Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 159

Search results for: cobalt

159 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

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Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
158 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian

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The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
157 Cobalt Ions Adsorption by Quartz and Illite and Calcite from Waste Water

Authors: Saad A. Aljlil

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Adsorption of cobalt ions on quartz and illite and calcite from waste water was investigated. The effect of pH on the adsorption of cobalt ions was studied. The maximum capacities of cobalt ions of the three adsorbents increase with increasing cobalt solution temperature. The maximum capacities were (4.66) mg/g for quartz, (3.94) mg/g for illite, and (3.44) mg/g for calcite. The enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy for adsorption of cobalt ions on the three adsorbents were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process of the cobalt ions of the adsorbent was an endothermic process. consequently increasing the temperature causes the increase of the cobalt ions adsorption of the adsorbents. Therefore, the adsorption process is preferred at high temperature levels. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using Langmuir model, Freundlich model. The experimental data of cobalt ions of the adsorbents correlated well with Freundlich model.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Freundlich, quartz, illite, calcite, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
156 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif

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The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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155 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto

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Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
154 Designing Active Sites on Amicyanin Using Histidine S Plus Cobalt, and Measuring Their Functional Activity

Authors: Han-Bin Kim, Sooim Shin, Moonsung Choi

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There is a growing interest in introducing a desired functional group on enzymes in the field of protein engineering. In here, various redox centers were newly created using histidine tag, which is widely used for protein purification, plus cobalt in one of cupredoxins, amicyanin. The coordination of Cobalt-His tag and reactivity of the Co²⁺ loaded His-tag also were characterized. 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag were introduced on amicyanin by site-directed mutagenesis, and then Co²⁺ was loaded on each His-tagged amicyanin. The spectral changes at 330 nm corresponding to cobalt binding on His-tag site indicated the binding ratio of 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag to cobalt as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 respectively. Based on kinetic studies of binding cobalt to 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tagged amicyanin, the nature of the sites was elucidated. In addition, internal electron transfer properties between Cu¹⁺ site and engineered site of amicyanin were determined. These results provide insight into improvement of metal coordination and alternation of the redox properties of metal as a new catalytic site on proteins.

Keywords: amicyanin, cobalt, histidine, protein engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
153 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

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The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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152 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng

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This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
151 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat

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Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

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150 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

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Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: fischer-tropsch synthesis, cobalt catalyst, support shape, heavy hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
149 Synergistic Extraction Study of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat

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The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm-3 TOPO in chloroform. From an synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

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148 Synergistic Extraction of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Methyl Isobutyl Cétone in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, C. Bensmail, S. Almi, D. Barkat

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The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm^-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of methyl isobutyl cétone (MIBK) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of MIBK, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm^-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm^-3 MIBK in chloroform. From a synergistic extraction-equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(MIBK). The MIBK-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and MIBK is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, MIBK, synergism

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147 The Effect of Diluents in the Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Cobalt(II) with Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

Authors: Fatima Ghebghoub

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The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from sulfate medium using di(2-ethylhexy1) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA, HL) at 25°C has been investigated. The influence of the following parameters was studied: the equilibrium pH, the concentration of the extractant and the nature of diluent. The effect of the diluent using polar and non-polar solvents in the extraction of nickel(II) is discussed. The extracted nickel (II species were found to be CoL2 in 1-octanol and methyl isobutyl ketone and CoL2.2HL in toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and cyclohexane. The extraction constants are evaluated for the different diluents.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, cobalt(II), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, diluent effect

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146 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Oxide and Cu-Doped Cobalt Oxide as Photocatalyst for Model Dye Degradation

Authors: Vrinda P. S. Borker

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Major water pollutants are dyes from effluents of industries. Different methods have been tried to degrade or treat the effluent before it is left to the environment. In order to understand the degradation process and later apply it to effluents, solar degradation study of methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), the model dyes was carried out in the presence of photo-catalysts, the oxides of cobalt oxide Co₃O₄, and copper doped cobalt oxides (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and (Co₀.₉₅Cu₀.₀₅)₃O₄. They were prepared from oxalate complex and hydrazinated oxalate complex of cobalt as well as mix metals, copper, and cobalt. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR. Complexes were decomposed to form oxides and were characterized by XRD. They were found to be monophasic. Solar degradation of MR and MB was carried out in presence of these oxides in acidic and basic medium. Degradation was faster in alkaline medium in the presence of Co₃O₄ obtained from hydrazinated oxalate. Doping of nanomaterial oxides modifies their characteristics. Doped cobalt oxides are found to photo-decolourise MR in alkaline media efficiently. In the absence of photocatalyst, solar degradation of alkaline MR does not occur. In acidic medium, MR is minimally decolorized even in the presence of photocatalysts. The industrial textile effluent contains chemicals like NaCl and Na₂CO₃ along with the unabsorbed dye. It is reported that these two chemicals hamper the degradation of dye. The chemicals like K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ are reported to enhance degradation. The solar degradation study of MB in presence of photocatalyst (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and these four chemicals reveals that presence of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ enhances degradation. It proves that H₂O₂ generates hydroxyl ions required for degradation of dye and the sulphate anion radical being strong oxidant attacks dye molecules leading to its fragmentation rapidly. Thus addition of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ during solar degradation in presence of (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ helps to break the organic moiety efficiently.

