Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3818

Search results for: carrying capacity

3818 The Quantitative Analysis of Tourism Carrying Capacity with the Approach of Sustainable Development Case Study: Siahsard Fountain

Authors: Masoumeh Tadayoni, Saeed Kamyabi, Alireza Entezari


Background and goal of the research: In planning and management system, the tourism carrying capacity is used as a holistic approach and supportive instrument. Evaluating the carrying capacity is used in quantitative the resource exploitation in line with sustainable development and as a foundation for identifying the changes in natural ecosystem and for the final evaluation and monitoring the tensions and decays in regressed ecosystem. Therefore, the present research tries to determine the carrying capacity of effective, physical and real range of Siahsard tourism region. Method: In the present research, the quantitative analysis of tourism carrying capacity is studied by used of effective or permissible carrying capacity (EPCC), real carrying capacity (PCC) and physical carrying capacity (RCC) in Siahsard fountain. It is analyzed based on the field survey and various resources were used for collecting information. Findings: The results of the analysis shows that, 3700 people use the Siahsard tourism region every day and 1350500 people use it annually. However, the evaluation of carrying capacity can be annually 1390650 people in this place. It can be an important tourism place along with other places in the region. Results: Siahsard’s tourism region has a little way to reach to its carrying capacity that needs to be analyzed. However, based on the results, some suggestions were offered for sustainable development of this region and as the most logical alternations for tourism management.

Keywords: carrying capacity, evaluation, Siahsard, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
3817 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman


The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: insurance, carrying capacity, organizational mortality, organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3816 Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Authors: K. Yathish, K. G. Binu, B. S. Shenoy, D. S. Rao, R. Pai


Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil

Keywords: journal bearing, TiO2 nanoparticles, viscosity model, Reynold's equation, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
3815 Load Maximization of Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Using Suppression Vibration with Piezoelectric Transducer

Authors: Hamidreza Heidari, Abdollah Malmir Nasab


In this paper, the energy equations of a two-link flexible manipulator were extracted using the Euler-Bernoulli beam hypotheses. Applying Assumed mode and considering some finite degrees of freedom, we could obtain dynamic motions of each manipulator using Euler-Lagrange equations. Using its claws, the robots can carry a certain load with the ached control of vibrations for robot flexible links during the travelling path using the piezoceramics transducer; dynamic load carrying capacity increase. The traveling path of flexible robot claw has been taken from that of equivalent rigid manipulator and coupled; therefore to avoid the role of Euler-Bernoulli beam assumptions and linear strains, material and physical characteristics selection of robot cause deflection of link ends not exceed 5% of link length. To do so, the maximum load carrying capacity of robot is calculated at the horizontal plan. The increasing of robot load carrying capacity with vibration control is 53%.

Keywords: flexible link, DLCC, active control vibration, assumed mode method

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
3814 Model of the Increasing the Capacity of the Train and Railway Track by Using the New Type of Wagon

Authors: Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Mašek, Juraj Čamaj, Martin Búda


The paper deals with possibilities of increase train capacity by using a new type of railway wagon. In the first part is created a mathematical model to calculate the capacity of the train. The model is based on the main limiting parameters of the train - maximum number of axles per train, the maximum gross weight of the train, the maximum length of train and number of TEUs per one wagon. In the second part is the model applied to four different model trains with different composition of the train set and three different average weights of TEU and a train consisting of a new type of wagons. The result is to identify where the carrying capacity of the original trains is higher, respectively less than a capacity of the train consisting of a new type of wagons.

Keywords: loading units, theoretical capacity model, train capacity, wagon for intermodal transport

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3813 Experimental Study on Weak Cohesion Less Soil Using Granular Piles with Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Pisini


Granular piles are becoming popular as a technique of deep ground improvement not only in soft cohesive soils but also in loose cohesionless deposits. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in sand (loose sand and medium dense sand i.e. relative density at 15% and 30%) with geogrid reinforcement. In this experimental study, a group of five piles installed in sand (at different spacing i.e s = 2d, 3d and 4d) the length and diameter of the pile (L = 0.4 m and d= 50 mm) kept as same for all series of experiments. Geogrid reinforcement is provided on granular piles with a limited number of laboratory tests. It has been conducted in laboratory to study the behavior of a granular pile with reinforced geogrid layers supporting a square footing at different s/d ratios. The influence of geogrid layers providing on granular piles investigated through model tests. In this paper the experimental study carried out results in significant increase in load carrying capacity and decrease in settlement reduction of the weak cohesionless soil. Also, the behavior of load carrying capacity and settlement with changing the s/d ratio has been carried out through a parametric study.

