Search results for: wireless power transfer
8329 Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer System with 6.78 MHz Class D Inverter
Authors: Kang Hyun Yi
Abstract:Wireless power transfer technologies are inductive coupling, magnetic resonance, and capacitive coupling methods, typically. Among them, the capacitive coupling wireless power transfer, also named Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer (CCWPT), has been researched to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches. The CCWPT has many advantages such as a simple structure, low standing power loss, reduced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and the ability to transfer power through metal barriers. In this paper, the CCWPT system with 6.78MHz class D inverter is proposed and analyzed. The proposed system is consisted of the 6.78MHz class D inverter with the LC low pass filter, the capacitor between a transmitter and a receiver and impedance transformers. The system is verified with a prototype for charging mobile devices.
Keywords: wireless power transfer, capacitive coupling power transfer, class D inverter, 6.78MHzProcedia PDF Downloads 567
8328 Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Charger Efficiency for Mobile Device
Authors: SeungHee Ryu, Junil Moon
Abstract:The magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system is widely researched due to its benefits such as spatial freedom. In this paper, power transmitting unit and power receiving unit of wireless battery charger for mobile devices is presented. Power transmitting unit efficiency is measured under different test conditions with power receiving units.
Keywords: magnetic resonance coupling, wireless power transfer, power transfer efficiency.Procedia PDF Downloads 443
8327 Power Line Communication Integrated in a Wireless Power Transfer System: Feasibility of Surveillance Movement
Authors: M. Hemnath, S. Kannan, R. Kiran, K. Thanigaivelu
Abstract:This paper is based on exploring the possible opportunities and applications using Power Line Communication (PLC) for security and surveillance operations. Various research works are done for introducing PLC into onboard vehicle communication and networking (CAN, LIN etc.) and various international standards have been developed. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is also an emerging technology which is studied and tested for recharging purposes. In this work we present a system which embeds the detection and the response into one which eliminates the need for dedicated network for data transmission. Also we check the feasibility for integrating wireless power transfer system into this proposed security system for transmission of power to detection unit wirelessly from the response unit.
Keywords: power line communication, wireless power transfer, surveillanceProcedia PDF Downloads 448
8326 Demonstration of Powering up Low Power Wireless Sensor Network by RF Energy Harvesting System
Authors: Lim Teck Beng, Thiha Kyaw, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng
Abstract:This work presents discussion on the possibility of merging two emerging technologies in microwave; wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF energy harvesting. The current state of art of the two technologies is discussed and the strength and weakness of the two technologies is also presented. The equivalent circuit of wireless power transfer is modeled and explained as how the range and efficiency can be further increased by controlling certain parameters in the receiver. The different techniques of harvesting the RF energy from the ambient are also extensive study. Last but not least, we demonstrate that a low power wireless sensor network (WSN) can be power up by RF energy harvesting. The WSN is designed to transmit every 3 minutes of information containing the temperature of the environment and also the voltage of the node. One thing worth mention is both the sensors that are used for measurement are also powering up by the RF energy harvesting system.
Keywords: energy harvesting, wireless power transfer, wireless sensor network and magnetic coupled resonatorProcedia PDF Downloads 435
8325 Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Authors: Masato Sasaki, Masayoshi Yamamoto
Abstract:The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.
Keywords: wireless power transfer, omni-directional, orthogonal, efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 254
8324 Modeling and Design of Rectenna for Low Power Medical Implants
Authors: Madhav Pant, Khem N. Poudel
Abstract:Wireless power transfer is continuously becoming more powerful and compact in medical implantable devices and the wide range of applications. A rectenna is designed for wireless power transfer technique that can be applied to medical implant devices. The experiment is performed using ANSYS HFSS, a full wave electromagnetic simulation. The dipole antenna combinations operating at 2.4 GHz are used for wireless power transfer and the maximum DC voltage reception by the implant considering International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulation. The power receiving dipole antenna is placed inside the cylindrical geometry having the similar properties of the human body at the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Our design can provide the power at the depth of 5 mm skin and 5mm of bone for the implant. The voltage doubler/quadrupler rectifier in ANSYS Simplorer is used to calculate the exact DC current utilized by implant inside the human body. The qualitative design and analysis of this wireless power transfer method could also be used for other biomedical implants systems such as cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, and retinal implants.