Keywords: cobalt oxides, Cu-doped cobalt oxides, H₂O₂ in dye degradation, photo-catalyst, solar dye degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
145 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Co (II) Ternary Complexes Involving N-(2-Acetamido) Iminodiacete and Some Amino Acids Acid by Periodate

Authors: Ahmed A. Abdel-Khalek, Reham A. Mohamed

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The kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt (II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-, (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Gly = Glycine) by periodate in aqueous acetate medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 530 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.57-5.25 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}. Also, the kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt(II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]- (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Val = valine) by periodate in aqueous medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 580 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.3-5.12 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}

Keywords: periodate, oxidation, cobalt (II), glycine, valine acid, n-(2-acetamido imino-diacetato)

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144 Analytical Study of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Extraction with Salicylidene O-, M-, and P-Toluidine in Chloroform

Authors: Sana Almi, Djamel Barkat

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The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) from aqueous sulfate solutions were investigated with the analytical methods of slope analysis using salicylidene aniline and the three isomeric o-, m- and p-salicylidene toluidine diluted with chloroform at 25°C. By a statistical analysis of the extraction data, it was concluded that the extracted species are CoL2 with CoL2(HL) and NiL2 (HL denotes HSA, HSOT, HSMT, and HSPT). The extraction efficiency of Co(II) was higher than Ni(II). This tendency is confirmed from numerical extraction constants for each metal cations. The best extraction was according to the following order: HSMT > HSPT > HSOT > HSA for Co2+ and Ni2+.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), cobalt(II), salicylidene aniline, o-, m-, and p-salicylidene toluidine

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143 Removal of Heavy Metals by KOH Activated Diplotaxis harra Biomass: Experimental Design Optimization

Authors: H. Tounsadi, A. Khalidi, M. Abdennouri, N. Barka

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The objective of this study was to produce high quality activated carbons from Diplotaxis harra biomass by potassium hydroxide activation and their application for heavy metals removal. To reduce the number of experiments, full factorial experimental design at two levels were carried out to occur optimal preparation conditions and better conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of different variables during the activation process, such as carbonization temperature, activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio (g KOH/g carbon) have been investigated, and the best production conditions were determined. The experimental results showed that removal of cadmium and cobalt ions onto activated carbons was more sensitive to methylene blue index instead of iodine number. Although, the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions is more influenced by activation temperature with a negative effect followed by the impregnation ratio with a positive impact. Based on the statistical data, the best conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt by prepared activated carbons have been established. The maximum iodine number and methylene blue index obtained under these conditions and the greater sorption capacities for cadmium and cobalt were investigated. These sorption capacities were greater than those of a commercial activated carbon used in water treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, cadmium, cobalt, Diplotaxis harra, experimental design, potassium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
142 Mesoporous Carbon Ceramic SiO2/C Prepared by Sol-Gel Method and Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine and Used as an Electrochemical Sensor for Nitrite

Authors: Abdur Rahim, Lauro Tatsuo Kubota, Yoshitaka Gushikem

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Carbon ceramic mesoporous SiO2/50wt%C (SBET= 170 m2g-1), where C is graphite, was prepared by the sol gel method. Scanning electron microscopy images and the respective element mapping showed that, within the magnification used, no phase segregation was detectable. It presented the electric conductivities of 0.49 S cm-1. This material was used to support cobalt phthalocyanine, prepared in situ, to assure a homogeneous dispersion of the electro active complex in the pores of the matrix. The surface density of cobalt phthalocyanine, on the matrix surfaces was 0.015 mol cm-2. Pressed disk, made with SiO2/50wt%C/CoPc, was used to fabricate an electrode and tested as sensors for nitrite determination by electro chemical technique. A linear response range between 0.039 and 0.42 mmol l−1,and correlation coefficient r=0.9996 was obtained. The electrode was chemically very stable and presented very high sensitivity for this analyte, with a limit of detection, LOD = 1.087 x 10-6 mol L-1.