Keywords: granular piles, cohesionless soil, geogrid reinforcement, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3812 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing

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3811 Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Mehrak Zargaryaeghoubi, Masood Hajali


Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Drilled Shaft Foundation, size and soil characteristic, axial load capacity, Finite Element

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
3810 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
3809 Visitor Management in the National Parks: Recreational Carrying Capacity Assessment of Çıralı Coast, Turkey

Authors: Tendü H. Göktuğ, Gönül T. İçemer, Bülent Deniz


National parks, which are rich in natural and cultural resources values are protected in the context of the idea to develop sustainability, are among the most important recreated areas demanding with each passing day. Increasing recreational use or unplanned use forms negatively affect the resource values and visitor satisfaction. The intent of national parks management is to protect the natural and cultural resource values and to provide the visitors with a quality of recreational experience, as well. In this context, the current studies to improve the appropriate tourism and recreation planning and visitor management, approach have focused on recreational carrying capacity analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze recreational carrying capacity of Çıralı Coast in the Bey Mountains Coastal National Park to compare the analyze results with the current usage format and to develop alternative management strategies. In the first phase of the study, the annual and daily visitations, geographic, bio-physical, and managerial characteristics of the park and the type of recreational usage and the recreational areas were analyzed. In addition to these, ecological observations were carried out in order to determine recreational-based pressures on the ecosystems. On-site questionnaires were administrated to a sample of 284 respondents in the August 2015 - 2016 to collect data concerning the demographics and visit characteristics. The second phase of the study, the coastal area separated into four different usage zones and the methodology proposed by Cifuentes (1992) was used for capacity analyses. This method supplies the calculation of physical, real and effective carrying capacities by using environmental, ecological, climatic and managerial parameters in a formulation. Expected numbers which estimated three levels of carrying capacities were compared to current numbers of national parks’ visitors. In the study, it was determined that the current recreational uses in the north of the beach were caused by ecological pressures, and the current numbers in the south of beach much more than estimated numbers of visitors. Based on these results management strategies were defined and the appropriate management tools were developed in accordance with these strategies. The authors are grateful for the financial support of this project by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114O344)

Keywords: Çıralı Coast, national parks, recreational carrying capacity, visitor management

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3808 Fluvial Stage-Discharge Rating of a Selected Reach of Jamuna River

Authors: Makduma Zahan Badhan, M. Abdul Matin


A study has been undertaken to develop a fluvial stage-discharge rating curve for Jamuna River. Past Cross-sectional survey of Jamuna River reach within Sirajgonj and Tangail has been analyzed. The analysis includes the estimation of discharge carrying capacity, possible maximum scour depth and sediment transport capacity of the selected reaches. To predict the discharge and sediment carrying capacity, stream flow data which include cross-sectional area, top width, water surface slope and median diameter of the bed material of selected stations have been collected and some are calculated from reduced level data. A well-known resistance equation has been adopted and modified to a simple form in order to be used in the present analysis. The modified resistance equation has been used to calculate the mean velocity through the channel sections. In addition, a sediment transport equation has been applied for the prediction of transport capacity of the various sections. Results show that the existing drainage sections of Jamuna channel reach under study have adequate carrying capacity under existing bank-full conditions, but these reaches are subject to bed erosion even in low flow situations. Regarding sediment transport rate, it can be estimated that the channel flow has a relatively high range of bed material concentration. Finally, stage­ discharge curves for various sections have been developed. Based on stage-discharge rating data of various sections, water surface profile and sediment-rating curve of Jamuna River have been developed and also the flooding conditions have been analyzed from predicted water surface profile.

