer growth four decades ago. Vascular sprouting is initiated by pro-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenic initiation, many patients with cancer or ocular neovascularization have been benefited from anti-VEGF therapy. Emerging approaches impacting in the later stages of vessel remodeling and maturation are expected to improve clinical efficacy. TIE receptor as well as the corresponding angiopoietin ligands, were identified as another endothelial cell specific receptor tyrosine kinase signaling system. Much efforts were made to reduce the activity of angiopoietin-TIE receptor axis. Two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from laggera alata, namely, 15-dihydrocostic acid and ilicic acid were found with strong anti-angiogenic properties in zebrafish model. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of VEGFR2 and TIE2 pathway related genes were down-regulated in the sesquiterpenes treated zebrafish embryos. Besides, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the sesquiterpenes have the ability to inhibit VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and migration at non-toxic concentration. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 induced TIE2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the sesquiterpenes, the inhibitory effect was detected in angiopoietin-1 induced HUVECs proliferation as well. Thus, we hypothesized the anti-angiogenic activity of the compounds may via the inhibition of VEGF and TIE2 related pathways. How the compounds come into play as the pathways inhibitors need to be evaluated in the future.

Keywords: Laggera alata, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, anti-angiogenesis, VEGF, angiopoietin, TIE2

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44 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi

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Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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43 Substituted Thiazole Analogues as Anti-Tumor Agents

Authors: Menna Ewida, Dalal Abou El-Ella, Dina Lasheen, Huessin El-Subbagh

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Introduction: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis to create new blood vessels. VEGF family binds to three trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptors,Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme of crucial importance in medicinal chemistry. DHFR catalyzes the reduction 7,8 dihydro-folate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase which is a pivotal enzyme that catalysis the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) utilizing N5,N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor which functions as the source of the methyl group. Purpose: Novel substituted Thiazole agents were designed as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Methods: Five series of compounds were designed with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that target DHFR & VEGFR. These molecules were docked against Methotrexate & Sorafenib as controls. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. The in silico molecular docking & ADMET study were also applied to the non-classical antifolates for comparison. The interaction energy comparable to that of MTX for DHFRI and Sorafenib for VEGF-TKI activity were recorded. Results: Compound 5 exhibited the highest interaction energy when docked against Sorafenib, While Compound 9 showed the highest interaction energy when docked against MTX with the perfect binding mode. Comparable results were also obtained for the ADMET study. Most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone which varies according to the type of substituents. Conclusions: The Substituted Thiazole Analogues could be a suitable template for antitumor drugs that possess enhanced bioavailability and act as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors.

Keywords: anti-tumor agents, DHFR, drug design, molecular modeling, VEGFR-TKIs

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42 Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Fibrin Assemblies with Growth Factors

Authors: Elena Filova, Ondrej Kaplan, Marie Markova, Helena Dragounova, Roman Matejka, Eduard Brynda, Lucie Bacakova

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Decellularized vessels have been evaluated as small-diameter vascular prostheses. Reseeding autologous cells onto decellularized tissue prior implantation should prolong prostheses function and make them living tissues. Suitable cell types for reseeding are both endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells, with a capacity for differentiation into smooth muscle cells upon mechanical loading. Endothelial cells assure antithrombogenicity of the vessels and MSCs produce growth factors and, after their differentiation into smooth muscle cells, they are contractile and produce extracellular matrix proteins as well. Fibrin is a natural scaffold, which allows direct cell adhesion based on integrin receptors. It can be prepared autologous. Fibrin can be modified with bound growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These modifications in turn make the scaffold more attractive for cells ingrowth into the biological scaffold. The aim of the study was to prepare thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies with bound FGF-2 and VEGF, and to evaluate growth and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the fibrin (Fb) assemblies. Following thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies were prepared: Fb, Fb+VEGF, Fb+FGF2, Fb+heparin, Fb+heparin+VEGF, Fb+heparin+FGF2, Fb+heparin+FGF2+VEGF. Cell culture poly-styrene and glass coverslips were used as controls. Human MSCs (passage 3) were seeded at the density of 8800 cells/1.5 mL alpha-MEM medium with 2.5% FS and 200 U/mL aprotinin per well of a 24-well cell culture. The cells have been cultured on the samples for 6 days. Cell densities on day 1, 3, and 6 were analyzed after staining with LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity/viability assay kit. The differentiation of MSCs is being analyzed using qPCR. On day 1, the highest density of MSCs was observed on Fb+VEGF and Fb+FGF2. On days 3 and 6, there were similar densities on all samples. On day 1, cell morphology was polygonal and spread on all sample. On day 3 and 6, MSCs growing on Fb assemblies with FGF2 became apparently elongated. The evaluation of expression of genes for von Willebrand factor and CD31 (endothelial cells), for alpha-actin (smooth muscle cells), and for alkaline phosphatase (osteoblasts) is in progress. We prepared fibrin assemblies with bound VEGF and FGF-2 that supported attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells. The layers are promising for improving the ingrowth of MSCs into the biological scaffold. Supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic TA04011345, and Ministry of Health NT11270-4/2010, and BIOCEV – Biotechnology and Biomedicine Centre of the Academy of Sciences and Charles University” project (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109), funded by the European Regional Development Fund for their financial supports.