Keywords: dipole antenna, medical implants, wireless power transfer, rectifierProcedia PDF Downloads 108
8323 Electric Characteristics of Coils and Antennas with Sewing Techniques for Wireless Power Transfer
Authors: Hikari Ryu, Yuki Fukuda, Kento Oishi, Chiharu Igarashi, Shogo Kiryu
Abstract:Recently, wireless power transfer has been developed in various fields. Three coupling techniques in the power deliveries have been used. Magnetic coupling is popular for feeding power at a relatively short distance and at a lower frequency. Electric field coupling is suitable when wide electrodes can be utilized. Electro-magnetic wave coupling at a high frequency is used for long-distance power transfer. The wireless power transfer has attracted attention in e-textile fields. Rigid batteries are required for many body-worn electric systems at the present time. The technology enables such butteries to be removed from the systems. Flexible coils have been studied for such applications. Coils with a high Q factor are required in the magnetic-coupling power transfer. Antennas with low return loss are needed for the electro-magnetic coupling. Litz wire is so flexible to fabricate coils and antennas sewn on a fabric and has low resistivity. In this study, the electric characteristics of some coils and antennas fabricated with the litz wire by using two sewing techniques are investigated. As examples, a coil and an antenna are described. Both were fabricated with 330/0.04 mm litz wire. The coil was a planar coil with a square shape. The outer side was 150 mm, the number of turns was 15, and the pitch interval between each turn was 5 mm. The litz wire of the coil was overstitched with a sewing machine. The coil was fabricated as an auxiliary coil for a magnetic coupled wireless power transfer. The Q factor was 200 at a frequency of 800 kHz. As an example of an antenna with a sewing technique, a fractal pattern antenna was stitched on a 500 mm x 500 mm fabric by using a needle punch method. The pattern was 2nd-oder Vicsec fractal. The return loss of the antenna was -28 dB at a frequency of 144 MHz.
Keywords: e-textile, flexible coils and antennas, litz wire, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 43
8322 Low-Cost Wireless Power Transfer System for Smart Recycling Containers
Authors: Juan Luis Leal, Rafael Maestre, Ovidio López
Abstract:As innovation progresses, more possibilities are made available to increase the efficiency and reach of solutions for Smart Cities, most of which require the data provided by the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and may even have higher power requirements such as motors or actuators. A reliable power supply with the lowest maintenance is a requirement for the success of these solutions in the long term. Energy harvesting, mainly solar, becomes the solution of choice in most cases, but only if there is enough power to be harvested, which may depend on the device location (e.g., outdoors vs. indoor). This is the case of Smart Waste Containers with compaction systems, which have moderately high-power requirements, and may be installed in places with little sunlight for solar generation. It should be noted that waste is unloaded from the containers with cranes, so sudden and irregular movements may happen, making wired power unviable. In these cases, a wireless power supply may be a great alternative. This paper proposes a cost-effective two coil resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) system and describes its implementation, which has been carried out within an R&D project and validated in real settings with smart containers. Experimental results prove that the developed system achieves wireless power transmission up to 35W in the range of 5 cm to 1 m with a peak efficiency of 78%. The circuit is operated at relatively low resonant frequencies, which combined with enough wire-to-wire separation between the coil windings, reduce the losses caused by the proximity effect and, therefore, allow the use of common stranded wire instead of Litz wire, this without reducing the efficiency significantly. All these design considerations led to a final system that achieves a high efficiency for the desired charging range, simplifying the energy supply for Smart Containers as well as other devices that may benefit from a cost-effective wireless charging system.
Keywords: electromagnetic coupling, resonant wireless charging, smart recycling containers, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 34
8321 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger
Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien
Abstract:This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.
Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 318
8320 Evaluation of Low Power Wi-Fi Modules in Simulated Ocean Environments
Authors: Gabriel Chenevert, Abhilash Arora, Zeljko Pantic
Abstract:The major problem underwater acoustic communication faces is the low data rate due to low signal frequency. By contrast, the Wi-Fi communication protocol offers high throughput but limited operating range due to the attenuation effect of the sea and ocean medium. However, short-range near-field underwater wireless power transfer systems offer an environment where Wi-Fi communication can be effectively integrated to collect data and deliver instructions to sensors in underwater sensor networks. In this paper, low-power, low-cost off-the-shelf Wi-Fi modules are explored experimentally for four selected parameters for different distances between units and water salinities. The results reveal a shorter operating range and stronger dependence on water salinity than reported so far for high-end Wi-Fi modules.