Keywords: discharge rating, flow profile, fluvial, sediment rating

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3807 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade


Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of the structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system could be used to reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation is evaluated numerically in two cases: in first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles are the parameters which varied in this research to find out how they affect the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity. The complementary results will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Keywords: soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity, settlement

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3806 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, clay, pile, ultimate capacity

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3805 Math Anxiety Effects on Complex Addition: An ERP Study

Authors: María Isabel Núñez-Peña, Macarena Suárez Pellicioni


In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) to address the question of whether high (HMA) and low math-anxious (LMA) individuals differ on a complex addition verification task, which involved both carrying and non-carrying additions. ERPs were recorded while seventeen HMA and seventeen LMA individuals performed the verification task. Groups did not differ in trait anxiety or gender distribution. Participants were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to decide whether the proposed solution was correct or incorrect. Behavioral data showed a significant Carrying x Proposed solution x Group interaction for accuracy, showing that carrying additions were more error prone than non-carrying ones for both groups, although the difference non-carrying minus carrying was larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, a P2 component larger in HMA individuals than in their LMA peers was found both for carrying and non-carrying additions. The P2 was followed by a sustained negative slow wave at parietal positions. Because the negative slow waves are thought to reflect the updating of working memory, these results give support to the relationship among working memory, math performance and math anxiety.

Keywords: math anxiety, carrying, working memory, P2

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
3804 Analyzing of Arch Steel Beams with Pre-Stressed Cables

Authors: Erkan Polat, Barlas Ozden Caglayan


By day-to-day developed techniques, it is possible to pass through larger openings by using smaller beam-column sections. Parallel to this trend, it is aimed to produce not only smaller but also economical and architecturally more attractive beams. This study aims to explain the structural behavior of arch steel beam reinforced by using post-tension cable. Due to the effect of post-stressed cable, the arch beam load carrying capacity increases and an optimized section in a smaller size can be obtained with a better architectural view. It also allows better mechanical and applicational solutions for buildings. For better understanding the behavior of the reinforced beam, steel beam and arch steel beam with post-tensioned cable are all modeled and analyzed by using SAP2000 Finite element computer program and compared with each other. Also, full scale test specimens were prepared to test for figuring out the structural behavior and compare the results with the computer model results. Test results are very promising. The similarity of the results between the test and computer analysis shows us that there are no extra knowledge and effort of engineer is needed to calculate such beams. The predicted (and proved by tests) beam carrying capacity is 35% higher than the unreinforced beam carrying capacity. Even just three full scale tests were completed, it is seen that the ratio (%35) may be increased ahead by adjusting the cable post-tension force of beams in much smaller sizes.

Keywords: arch steel beams, pre-stressed cables, finite element, specimen Test

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3803 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar


An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

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3802 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun


Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that:(1)the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete,(2)both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of a 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3801 External Strengthening of RC Continuous Beams Using FRP Plates: Finite Element Model

Authors: Mohammed A. Sakr, Tarek M. Khalifa, Walid N. Mansour


Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) installation is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. This technique attracted the concerning of researchers during the last two decades. This paper presents a simple uniaxial nonlinear finite element model (UNFEM) able to accurately estimate the load-carrying capacity, different failure modes and the interfacial stresses of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers. Results of the proposed finite element (FE) model are verified by comparing them with experimental measurements available in the literature. The agreement between numerical and experimental results is very good. Considering fracture energy of adhesive is necessary to get a realistic load carrying capacity of continuous RC beams strengthened with FRP. This simple UNFEM is able to help design engineers to model their strengthened structures and solve their problems.

Keywords: continuous beams, debonding, finite element, fibre reinforced polymer

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3800 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Taghvamanesh


So far several methods by different researchers have been developed in order to calculate the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Ny (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Ny depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. Many empirical definitions have been used for measurement of the bearing capacity factors N

Keywords: bearing capacity, bearing capacity factor Nγ, irregular foundations, shape factor

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3799 Experimental Investigation of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) Wrap

Authors: Furqan Farooq, Arslan Akbar, Sana Gul


Inadequate design of seismic structures and use of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) remains the major aspect of structure failure. Parametric investigation (LSC) beams based on experimental work using externally applied Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) warp in flexural behavior is studied. The ambition is to know the behavior of beams under loading condition, and its strengthening enhancement after inducing crack is studied, Moreover comparison of results using abacus software is studied. Results show significant enhancement in load carrying capacity, experimental work is compared with abacus software. The research is based on the conclusion that various existing structure but inadequacy in seismic design could increase the load carrying capacity by applying CFRP techniques, which not only strengthened but also provide them to resist even larger potential earthquake by improving its strength as well as ductility.