Keywords: fibrin assemblies, FGF-2, mesenchymal stem cells, VEGF

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41 Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value of Clinical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical (p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67) Parameters

Authors: Sujata Chaturvedi, Ishita Pant, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi

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Objective: To describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of glioblastoma in patients and to correlate these findings with patient survival. Material and methods: 30 cases of histopathologically diagnosed glioblastomas were included in this study. These cases were analysed in detail for certain clinical and histopathological parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Ki67 was done and scores were calculated. Results of these findings were correlated with patient survival. Results: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in 30 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). The mean age of presentation was 50.6 years with a male predilection. The most common involved site was the frontal lobe. Amongst the clinical parameters, age of the patient and extent of surgical resection showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Histopathological parameters showed no significant correlation with the patient survival, while amongst the immunohistochemical parameters expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Conclusion: In this study incorporating clinical, histopathological and basic panel of immunohistochemistry, age of the patient, extent of the surgical resection and expression of MDM2 showed significant correlation with the patient survival.

Keywords: glioblastoma, p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67

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40 Effect of Post and Pre Induced Treatment with Hesperidin in N-Methyl N-Nitrosourea Induced Mammary Gland Cancer in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Vinay Kumar Theendra

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The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hesperidin in the treatment of breast cancer and causing less (or) no bone marrow depression which is the major side effect of the present anticancer drugs treating breast cancer, also to evaluate the mechanisms through which these compounds are exerting their effect. Breast cancer is induced by administering N-methyl N-Nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Upon the termination of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by the method of cervical dislocation. The animals were dissected along the ventral midline and were grossly examined for the presence of tumors. Then the tumours were removed along with the stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by using ELISA method. The first occurrence of palpable tumors was eight weeks after carcinogen treatment and the final tumour incidence was 100% in the MNU alone and topical treated rats. Whereas in rats of other treatment groups there is decreased tumour incidence which might be due to their antitumour activity. Hesperidin therapy inhibited angiogenesis which can be evident from the significant reduction in serum as well as tumour VEGF concentrations in comparison to the untreated mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Hesperidin is promising agents that exert direct antitumor and also antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Even though the potency is little lesser than standard drug vincristine, it has been proved to be safe without effecting haematological count.

Keywords: hesperidin, VEGF, COX 2, N-methyl N-nitrosourea

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39 Control of Lymphatic Remodelling by miR-132

Authors: Valeria Arcucci, Musarat Ishaq, Steven A. Stacker, Greg J. Goodall, Marc G. Achen

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Metastasis is the lethal aspect of cancer for most patients. Remodelling of lymphatic vessels associated with a tumour is a key initial step in metastasis because it facilitates the entry of cancer cells into the lymphatic vasculature and their spread to lymph nodes and distant organs. Although it is clear that vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are key drivers of lymphatic remodelling, the means by which many signaling pathways in endothelial cells are coordinately regulated to drive growth and remodelling of lymphatics in cancer is not understood. We seek to understand the broader molecular mechanisms that control cancer metastasis, and are focusing on microRNAs, which coordinately regulate signaling pathways involved in complex biological responses in health and disease. Here, using small RNA sequencing, we found that a specific microRNA, miR-132, is upregulated in expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to the lymphangiogenic growth factors. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-132 in LECs in vitro stimulated proliferation and tube formation of these cells. Moreover, miR-132 is expressed in lymphatic vessels of a subset of human breast tumours which were previously found to express high levels of VEGF-D by immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissue microarrays. In order to dissect the complexity of regulation by miR-132 in lymphatic biology, we performed Argonaute HITS-CLIP, which led us to identify the miR-132-mRNA interactome in LECs. We found that this microRNA in LECs is involved in the control of many different pathways mainly involved in cell proliferation and regulation of the extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions. We are now exploring the functional significance of miR-132 targets in the biology of LECs using biochemical techniques, functional in vitro cell assays and in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays. This project will ultimately define the molecular regulation of lymphatic remodelling by miR-132, and thereby identify potential therapeutic targets for drugs designed to restrict the growth and remodelling of tumour lymphatics resulting in metastatic spread.