Keywords: Wi-Fi, wireless power transfer, underwater communications, ESPProcedia PDF Downloads 55
8319 Design and Analysis of Wireless Charging Lane for Light Rail Transit
Authors: Watcharet Kongwarakom, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong
Abstract:This paper presents a design and analysis of wireless charging lane system (WCLS) for light rail transit (LRT) by considering the performance of wireless charging, traffic conditions and energy consumption drawn by the LRT system. The dynamic of the vehicle movement in terms of the vehicle speed profile during running on the WCLS, a dwell time during stopping at the station for taking the WCLS and the capacity of the WCLS in each section are taken into account to alignment design of the WCLS. This paper proposes a case study of the design of the WCLS into 2 sub-cases including continuous and discontinuous WCLS with the same distance of WCLS in total. The energy consumption by the LRT through the WCLS with the different designs of the WCLS is compared to find out the better configuration of those two cases by considering the best performance of the power transfer between the LRT and the WCLS.
Keywords: Light rail transit, Wireless charging lane, Energy consumption, Power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 85
8318 Design Of High Sensitivity Transceiver for WSN
Authors: A. Anitha, M. Aishwariya
Abstract:The realization of truly ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (WSN) demands Ultra-low power wireless communication capability. Because the radio transceiver in a wireless sensor node consumes more power when compared to the computation part it is necessary to reduce the power consumption. Hence, a low power transceiver is designed and implemented in a 120 nm CMOS technology for wireless sensor nodes. The power consumption of the transceiver is reduced still by maintaining the sensitivity. The transceiver designed combines the blocks including differential oscillator, mixer, envelope detector, power amplifiers, and LNA. RF signal modulation and demodulation is carried by On-Off keying method at 2.4 GHz which is said as ISM band. The transmitter demonstrates an output power of 2.075 mW while consuming a supply voltage of range 1.2 V-5.0 V. Here the comparison of LNA and power amplifier is done to obtain an amplifier which produces a high gain of 1.608 dB at receiver which is suitable to produce a desired sensitivity. The multistage RF amplifier is used to improve the gain at the receiver side. The power dissipation of the circuit is in the range of 0.183-0.323 mW. The receiver achieves a sensitivity of about -95 dBm with data rate of 1 Mbps.
Keywords: CMOS, envelope detector, ISM band, LNA, low power electronics, PA, wireless transceiverProcedia PDF Downloads 438
8317 Analysis and Design of Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Automotive Battery Charging Applications
Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He
Abstract:Transferring electrical power without any wiring has been a dream since late 19th century. There were some advances in this area as to know more about microwave systems. However, this subject has recently become very attractive due to their practiScal systems. There are low power applications such as charging the batteries of contactless tooth brushes or implanted devices, and higher power applications such as charging the batteries of electrical automobiles or buses. In the first group of applications operating frequencies are in microwave range while the frequency is lower in high power applications. In the latter, the concept is also called inductive power transfer. The aim of the paper is to have an overview of the inductive power transfer for electrical vehicles with a special concentration on coil design and power converter simulation for static charging. Coil design is very important for an efficient and safe power transfer. Coil design is one of the most critical tasks. Power converters are used in both side of the system. The converter on the primary side is used to generate a high frequency voltage to excite the primary coil. The purpose of the converter in the secondary is to rectify the voltage transferred from the primary to charge the battery. In this paper, an inductive power transfer system is studied. Inductive power transfer is a promising technology with several possible applications. Operation principles of these systems are explained, and components of the system are described. Finally, a single phase 2 kW system was simulated and results were presented. The work presented in this paper is just an introduction to the concept. A reformed compensation network based on traditional inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) topology is proposed to realize robust reaction to large coupling variation that is common in dynamic wireless charging application. In the future, this type compensation should be studied. Also, comparison of different compensation topologies should be done for the same power level.
Keywords: coil design, contactless charging, electrical automobiles, inductive power transfer, operating frequencyProcedia PDF Downloads 191
8316 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors
Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov
Abstract:In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.
Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor networkProcedia PDF Downloads 508
8315 QI Wireless Charging a Scope of Magnetic Inductive Coupling
Authors: Sreenesh Shashidharan, Umesh Gaikwad
Abstract:QI or 'Chee' which is an interface standard for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The Qi system comprises a power transmission pad and a compatible receiver in a portable device which is placed on top of the power transmission pad, which charges using the principle of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current is passed through the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field. This, in turn, induces a voltage in the receiver coil; this can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. The efficiency of the power transfer depends on the coupling (k) between the inductors and their quality (Q) The coupling is determined by the distance between the inductors (z) and the relative size (D2 /D). The coupling is further determined by the shape of the coils and the angle between them. If the receiver coil is at a certain distance to the transmitter coil, only a fraction of the magnetic flux, which is generated by the transmitter coil, penetrates the receiver coil and contributes to the power transmission. The more flux reaches the receiver, the better the coils are coupled.