Keywords: seismic design, carbon fiber, strengthening, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
3798 Study on Environmental Capacity System of the Aged Care Villages Influenced by Tourists

Authors: Yuan Fang, Wang-Ming Li, Yi-Chen Ruan


Rural healthy old-age care for urban elderly who go to surrounding villages on vacation is a new mode of old-age care in developed coastal areas of China. Such villages that receive urban elderly can be called old-caring villages. Due to the popularity of healthy old-age care in rural areas, more and more urban elderly people participate in the ranks of rural old-age care, resulting in excessive number of tourists in some old-caring villages, exceeding the carrying capacity of the village. Excessive passenger flow may damage the ecological environment, social environment, and facilities environment of the village, and even affect the development potential of the village pension industry. On the basis of on-site investigation and questionnaire survey, this paper summarizes the willingness and behavioral characteristics of the urban elderly population and finds that it will have a certain impact on the old-caring villages in the process of pension vacation in the aspects of ecology, construction, society, and economy. According to the influence of tourists, the paper constructs a system of capacity restriction factors of the old-caring villages, which includes four types: ecological environment capacity, policy environment capacity, perceived congestion capacity, and village service capacity, and fourteen specific indicators. It will provide a theoretical basis for reasonable control of the development scale of the old-caring villages.

Keywords: old-caring villages, restriction factors system, tourists' influence, environmental capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3797 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Bayan Bevrani, Robert L. Burdett, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda


This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: analytical model, capacity analysis, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

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3796 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith


This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3795 Experimental Work to Estimate the Strength of Ferrocement Slabs Incorporating Silica Fume and Steel Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Mashrei


Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete made of cement-sand matrix with closely spaced relatively small diameter wire meshes, with or without steel bars of small diameter called skeletal steel. This work concerns on the behavior of square ferrocement slabs of dimensions (500) mm x (500) mm and 30 mm subjected to a central load. This study includes testing thirteen ferrocement slabs. The main variables considered in the experimental work are the number of wire mesh layers, percentage of silica fume and the presence of steel fiber. The effects of these variables on the behavior and load carrying capacity of tested slabs under central load were investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that by increasing the percentage of silica fume from (0 to 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6) of weight of cement the ultimate loads are affected. Also From this study, it is observed that the load carrying capacity increases with the presence of steel fiber reinforcement, the ductility is high in the case of steel fibers. The increasing wire mesh layer from six to ten layers increased the load capacity by 76%. Also, a reduction in width of crack with increasing in number of cracks in the samples that content on steel fibers comparing with samples without steel fibers was observed from the results.

Keywords: ferrocement, fibre, silica fume, slab, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3794 Economic and Environmental Impact of the Missouri Grazing Schools

Authors: C. A. Roberts, S. L. Mascaro, J. R. Gerrish, J. L. Horner


Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) is a practice that rotates livestock through paddocks in a way that best matches the nutrient requirements of the animal to the yield and quality of the pasture. In the USA, MiG has been taught to livestock producers throughout the state of Missouri in 2- and 3-day workshops called “Missouri Grazing Schools.” The economic impact of these schools was quantified using IMPLAN software. The model included hectares of adoption, animal performance, carrying capacity, and input costs. To date, MiG, as taught in the Missouri Grazing Schools, has been implemented on more than 70,000 hectares in Missouri. The economic impact of these schools is presently $125 million USD per year added to the state economy. This magnitude of impact is the result not only of widespread adoption but also because of increased livestock carrying capacity; in Missouri, a capacity increase of 25 to 30% has been well documented. Additional impacts have been MiG improving forage quality and reducing the cost of feed and fertilizer. The environmental impact of MiG in the state of Missouri is currently being estimated. Environmental impact takes into account the reduction in the application of commercial fertilizers; in MiG systems, nitrogen is supplied by N fixation from legumes, and much of the P and K is recycled naturally by well-distributed manure. The environmental impact also estimates carbon sequestration and methane production; MiG can increase carbon sequestration and reduce methane production in comparison to default grazing practices and feedlot operations in the USA.