Keywords: argonaute HITS-CLIP, cancer, lymphatic remodelling, miR-132, VEGF

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38 The Investigation of the Active Constituents, Danshen for Angiogenesis

Authors: Liang Zhou, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu

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Danshen can induce the angiogenesis in advanced ischemic heart disease while inhibiting the angiogenesis in cancer. Additionally, Danshen mainly contains two groups of ingredients: the hydrophilic phenolic acids (danshensu, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B), and the lipophilic tanshinones (dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone II A, and cryptotanshinone). The lipophilic tanshinones reduced the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in dose-dependent manner, but cannot perform in others. Conversely, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B had the opposite effect. Danshensu inhibited the VEGF- and bFGF-induced migration of HUVECs, and others were not. Most of them interrupted the forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs, except the danshensu and caffeic acid. Oppositely, caffeic acid enhanced the ability of forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs. Ultimately, the lipophilic tanshinones, danshensu and salvianolic acid B inhibited the angiogenesis, whereas the caffeic acid induced the angiogenesis. These data provide useful information for the classification of ingredients of Danshen for angiogenesis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Danshen, HUVECs, ingredients

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37 Investigating Combined Effect of Aerobic Training and Crataegus elbursensis Extract on Plasma Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Behnam Hasanzadeh, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ailin Ebrahimi

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The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of Crataegus monogyna on VEGF variations and plasma angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: A number of 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control Crataegus monogyna (N=8), training Crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on the treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of Crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg Crataegus monogyna extract per gram of body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior verna cava. Results: the results showed that progressive endurance training caused insignificant reductions in plasma VEGF concentration in the training group, Crataegus monogyna group and training-Crataegus monogyna group comparing the control group. Plasma ANG-1 concentration reduced in the training, Crataegus monogyna and training-Crataegus monogyna groups while plasma ANG-2 concentration significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.022) comparing with the control group. The results showed that the ratio of plasma ANG-2 to ANG-1 significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.028) comparing with the control group. Conclusion: the findings suggest that combination of aerobic training and Crataegus monogyna extract has no synergistic effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators and Crataegus monogyna extract had a stronger effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators.

Keywords: angiopoetin-1/2, VEGF, Crataegus monogyna extract, aerobic training

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36 Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Efficacy of Salsola inermis Extract against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahlam H. Mahmoud, Samir F. Zohny, Ibrahim H. Boraia, Faten S. Bayoumic, Eman Eissa

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the Salsola inermis extract as a novel chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DNE)/phenobarbital (PB)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: group1 rats were served as normal controls; group 2 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 20 weeks; group 3 rats were subjected to two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, 2 weeks later, the carcinogenic effect was promoted by supplementation of rats with 0.05% PB for 16 weeks); group 4 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract 2 weeks prior to the injection of DEN, the daily injection of S. inermis extract was then continued for 18 weeks along with two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (chemoprevention group); and group 5 rats were subjected to the two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen, and then, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract for 4 weeks (treatment group). The activities of serum liver enzymes and levels of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in serum were decreased in chemopreventive and treated rats compared with DEN/PB-administered rats. Interestingly, the serum levels of total protein and albumin were normalized in chemopreventive and treated rats. Moreover, the majority of chemopreventive and treated rats showed an almost normal histological pattern of liver. In conclusion, S. inermis extract possessed chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against hepatocarcinogenesis in rats partially through the inhibition of VEGF and sICAM-1.

Keywords: Salsola inermis extract, hepatocarcinogenesis, α–fetoprotein, VEGF, sICAM-1

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35 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang

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Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ 30mg.kg-1 combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

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34 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

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Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: heart, apoptosis, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

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33 Surface Adjustments for Endothelialization of Decellularized Porcine Pericardium