Keywords: inductive electric power, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux, couplingProcedia PDF Downloads 655
8314 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance
Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad Adam Asharaf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba
Abstract:Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.
Keywords: performance, transmission system, real power efficiency, available transfer capabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 552
8313 Optimum Tuning Capacitors for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles Considering Variation in Coil Distances
Authors: Muhammad Abdullah Arafat, Nahrin Nowrose
Abstract:Wireless charging of electric vehicles is becoming more and more attractive as large amount of power can now be transferred to a reasonable distance using magnetic resonance coupling method. However, proper tuning of the compensation network is required to achieve maximum power transmission. Due to the variation of coil distance from the nominal value as a result of change in tire condition, change in weight or uneven road condition, the tuning of the compensation network has become challenging. In this paper, a tuning method has been described to determine the optimum values of the compensation network in order to maximize the average output power. The simulation results show that 5.2 percent increase in average output power is obtained for 10 percent variation in coupling coefficient using the optimum values without the need of additional space and electro-mechanical components. The proposed method is applicable to both static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles.
Keywords: coupling coefficient, electric vehicles, magnetic resonance coupling, tuning capacitor, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 79
8312 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application
Authors: Hyunwon Moon
Abstract:It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.
Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGeProcedia PDF Downloads 237
8311 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols
Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi
Abstract:In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threatsProcedia PDF Downloads 389
8310 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa
Abstract:The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.
Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rateProcedia PDF Downloads 358
8309 ATC in Competitive Electricity Market Using TCSC
Authors: S. K. Gupta, Richa Bansal
Abstract:In a deregulated power system structure, power producers, and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. All parties in this open access environment may try to purchase the energy from the cheaper source for greater profit margins, which may lead to overloading and congestion of certain corridors of the transmission network. This may result in violation of line flow, voltage and stability limits and thereby undermine the system security. Utilities therefore need to determine adequately their Available Transfer Capability (ATC) to ensure that system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of bilateral and multilateral transactions. This paper presents power transfer distribution factor based on AC load flow for the determination and enhancement of ATC. The study has been carried out for IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System.
Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, power transfer distribution factors, electricProcedia PDF Downloads 426
8308 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer
Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy
Abstract:This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.
Keywords: direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transitionProcedia PDF Downloads 303
8307 Challenges for a WPT 4 Waiting Lane Concept - Laboratory and Practical Experience
Authors: Julia Langen
Abstract:This article describes the challenges of a wireless charging system for a cab waiting lane in a public space and presents a concept for solving them. In this concept, multiple cabs can be charged simultaneously and during stopping and rolling. Particular technical challenges are a coil topology that meets the EMF requirements and an intelligent control concept that allows the individual coil segments to be switched on and off. The charging concept explained here is currently being implemented as a pilot project, so that initial results on the operation can be presented.
Keywords: charge lane, inductive charging solution, smart city, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 99
8306 Li-Fi Technology: Data Transmission through Visible Light
Authors: Shahzad Hassan, Kamran Saeed
Abstract:People are always in search of Wi-Fi hotspots because Internet is a major demand nowadays. But like all other technologies, there is still room for improvement in the Wi-Fi technology with regards to the speed and quality of connectivity. In order to address these aspects, Harald Haas, a professor at the University of Edinburgh, proposed what we know as the Li-Fi (Light Fidelity). Li-Fi is a new technology in the field of wireless communication to provide connectivity within a network environment. It is a two-way mode of wireless communication using light. Basically, the data is transmitted through Light Emitting Diodes which can vary the intensity of light very fast, even faster than the blink of an eye. From the research and experiments conducted so far, it can be said that Li-Fi can increase the speed and reliability of the transfer of data. This paper pays particular attention on the assessment of the performance of this technology. In other words, it is a 5G technology which uses LED as the medium of data transfer. For coverage within the buildings, Wi-Fi is good but Li-Fi can be considered favorable in situations where large amounts of data are to be transferred in areas with electromagnetic interferences. It brings a lot of data related qualities such as efficiency, security as well as large throughputs to the table of wireless communication. All in all, it can be said that Li-Fi is going to be a future phenomenon where the presence of light will mean access to the Internet as well as speedy data transfer.