Keywords: agricultural education, forage quality, management-intensive grazing, nutrient cycling, stock density, sustainable agriculture

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3793 A Steady State Characteristics of Four-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Couple Stress Fluids in Turbulent Flow Regime

Authors: Boualem Chetti, Samir Zahaf


This paper presents the steady-state performance analysis of a four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids operating in the turbulent regime, following Constantinescu’s turbulent lubrication theory. The modified Reynolds equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method taking into consideration the effects of the turbulence and the couple stress. In this analysis, the steady-state parameters in terms of the attitude angle, load carrying capacity, side leakage and friction coefficient are determined at various values of eccentricities ratio. The computed results show that the turbulence increases the load carrying capacity, the attitude angle and the friction coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a Newtonian or a couple stress fluids. It is found that the turbulence has strongly influence on the steady-state performances of the four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with Newtonian fluids or a couple stress fluids.

Keywords: Four-lobe journal bearings, static characteristics, couple-stress fluids, turbulent flow

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3792 Design of Structure for a Heavy-Duty Mineral Tow Machine by Evaluating the Dynamic and Static Loads

Authors: M. Akhondizadeh, Mohsen Khajoei, Mojtaba Khajoei


The purpose of the present work was the design of a towing machine which was decided to be manufactured by Arman Gohar-e-Sirjan company in the Gol-e-Gohar iron ore complex in Iran. The load analysis has been conducted to determine the static and dynamic loads at the critical conditions. The inertial forces due to the velocity increment and road bump have been considered in load evaluation. The form of loading of the present machine is hauling and/or conveying the mineral machines on the mini ramp. Several stages of these forms of loading, from the initial touch of the tow and carried machine to the final position, have been assessed to determine the critical state. The stress analysis has been performed by the ANSYS software. Several geometries for the main load-carrying elements have been analyzed to have the optimum design by the minimum weight of the structure. Finally, a structure with a total weight of 38 tons has been designed with a static load-carrying capacity of 80 tons by considering the 40 tons additional capacity for dynamic effects. The stress analysis for 120 tons load gives the minimum safety factor of 1.18.

Keywords: mechanical design, stress analysis, tow structure, dynamic load, static load

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3791 New Challenges to the Conservation and Management of the Endangered Persian Follow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) in Ashk Island of Lake Uromiyeh National Park, Iran

Authors: Morteza Naderi


The Persian fallow deer was considered as a globally extinct species until 1956 when a small population was rediscovered from Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkheh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern parts of Iran. After long species rehabilitation process, the species was transplanted to Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge in northern Iran, and from where, follow deer was introduced to the different selected habitats such as Ashk Island in Lake Uromiyeh National Park. During 12 years, (from 1978 to 1989) 58 individuals (25 males and 33 females) were transferred to Ask Island. The main threat to the established population was related to the freshwater shortage and existing just one single trough such as high mortality rate of adult males during rutting season, snake biting and dilutional hyponatremia. Desiccation of Lake Uromiyeh in recent years raised new challenges to the conservation process, as about 80 individuals, nearly one third of the population were died in 2011. Connection of Island to the mainland caused predators’ accessibility (such as wolf and Jackal) to the Ask Island and higher mortality because of follow deer attraction to the surrounding mainland farms. Conservation team faced such new challenges that may cause introduction plan to be probably failed. Investigations about habitat affinities and carrying capacity are the main basic researches in the management and conservation of the species. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the different fresh water resources as well as Allium akaka and Pistacia atlantica are the main environmental variables affect Follow deer habitat selection. Habitat carrying capacity analysis both in summer and winter seasons indicated that Ashk Island can support 240±30 of Persian follow deer.

Keywords: carrying capacity, follow deer, lake Uromiyeh, microhabitat affinities, population oscillation, predation, sex ratio

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3790 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma


This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes

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3789 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu


Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 201