Authors: M. Markova, E. Filova, O. Kaplan, R. Matejka, L. Bacakova

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The porcine pericardium is used as a material for cardiac and aortic valves substitutes. Current biological aortic heart valve prosthesis have a limited lifetime period because they undergo degeneration. In order to make them more biocompatible and prolong their lifetime it is necessary to reseed the decellularized prostheses with endothelial cells and with valve interstitial cells. The endothelialization of the prosthesis-surface may be supported by suitable chemical surface modification of the prosthesis. The aim of this study is to prepare bioactive fibrin layers which would both support endothelialization of porcine pericardium and enhance differentiation and maturation of the endothelial cells seeded. As a material for surface adjustments we used layers of fibrin with/without heparin and some of them with adsorbed or chemically bound FGF2, VEGF or their combination. Fibrin assemblies were prepared in 24-well cell culture plate and were seeded with HSVEC (Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells) at a density of 20,000 cells per well in EGM-2 medium with 0.5% FS and without heparin, without FGF2 and without VEGF; medium was supplemented with aprotinin (200 U/mL). As a control, surface polystyrene (PS) was used. Fibrin was also used as homogeneous impregnation of the decellularized porcine pericardium throughout the scaffolds. Morphology, density, and viability of the seeded endothelial cells were observed from micrographs after staining the samples by LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity/viability assay kit on the days 1, 3, and 7. Endothelial cells were immunocytochemically stained for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e. alphaV integrin, vinculin, and VE-cadherin, markers of endothelial cells differentiation and maturation, i.e. von Willebrand factor and CD31, and for extracellular matrix proteins typically produced by endothelial cells, i.e. type IV collagen and laminin. The staining intensities were subsequently quantified using a software. HSVEC cells grew on each of the prepared surfaces better than on control surface. They reached confluency. The highest cell densities were obtained on the surface of fibrin with heparin and both grow factors used together. Intensity of alphaV integrins staining was highest on samples with remained fibrin layer, i.e. on layers with lower cell densities, i.e. on fibrin without heparin. Vinculin staining was apparent, but was rather diffuse, on fibrin with both FGF2 and VEGF and on control PS. Endothelial cells on all samples were positively stained for von Willebrand factor and CD31. VE-cadherin receptors clusters were best developed on fibrin with heparin and growth factors. Significantly stronger staining of type IV collagen was observed on fibrin with heparin and both growth factors. Endothelial cells on all samples produced laminin-1. Decellularized pericardium was homogeneously filled with fibrin structures. These fibrin-modified pericardium samples will be further seeded with cells and cultured in a bioreactor. Fibrin layers with/without heparin and with adsorbed or chemically bound FGF2, VEGF or their combination are good surfaces for endothelialization of cardiovascular prostheses or porcine pericardium based heart valves. Supported by the Ministry of Health, grants No15-29153A and 15-32497A, and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. P108/12/G108.

Keywords: aortic valves prosthesis, FGF2, heparin, HSVEC cells, VEGF

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32 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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31 Prevalence of Complement Factor H (Y402H) Gene Polymorphism and Its Impact on the Predisposition of Syrians to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Response to Bevacizumab Intravitreal Injection

Authors: Loubna Safar, Lama Youssef, Majd Aljamali

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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Complement factor H polymorphism (Y402H) is thought to play a potential role in the predisposition to AMD and response of patients with exudative AMD to treatment with anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of Y402H among Syrians, its impact on their susceptibility to AMD, and the hypothesized role of Y402H in patients' response to intravitreal anti-VEGF (i.e.,, bevacizumab). Our case-control study encompassed unrelated 54 AMD cases and 44 controls. Genotyping was determined by standard sequencing of PCR products. Frequency was compared between patients and controls, and correlation between genotype and response to treatment was assessed in 20 patients with wet AMD who received a therapeutic course of three intravitreal bevacizumab injections (once monthly). Our results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of the risk allele C among AMD cases (51.9%) in comparison with controls (37.5%) (P= 0.04, OR= 1.386, CI= 0.999- 1.923). Patients with the TT genotype (no risk allele) exhibited a significantly better primary response rate, reached 87.5% compared to only 41.7% in patients carrying the risk allele C (TC + CC), (P= 0.04, OR= 9.8, CI=0.899- 106.84). The findings of this study prove the importance of investigating Y402H polymorphism as a prognostic marker for predicting response to bevacizumab in AMD patients.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, complement factor H gene, polymorphism, Y402H

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30 Incorporation of Growth Factors onto Hydrogels via Peptide Mediated Binding for Development of Vascular Networks

Authors: Katie Kilgour, Brendan Turner, Carly Catella, Michael Daniele, Stefano Menegatti

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In vivo, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biochemical and mechanical properties that are instructional to resident cells to form complex tissues with characteristics to develop and support vascular networks. In vitro, the development of vascular networks can be guided by biochemical patterning of substrates via spatial distribution and display of peptides and growth factors to prompt cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We have developed a technique utilizing peptide ligands that specifically bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), or angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) to spatiotemporally distribute growth factors to cells. This allows for the controlled release of each growth factor, ultimately enhancing the formation of a vascular network. Our engineered tissue constructs (ETCs) are fabricated out of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), which is an ideal substrate for tailored stiffness and bio-functionality, and covalently patterned with growth factor specific peptides. These peptides mimic growth factor receptors, facilitating the non-covalent binding of the growth factors to the ETC, allowing for facile uptake by the cells. We have demonstrated in the absence of cells the binding affinity of VEGF, EPO, and ANG1 to their respective peptides and the ability for each to be patterned onto a GelMA substrate. The ability to organize growth factors on an ETC provides different functionality to develop organized vascular networks. Our results demonstrated a method to incorporate biochemical cues into ETCs that enable spatial and temporal control of growth factors. Future efforts will investigate the cellular response by evaluating gene expression, quantifying angiogenic activity, and measuring the speed of growth factor consumption.