Keywords: communication, LED, Li-Fi, Wi-FiProcedia PDF Downloads 269
8305 Comparison of Spiral Circular Coil and Helical Coil Structures for Wireless Power Transfer System
Authors: Zhang Kehan, Du Luona
Abstract:Wireless power transfer (WPT) systems have been widely investigated for advantages of convenience and safety compared to traditional plug-in charging systems. The research contents include impedance matching, circuit topology, transfer distance et al. for improving the efficiency of WPT system, which is a decisive factor in the practical application. What is more, coil structures such as spiral circular coil and helical coil with variable distance between two turns also have indispensable effects on the efficiency of WPT systems. This paper compares the efficiency of WPT systems utilizing spiral or helical coil with variable distance between two turns, and experimental results show that efficiency of spiral circular coil with an optimum distance between two turns is the highest. According to efficiency formula of resonant WPT system with series-series topology, we introduce M²/R₋₁ to measure the efficiency of spiral circular coil and helical coil WPT system. If the distance between two turns s is too close, proximity effect theory shows that the induced current in the conductor, caused by a variable flux created by the current flows in the skin of vicinity conductor, is the opposite direction of source current and has assignable impart on coil resistance. Thus in two coil structures, s affects coil resistance. At the same time, when the distance between primary and secondary coils is not variable, s can also make the influence on M to some degrees. The aforementioned study proves that s plays an indispensable role in changing M²/R₋₁ and then can be adjusted to find the optimum value with which WPT system achieves the highest efficiency. In actual application situations of WPT systems especially in underwater vehicles, miniaturization is one vital issue in designing WPT system structures. Limited by system size, the largest external radius of spiral circular coil is 100 mm, and the largest height of helical coil is 40 mm. In other words, the turn of coil N changes with s. In spiral circular and helical structures, the distance between each two turns in secondary coil is set as a constant value 1 mm to guarantee that the R2 is not variable. Based on the analysis above, we set up spiral circular coil and helical coil model using COMSOL to analyze the value of M²/R₋₁ when the distance between each two turns in primary coil sp varies from 0 mm to 10 mm. In the two structure models, the distance between primary and secondary coils is 50 mm and wire diameter is chosen as 1.5 mm. The turn of coil in secondary coil are 27 in helical coil model and 20 in spiral circular coil model. The best value of s in helical coil structure and spiral circular coil structure are 1 mm and 2 mm respectively, in which the value of M²/R₋₁ is the largest. It is obviously to select spiral circular coil as the first choice to design the WPT system for that the value of M²/R₋₁ in spiral circular coil is larger than that in helical coil under the same condition.
Keywords: distance between two turns, helical coil, spiral circular coil, wireless power transferProcedia PDF Downloads 232
8304 The Impact of System Cascading Collapse and Transmission Line Outages to the Transfer Capability Assessment
Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan
Abstract:Uncertainty of system operating conditions is one of the causative reasons which may render to the instability of a transmission system. This will encumber the performance of transmission system to efficiently transmit the electrical power between areas. For that reason, accurate assessment of Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) is essential in order to ensure effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of system uncertainties. The power transfer is also called as the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) in which it is the information required by the utilities and marketers to instigate selling and buying the electric energy. This paper proposes a computationally effective approach to estimate TRM and ATC by considering the uncertainties of system cascading collapse and transmission line outages which is identified as the main reasons in power system instability. In accordance to the results that have been obtained, the proposed method is essential for the transmission providers which could help the power marketers and planning sectors in the operation and reserving transmission services based on the ATC calculated.
Keywords: system cascading collapse, transmission line outages, transmission reliability margin, available transfer capabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 341
8303 A Secure Routing Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii
Abstract:Underwater wireless sensor networks have been attracting the interest of many researchers lately, and the past three decades have beheld the rapid progress of underwater acoustic communication. One of the major problems in underwater wireless sensor networks is how to transfer data from the moving node to the base stations and choose the optimized route for data transmission. Secure routing in underwater wireless sensor network (UWCNs) is necessary for packet delivery. Some routing protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. However, a few researches have been done on secure routing in underwater sensor networks. In this article, a secure routing protocol is provided to resist against wormhole and sybil attacks. The results indicated acceptable performance in terms of increasing the packet delivery ratio with regards to the attacks, increasing network lifetime by creating balance in the network energy consumption, high detection rates against the attacks, and low-end to end delay.