Keywords: SiO2/C/CoPc, sol-gel method, electrochemical sensor, nitrite oxidation, carbon ceramic material, cobalt phthalocyanine

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141 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva

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The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, synthesis, mechanochemical activation

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140 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh

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Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

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139 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar

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The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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138 Selective Extraction of Couple Nickel(II) / Cobalt(II) by a Series of Schiff Bases in Sulfate Medium, in the Chloroforme-Water

Authors: N. Belhadj, M. Hadj Youcef, T. Benabdallah, Belbachir Ibtissem, N. Boceiri

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This work deals with the synthesis, the structural elucidation and the exploration the extracting properties of a series of ortho-hydroxy Schiff base in sulfate medium. After the synthesis and characterization of their structures, the study of their behavior in solution was carried out by pH-metric titration in different media homogeneous and heterogeneous solution. This allowed to explore and to quantify in each of these media, some of their properties in solution such as, their acid-base behavior (determination and comparison of pKa), their distribution powers (determination and comparison of logKd), and their thermodynamic constants (determining ∆H°, ΔS° and ∆G°moy) by optimizing both the temperature and ionic strength. Study of the extraction of nickel (II) and cobalt(II) separately was undertaken in the aqueous-organic system, chloroform-water. Different extraction parameters have been thus optimized such, the pH, the concentration of extractant and the ionic strength, and the extraction constants established in each case. The extracted metal complexes have been isolated and their spatial configurations elucidated. The selective extraction of the couple cobalt (II)/nickel (II) was finally performed by our series of Schiff base in the chloroforme/water.

Keywords: selective extraction, Schiff base, distribution, cobalt(II), nickel(II)

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137 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer

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Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
136 Examining of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining of Cobalt-Based Haynes 25 Superalloy

Authors: Murat Sarıkaya, Abdulkadir Güllü

Abstract:

Haynes 25 alloy (also known as L-605 alloy) is cobalt based super alloy which has widely applications such as aerospace industry, turbine and furnace parts, power generators and heat exchangers and petroleum refining components due to its excellent characteristics. However, the workability of this alloy is more difficult compared to normal steels or even stainless. In present work, an experimental investigation was performed under cryogenic cooling to determine cutting tool wear patterns and obtain optimal cutting parameters in turning of cobalt based superalloy Haynes 25. In experiments, uncoated carbide tool was used and cutting speed (V) and feed rate (f) were considered as test parameters. Tool wear (VBmax) were measured for process performance indicators. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the importance of machining parameters.

Keywords: cryogenic machining, difficult-to-cut alloy, tool wear, turning

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135 Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

Authors: Zhaozhi Liu, Feng Xu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Ying Liu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill

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134 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Jaromir Havlica, Lukas Kalina, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

Keywords: sonochemical method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, dielectric property, electrical property

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133 Use of Cobalt Graphene in Place of Platnium in Catalytic Converter

Authors: V. Srinivasan, S. M. Sriram Nandan

Abstract:

Today in the modern world the most important problem faced by the mankind is increasing the pollution in a very high rate. It affects the ecosystem of the environment and also aids to increase the greenhouse effect. The exhaust gases from the automobile is the major cause of a pollution. Automobiles have increased to a large number which has increased the pollution of our world to an alarming rate. There are two methods of controlling the pollution namely, pre-pollution control method and post-pollution control method. This paper is based on controlling the emission by post-pollution control method. The ratio of surface area of nanoparticles to the volume of the nanoparticles is inversely proportional to the radius of the nanoparticles. So decreasing the radius, this ratio is leading resulting in an increased rate of reaction and thus the concentration of the pollution is decreased. To achieve this objective, use of cobalt-graphene element is proposed. The proposed method is mainly to decrease the cost of platinum as it is expensive. This has a longer life than the platinum-based catalysts.

Keywords: automobile emissions, catalytic converter, cobalt-graphene, replacement of platinum

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132 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi

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The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .

Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gas

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131 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

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130 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese-Cobalt Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Vasko Idakiev, Tatyana Tabakova, Krasimir Ivanov

Abstract:

Formaldehyde production by selective oxidation of methanol is an important industrial process. The main by-products in the waste gas are CO and dimethyl ether (DME). The idea of this study is to combine the advantages of both Cu-Mn and Cu-Co catalytic systems by obtaining a new mixed Cu-Mn-Co catalyst with high activity and selectivity at the simultaneous oxidation of CO, methanol, and DME. Two basic Cu-Mn samples with high activity were selected for further investigation: (i) manganese-rich Cu-Mn/γ–Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5 and (ii) copper-rich Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 2:1. Manganese in these samples was replaced by cobalt in the whole concentration region, and catalytic properties were determined. The results show a general trend of decreasing the activity toward DME oxidation and increasing the activity toward CO and methanol oxidation with the increase of cobalt up to 60% for both groups of catalyst. This general trend, however, contains specific features, depending on the composition of the catalyst and the nature of the oxidized gas. The catalytic activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 2:1 is gradually changed with increasing the cobalt content. The activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 1: 5 passes through a maximum at 60% manganese replacement by cobalt, probably due to the formation of highly dispersed Co-based spinel structures (Co3O4 and/or MnCo2O4). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, methanol and DME oxidation. Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio 1:5 and Co/Mn molar ratio 1.5 in the active component can ensure successful oxidation of CO, CH3OH and DME. The active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds - CuO, Co3O4, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, MnCo2O4 and CuCo2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Co molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this effect being quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Co catalysts, oxidation, carbon oxide, VOCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 121