Keywords: growth factor, hydrogel, peptide, angiogenesis, vascular, patterning

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29 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan

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It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: epimorphic regeneration, injury, northern house gecko, wound healing

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28 Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J. Harding, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Claudine S. Bonder, Nicolas H. Voelcker

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Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.

Keywords: biomolecules, cell microarray platform, cell therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, high throughput screening

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27 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani

Abstract:

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: stem cells, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

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26 Effect of Nicorandil, Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Combination in Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure in Rats

Authors: Sarah Elsayed Mohammed, Lamiaa Ahmed Ahmed, Mahmoud Mohammed Khattab

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Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combined nicorandil and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSC) treatment could offer an additional benefit in ameliorating isoproterenol (ISO)-induced heart failure in rats. Methods: ISO (85 and 170 mg/kg/day) was injected subcutaneously for 2 successive days, respectively. By day 3, electrocardiographic changes were recorded and serum was separated for determination of CK-MB level for confirmation of myocardial damage. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day) was then given orally with or without a single i.v. BMDMSC administration. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were recorded 2 weeks after beginning of treatment. Rats were then sacrificed and ventricles were isolated for estimation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) contents, caspase-3 activity as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and connexin-43 protein expressions. Moreover, histological analysis of myocardial fibrosis was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of homing of BMDMSC. Results: ISO induced a significant increase in ventricles/body weight ratio, left ventricular end diastolic (LVEDD) and systolic dimensions (LVESD), ST segment and QRS duration. Moreover, myocardial fibrosis as well as VEGF, TNF-α and TGF-β contents were significantly increased. On the other hand, connexin-43 protein expression was significantly decreased, while caspase-3 and iNOS protein expressions were significantly increased. Combined therapy provided additional improvement compared to cell treatment alone towards reducing cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, combined therapy induced significant increase in angiogenesis and BMDMSC homing and prevented ISO induced changes in iNOS, connexin-43 and caspase-3 protein expressions. Conclusion: Combined nicorandil/BMDMSC treatment was superior to BMDMSC alone towards preventing ISO-induced heart failure in rats.

Keywords: fibrosis, isoproterenol, mesenchymal stem cells, nicorandil

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25 Antiangiogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Shemamruthaa: An Herbal Preparation in Experimental Mammary Carcinoma-Bearing Rats and Breast Cancer Cell Line In vitro

Authors: Nandhakumar Elumalai, Purushothaman Ayyakannu, Sachidanandam T. Panchanatham

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Background: Understanding the basic mechanisms and factors underlying the tumor growth and invasion has gained attention in recent times. The processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis are known to play a vital role in various stages of cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as one of the key regulators of tumor angiogenesis while MMPs are known for their exclusive ability to degrade ECM. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the pro apoptotic and anti angiogenic activity of the herbal formulation Shemamruthaa. The anticancer activity of Shemamruthaa was tested in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Results of MTT, trypan blue and flow cytometric analysis of apoptotis suggested that Shemamruthaa can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, in a concentration- and time dependent manner and induce apoptosis. With these results, we further evaluated the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities of Shemamruthaa in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague Dawley rats. Flavono tumour was induced in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by gastric intubation of 25 mg DMBA in 1ml olive oil. After 90 days of induction period, the rats were orally administered with Shemamruthaa (400 mg/kg body wt) for 45 days. Treatment with the drug SM significantly modulated the expression of p53, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and VEGF by means of its anti angiogenic and protease inhibiting activity. Conclusion: Based on these results, it might be concluded that the formulation, Shemamruthaa, constituted of dried flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, fruits of Emblica officinalis, and honey has been found to exhibit pronounced antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. This enhanced anticancer effect of Shemamruthaa might be attributed to the synergistic action of polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, vitamin C, niacin, pyrogallol, hydroxymethylfurfural, trilinolein, and other compounds present in the formulation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Shemamruthaa holds potential to be developed as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against mammary carcinoma.

Keywords: Shemamruthaa, flavonoids, MCF-7 cell line, mammary cancer

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