Keywords: attacks, routing, security, underwater wireless sensor networksProcedia PDF Downloads 324
8302 Neuro-Fuzzy Approach to Improve Reliability in Auxiliary Power Supply System for Nuclear Power Plant
Authors: John K. Avor, Choong-Koo Chang
Abstract:The transfer of electrical loads at power generation stations from Standby Auxiliary Transformer (SAT) to Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT) and vice versa is through a fast bus transfer scheme. Fast bus transfer is a time-critical application where the transfer process depends on various parameters, thus transfer schemes apply advance algorithms to ensure power supply reliability and continuity. In a nuclear power generation station, supply continuity is essential, especially for critical class 1E electrical loads. Bus transfers must, therefore, be executed accurately within 4 to 10 cycles in order to achieve safety system requirements. However, the main problem is that there are instances where transfer schemes scrambled due to inaccurate interpretation of key parameters; and consequently, have failed to transfer several critical loads from UAT to the SAT during main generator trip event. Although several techniques have been adopted to develop robust transfer schemes, a combination of Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Systems (Neuro-Fuzzy) has not been extensively used. In this paper, we apply the concept of Neuro-Fuzzy to determine plant operating mode and dynamic prediction of the appropriate bus transfer algorithm to be selected based on the first cycle of voltage information. The performance of Sequential Fast Transfer and Residual Bus Transfer schemes was evaluated through simulation and integration of the Neuro-Fuzzy system. The objective for adopting Neuro-Fuzzy approach in the bus transfer scheme is to utilize the signal validation capabilities of artificial neural network, specifically the back-propagation algorithm which is very accurate in learning completely new systems. This research presents a combined effect of artificial neural network and fuzzy systems to accurately interpret key bus transfer parameters such as magnitude of the residual voltage, decay time, and the associated phase angle of the residual voltage in order to determine the possibility of high speed bus transfer for a particular bus and the corresponding transfer algorithm. This demonstrates potential for general applicability to improve reliability of the auxiliary power distribution system. The performance of the scheme is implemented on APR1400 nuclear power plant auxiliary system.
Keywords: auxiliary power system, bus transfer scheme, fuzzy logic, neural networks, reliabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 120
8301 Cellular Architecture of Future Wireless Communication Networks
Authors: Mohammad Yahaghifar
Abstract:Nowadays Wireless system designers have been facing the continuously increasing demand for high data rates and mobility required by new wireless applications. Evolving future communication network generation cellular wireless networks are envisioned to overcome the fundamental challenges of existing cellular networks, for example, higher data rates, excellent end-to-end performance, and user coverage in hot-spots and crowded areas with lower latency,energy consumption and cost per information transfer. In this paper we propose a potential cellular architecture that separates indoor and outdoor scenarios and discuss various promising technologies for future wireless communication systemssystems, such as massive MIMO, energy-efficient communications,cognitive radio networks, and visible light communications and we disscuse about 5G that is next generation of wireless networks.
Keywords: future challenges in networks, cellur architecture, visible light communication, 5G wireless technologies, spatial modulation, massiva mimo, cognitive radio network, green communicationsProcedia PDF Downloads 419
8300 Design of Wireless Readout System for Resonant Gas Sensors
Authors: S. Mohamed Rabeek, Mi Kyoung Park, M. Annamalai Arasu
Abstract:This paper presents a design of a wireless read out system for tracking the frequency shift of the polymer coated piezoelectric micro electromechanical resonator due to gas absorption. The measure of this frequency shift indicates the percentage of a particular gas the sensor is exposed to. It is measured using an oscillator and an FPGA based frequency counter by employing the resonator as a frequency determining element in the oscillator. This system consists of a Gas Sensing Wireless Readout (GSWR) and an USB Wireless Transceiver (UWT). GSWR consists of an oscillator based on a trans-impedance sustaining amplifier, an FPGA based frequency readout, a sub 1GHz wireless transceiver and a micro controller. UWT can be plugged into the computer via USB port and function as a wireless module to transfer gas sensor data from GSWR to the computer through its USB port. GUI program running on the computer periodically polls for sensor data through UWT - GSWR wireless link, the response from GSWR is logged in a file for post processing as well as displayed on screen.
Keywords: gas sensor, GSWR, micromechanical system, UWT, volatile emissionsProcedia PDF Downloads 408